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Full text of "History of Lawrence and Monroe counties, Indiana : their people, industries, and institutions"

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Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2009  with  funding  from 

Allen  County  Public  Library  Genealogy  Center 



3  1833  01752  6754 






Lawrence  and  Monroe  Counties 





B.  F.  BOWEN  &  CO.,  Inc. 

Indianapolis,  Indiana 

This  work  is  respectfully  dedicated  to 


long  since  departed.    May  the  memory  of  those  who  laid  down  their  burdens 
by  the  wayside  ever  be  fragrant  as  the  breath  of  summer  flowers, 
for  their  toils  and  sacrifices  have  made  Lawrence  and  Mon- 
roe Counties  a  garden  of  sunshine  and  delights. 


All  life  and  ax:hievement  is  evolution;  present  wisdom  comes  from  past 
experience,  and  present  commercial  prosperity  has  come  only  from  past  exer- 
tion and  suffering.  The  deeds  and  motives  of  the  men  that  have  gone  before 
have  been  instrumental  in  shaping  the  destinies  of  later  communities  and 
states.  The  development  of  a  new  country  was  at  once  a  task  and  a  privi- 
lege. It  required  great  courage,  sacrifice  and  privation.  Compare  the  pres- 
ent conditions  of  the  people  of  Lawrence  and  Monroe  counties,  Indiana,  with 
what  they  were  one  hundred  years  ago.  From  a  trackless  wilderness  and 
virgin  land,  it  has  come  to  be  a  center  of  prosperity  and  civilization,  with  mil- 
lions of  wealth,  systems  of  railways,  grand  educational  institutions,  splendid 
industries  and  immense  agricultural  and  mineral  productions.  Can  any  think- 
ing person  be  insensible  to  the  fascination  of  the  study  which  discloses  the 
aspirations  and  efforts  of  the  early  pioneers  who  so  strongly  laid  the  founda- 
tion upon  which  has  been  reared  the  magnificent  prosperity  of  later  days?  To 
perpetuate  the  story  of  these  people  and  to  trace  and  record  the  social,  politi- 
cal and  industrial  progress  of  the  community  from  its  first  inception  is  the 
function  of  the  local  historian.  A  sincere  purpose  to  preserve  facts  and  per- 
sonal memoirs  that  are  deserving  of  perpetuation,  and  which  unite  the  pres- 
ent to  the  past,  is  the  motive  for  the  present  publication.  A  specially  valuable 
and  interesting  department  is  that  one  devoted  to  the  sketches  of  representa- 
tive citizens  of  these  counties  whose  records  deserve  preservation  because  of 
their  worth,  effort  and  accomplishment.  The  publishers  desire  to  extend 
their  thanks  to  the  gentlemen  who  ha\e  so  faithfully  labored  to  this  end. 
Thanks  are  also  due  to  the  citizens  of  Lawrence  and  Monroe  counties  for  the 
uniform  kindness  with  which  they  have  regarded  this  undertaking,  and  for 
their  many  services  rendered  in  the  gaining  of  necessary  information. 

In  placing  the  "History  of  Lawrence  and  Monroe  Counties,  Indiana,"  be- 
fore the  citizens,  the  publishers  can  conscientiously  claim  that  they  have  car- 
ried out  the  plan  as  outlined  in  the  prospectus.  Every  biographical  sketch  in 
the  work  has  been  submitted  to  the  party  interested,  for  correction,  and  there- 
fore any  error  of  fact,  if  there  be  any,  is  solely  due  to  the  person  for  whom 
the  sketch  was  prepared.  Confident  that  our  efi^ort  to  please  will  fully  meet 
the  approbation  of  the  public,  we  are. 






Natural  Features — Geological  Divisions — Bedford,  or  Oolitic,  Stone — Caves — 
Kaolin  Mines — Mineral  Springs  and  Salt  Wells. 


Treaties  "With  the  Indians — The  Harrison  Purchase — Wabash  Land  Com- 
pany and  Other  Early  Companies — Original  Indian  Inhabitants — Murder  of 
Pierre,  the  Trapper — Protection  Against  Indian  Attacks — Pre-historic  Evi- 
dences— Mound  Builders — The  Fishermen. 


Original  Area  and  Boundary  of  Lawrence  County — Indian  Hostility — Slow 
Immigration — The  First  Settlements — Flinn  Township — Land  Entries — Early 
Mills — Distilleries — Leesville — Marion  Township — Origin  of  First  Settlers — 
Land  Entries — Hunting — City  of  Mitchell — Incorporation  as  Town,  and  as 
City — Business  Interests — Guthrie  Township — Land  Entries  and  First  Settlers 
— Dixonville — Tunnelton — Fort  Ritner — Bono  Township — Original  Area — Mills 
— Town  of  Bono — Lawrenceport — Marshall  Township — Mills — First  ^lerchant 
— Avoca — Guthrie — Spice  Valley  Township — First  Land  Entries — Mills — Items 
by  T.  M.  Brinkworth — Huron — Bryantsville — Perry  Township — Early  Land 
Entries — Pioneer  Industries — Hunting — Springville — Indian  Creek  Township 
— Early  Settlers — First  Elections — Williams — Southern  Indian  Power  Com- 
pany —  Fayetteville  —  Silverville  —  Pleasant  Run  Township  —  Heltonville — 
Shawswick  Township — Land  Entries — First  Election — Mills — Oolitic — Busi- 
ness Interests — Abandoned  Towns. 


Legislative  Act  Creating  Lawrence  County — First  Civil  Townships — Boundar- 
ies— First  Election — Acts  of  First  County  Commissioners — County  Seat  Fixed 
— Palestine,  the  First  County  Seat — Changes  in  Township  Boundaries. 


Petitions  for  Roads— Ferry  Rates— Sale  of  Lots— First  Public  Business  Trans- 
acted— Tavern  Rates — Re-location  of  County  Seat — Legislative  Act — Interest- 
ing Items — Court  House  History — First  Court  House  at  Palestine — First 
Court  House  at  Bedford — Subsequent  Court  Houses — County  Jails — County 
Asylum — Finances  of  the  County— Assessed  Valuations,  1912. 



Presidential  Elections — State  Senators — Representatives — County  Treasurers 
— Recorders — County  Clerks — County  Auditors — Sheriffs — County  Surveyors 
— Probate  Judges — ^Associate  Judges — County  Judges — County  Prosecutors — 
School  Examiners  and  Superintendents — Coroners — County  Commissioners. 


Influence  of  the  Press — Bedford  Papers — The  Western  Sun.  the  First  News- 
paper in  Lawrence  County — Other  Papers  at  Bedford — Other  Newspapers  of 
the  County. 


The  Public  School  as  a  Potent  Factor  in  Civilization — First  Schools  in  the 
County — Primitive  Equipment — Improvement  in  Methods — Statistics  for  1SS4 
— Schools  a  Third  of  a  Century  Ago — Mitchell  Graded  School — Bedford's 
First  School — Southern  Indiana  Normal  College — Lawrence  County  Semi- 
nary— Present  Public  Schools. 


Fertile  Soil — Excellent  Timber — A  Famous  Fruit  Region — Dairying  Interests 
— State  Agricultural  Report — Agricultural  Societies — First  Agricultural  Fair. 


Law  a  Necessity — Pioneer  Lawyers — First  Court  of  the  Coimty — First  Circuit 
Court  Judges — First  Civil  Case — First  Court  at  Palestine — First  Resident  At- 
torney— Slander  Suits — First  Arson  Case — First  Court  at  Bedford — First  Mur- 
der Case — Eminent  Attorneys  and  Judges — New  Courts — Murder  Cases — Pres- 
ent Members  of  the  Bar. 


Physicians  Among  the  First  Settlers — Earliest  Doctors  in  Lawrence  County — 
Other  Early  Physicians — Present  Practicing  Physicians — Medical  Societies. 


Armenius  Milligan,  the  First  Preacher  in  Lawrence  County — Methodist  Epis- 
copal Churches  of  the  County — The  Societies  at  Springville,  Bedford.  Law- 
renceport.  Pleasant  Hill,  Mitchell,  Heltonville,  Oolitic  and  Tunnelton — Bedford 
German  Methodist  Church — Christian  Churches — The  Bartletts%-ille.  Bedford, 
Bryantsville,  Christian  Union,  Indian  Creek,  Leatherwood.  Leesvllle.  Mount 
Pleasant,  Port  William,  Popcorn  and  Springville  Societies — Church  of  Christ 
— Baptist  Churches  at  Spice  Valley,  Leesville,  Spring  Creek.  Guthrie  Creek, 
Bedford.  Springville.  Mitchell,  Pleasant  Grove — Presbyterian  Churches  at 
Bedford.  Bono.  Mitchell — Old  Union  Church — Salvation  Army — Pentecostal 
Church — Catholic  Church — Episcopal  Church. 


Masonic  Lodges  and  Appendant  Orders  at  Bedford.  Mitchell.  Lawrenceport. 
Huron.  Springville.  Heltonville  and  Leesville — Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fel- 
lows— Lodges  at  Bedford.  Mitchell,  Lawrenceport  and  Springville — The 
Knights  of  Pythias  at  Bedford,  Oolitic  and  Mitchell. 


First  Steam  Road  in  Lawrence  County — Subsequent  and  Present  Railroads — 
Free  Right  of  Way  and   Other  Assistance — Bedford  Belt  Railroad. 



Early  Military  Organization — "Cornstalk"  Militia — Enlistments  In  1846 — The 
Mexican  War — Honorable  Record  of  the  Second  Regiment — Muster  Roll — The 
Utah  War — The  Civil  War — Opposing  Factions — Enlistments — War  Meetings 
— Various  Commands  from  Lawrence  County — Morgan's  Raid — Enlistment 
Statistics — The  Spanish-American  War. 


Location  as  County  Seat^First  Residents — Earliest  Business  Interests — From 
1830  to  1840— During  the  Forties— Civil  War  Period— Early  Manufacturing 
Establishments — The  Pork-packing  Industry — Present  Industries  of  Bedford 
— City  Library — PostofBce  History — Banking  Establishments — Municipal  His- 
tory of  Bedford— Bedford  as  a  City— Public  Utilities. 


The  Greatest  Industry  of  the  County — Doctor  Foote's  Good  Judgment — The 
Opening  Wedge — Pioneers  in  the  Stone  Industry — First  Shipments  to  Chicago 
— Nature  of  Oolitic  Limestone — Analysis — Progress  and  Present  Development 
of  Industry — Concerns  Engaged  in  the  Industry — Improvement  in  Equip- 
ment— Present  Status  of  the  Industry — The  Bedford  Stone  Club. 


Population  of  Lawrence  County — Village  Plats  of  the  County — Palestine,  the 
First  County  Seat — Dr.  Winthrop  Foote — Cheap  Whiskey — Palestine  Un- 
healthful — Ferries — Towns  and  Hamlets  in  Lawrence  County — The  Sarah 
Schafer  Murder.  » 



Perry  Township — Bean  Blossom  Township — Richland  Township — Van  Buren 
Township — Indian  Creek  Township — Clear  Creek  Township — Washington 
Township — Benton  Township — Salt  Creek  Township — Polk  Township — Mar- 
ion Township. 


The  Miami  Tribe,  Former  Owners  of  Territory — Cession  Treaties — First  Ap- 
pearance of  White  Men — Early  Land  Entries. 


Legislative  Enactment — First  Election — First  Court  House — Location  of  Coun- 
ty Seat — Formation  of  Townships — Another  Change  in  Territory — More  Terri- 
tory Attached  to  Monroe  County. 


David  McHolland,  the  First  White  Settler — Early  Land  Entries  and  First 
Permanent  Settlers. 


Organization — Machinery  of  Government  in  Operation — First  Board  of  County 
Commissioners— First  Appointments— Road  Petitions— First  Grand  and  Tra- 
verse Juries — Other  Proceedings  of  the  Board — Early  Tax  Levies — Tavern  Li- 
censes— Public  Buildings— Court  Houses — County  Jails — Care  of  the  County 
Poor — Finances  of  the  County — Assessed  Valuations — Old  County  Library. 


Vote  for  Presidential  Electors— County  Auditors— County  Clerks— Sheriffs- 
County  Recorders — County  Treasurers — Coroners — County  Surveyors — Semi- 
nary Trustees — Probate  Judges — Judges  of  the  Circuit  Court — Associate 
Judges — Prosecuting  Attorneys — School  Examiners  and  Superintendents — 
Early  Justices  of  the  Peace — County  Commissioners — Local  Option  Election. 


Statistics  for  1836 — Figures  for  1909 — Agricultural  Societies — Equestrian  Fairs 
— Annual  Fairs. 


First  School  and  its  Teacher — Subscription  Schools — First  Graded  School  at 
Bloomington — Various  Township  Schools — Monroe  County  Seminary — Bloom- 
ington  Female  College — Change  of  Public  Sentiment — Schools  of  1913— School 


Legislative  Act  Establishing  the  University — First  Trustees — First  Buildings 
— Federal  Legislation — Vincennes  University — Constitutional  Provisions — State 
Seminary  Founded — Title  Changed — Charter  of  18.52 — University  Funds — 
Taxes  for  University  Purposes — Professional  Schools — Co-Education — Rela- 
tion to  the  State — The  Old  Campus — Removal  to  New  Campus — Situation  of 
Buildings — Library  Building — Student  Building — Administrative  Offices — 
Buildings  for  Lectures  and  Recitations — Observatory — Other  Buildings — Jor- 
dan Field — Gifts  and  Bequests — Opportunities  for  Employment — University 
Library — Expenses  of  Students — Law  Department — School  of  Medicine — Sum- 
mer Term  System — School  of  Education — Graduate  School — Chronological 
Table — Brief  Sketches  of  the  Presidents. 


Jesse  Brandon  Establishes  the  First  Newspaper — Subsequent  Bloomington 
Newspapers — Papers  at  EUettsville  and  Smithville. 


Strong  Religious  Sentiment — Churches  in  1861 — The  Methodist  Episcopal  De- 
nomination and  its  Societies  at  Bloomington,  Bean  Blossom  Township,  Stan- 
ford, EUettsville,  Harrodstaurg,  Stinesville,  Smithville,  Cross  Roads  and  Whit- 
aker — Presbyterian  Societies  at  Bloomington,  Elletsville  and  Harrodsburg — 
United  Presbyterians — Reformed  Presbyterians — Cumberland  Presbyterians — 
Baptist  Churches  at  Bloomington,  Stinesville  and  EUettsville — The  Christian 
Church — Early  Preachers  and  Their  Doctrines — The  Church  Name — Episco- 
pal Church — Church  of  Christ — Catholic  Church— Free  and  Accepted  Masons 
— Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows — Knights  of  Pythias. 


Early  Lawyers  Who  Practiced  in  Monroe  County — Brief  Personal  Mention — 
The  Present  Bar — Early  Doctors  of  the  County — Present  Physicians — Faithfiil 
Old  "Family  Doctors." 


County  Represented  in  War  of  1812 — The  Mexican  War — Civil  War — Public 
Meetings — Resolutions — A  Notable  Meeting — Enlistments — Newspaper  Rec- 
ords— An  Interesting  Letter — The  Draft — Morgan's  Raid — Southern  Sentiment 
in  Monroe  County — Grief  Over  Lincoln's  Assassination— Soldiers'  Relief  Move- 
ments— Monroe  County  Representation  in  Various  Regiments — Spanish-Amer- 
ican War. 


Geological  Formation — First  Attempts  at  Quarrying — Improvement  in  Meth- 
ods— Development  of  the  Industry — State  Geologist's  OflBcial  Statement — Early 
Quarrying  Methods — Prices  and  Transportation — Monroe  County  Quarries, 
Active  and  Inactive. 


First  Settlers  and  Land  Entries— The  City  of  Bloomington— Plats— First  Pur- 
chasers of  Town  Lots — The  Beginning — Early  Business  Houses  and  Indus- 
tries— General  Muster  Day — The  Town  from  1830  to  1840 — Following  Decades 
—Early  Advertisements — Early  Mail  Ser\ice — Market  Quotations — Manufac- 
turing Industries  in  1912 — The  Great  Furniture  Industry — Banks  and  Bank- 
ing— Municipal  History — Legislative  Act — First  Town  Elections — Change  to 
City — Elective  and  Appointive  Officers — Finances — Water  Works — Postofflce 
— Commercial  Club — Other  Organizations — Phenomenal  Development — Rem- 
iniscences of  Bloomington — The  Lincoln  Funeral. 


Location — Geology — Settlement — Wild  Game — Towns  and  Villages — Mt.  Tabor 
— Stinesville. 


Organization  and  Area — Settlement — Excellent  Grazing  Land — Land  Entries 
— Unionville— The  Cox  Tragedy. 


Rich  Agricultural  Section — Settlement — Early  Land  Entries — Towns  and  Vil- 
lages— Harrodsburg — Fairfax — Smith^ille. 


A  Nature-favored  Locality — Its  Early  Settlement — Land  Entries — Business 
Interests — Iron  Works. 


Area- — Natural  Features — Settlement — First  Settlers  and  Land  Entries. 


Excellent  Land,  Well  Watered  and  Drained — The  "Seminary"  Township — 
Early  Land  Purchasers — Organization  as  a  Township — First  Officers. 



Natural  Features — Rough  and  Sterile  Soil — Early  Settlement — First  Elections 
—Chapel  Hill— Counterfeiters. 


A  Typical  Monroe  Township — Geological  Formations — Early  Settlement — John 
Parks'  Reminiscences — Early  Land  Entries — Ellettsville — Incorporation — 
Business  Interests — Fraternities,  Churches  and  Banks. 


Salt  Springs — Native  Resources — Settlement — Early  Land  Purchases. 


Natural  Features — Rich  and  Productive  Soil — Puet's  Cave — Early  Settlement 
— Land  Buyers — Stanford — The  Blue  Spring  Community. 


Boundary  and  Area — Timber — Geology — Settlement — Land  Entries — Wayport 
— Hindostan. 


Village  Plats  of  Monroe  County — Population  Statistics — Old  Settlers'  Society 
— Monroe  County  Historical  Society — Artesian  Well  at  Bloomington — Early 
Stages  and  Railroads — New  Albany  &  Salem  Railroad — Indianapolis  Southern 
Railroad — Pioneer  Tales. 




Abandoned  Towns   63 

Agricultural   Reports   109 

Agricultural  Societies 110 

Agriculture 109 

Analysis  of  Bedford  Stone 197 

Assessed  Valuation  85 

Associate  Judges  91 

Attorneys,    Eminent    119 

Auditors 90 

Avoca    49 


Banks  in  Bedford 186 

Baptist  Churches   136 

Bar  of  Lawrence  County 122 

Bedford    176 

Bedford   Banks    186 

Bedford  Baptist  Church 137 

Bedford   Belt   Railroad 150 

Bedford  Catholic  Church 142 

Bedford    Christian    Church 133 

Bedford,  City  Library 183 

Bedford,  Civil-war  Period 179 

Bedford  During  the  Forties 178 

Bedford,  1830  to  1840 178 

Bedford   Episcopal   Church 143 

Bedford,  First  Business  Houses 177 

Bedford,  First  Residents 176 

Bedford  Lawyers 122 

Bedford  M.   E.  Church 130 

Bedford,  Municipal  History 189 

Bedford    Newspapers    94 

Bedford  Physicians 127 

Bedford,  Postoffice  History 184 

Bedford  Presbyterian  Church 139 

Bedford,  Present  Industries 183 

Bedford  Stone  26 

Bedford    Stone,   Analysis 197 

Bedford  Stone  Club 203 

Bedford  Stone  Industry 193 

Bedford's  First  School 104 

Belt  Railroad 150 

Bench  and  Bar 113 

Bethlehem  Presbyterian  Church 139 

Bono   47 

Bono    Presbyterian    Church 139 

Bono  Township 45 

Bounties    77 

Bryantsville    53 


Catholic  Church 141 

Cement  Industry 43 

Changes  in  Townships 69 

Cheap  Whiskey 210 

Christian  Churches  132 

Church   of   Christ 135 

Churches    129 

Civil.  War   158 

Clerks  of  the  County 89 

Commissioners,  Acts  of  First 66 

Commissioners,   County    92 

Coroners    92 

County  Asylum   81- 

County'  Auditors    90 

County  Clerks 89 

County  Commissioners 92 

County    Finances    83 

County   Jails    81 

County    Judges    91 

County  Organized 64 

County  Prosecutors 91 

County   Recorders    89 


County    Seat    Location 67 

County  Seat  Re-located 73 

County  Seminary  105 

County   Surveyors    90 

County    Treasurers    89 

Court  Houses 77 

Creation  of  County 64 


Distilleries    36 

Dixonville   45 

Doctor,  First  123 

Drafts     168 


Early    Hunting    38 

Early   Land   Companies 30 

Early  Manufactories 180 

Early   Schools   100 

Early   Tax   Levies   71 

Education    100 

Elections  86 

Eminent  Attorneys   119 

Enlistment  Statistics 173 

Enlistments   for   War 161 

Episcopal  Church 143 


Fairs 110 

Fayetteville    58 

Ferries  213 

Ferry  Rates  71 

Finances  of  the  County 83 

First  Arson  Case 118 

First  Civil   Case 114 

First   Civil    Townships 66 

First  County  Commissioners 66 

First  County  Seat 68 

First  Court  113 

First  Court  at  Bedford 118 

First  Court  at  Palestine 115 

First    Doctor    123 

First    Fair    111 

First  Judges 114 

First   Murder    Case 119 

First   Newspaper    94 

First   Resident   Attorney 116 

First  Schools 100 

First  Settlement  in  County 34 

Flinn   Township   35 

Foote,    Dr.   Winthrop 123,  193 

Fort  Ritner    45 

Fraternal   Societies   145 

Freemasons    145 


Geological  Formations 25 

Geological  Survey 32 

German   Methodist  Church 131 

Grand  Jury,  First   114 

Guthrie    49 

Guthrie  Creek  Baptist  Church 137 

Guthrie  Township 44 


Hamlets  in  Lawrence  County 214 

Harmony  Church   658 

Harrison   Purchase   29 

Heltonville    —  59 

Horticulture  109 

Hunting,  Early  38 

Huron 53 


Independent  Order  of  Old  Fellows___  147 

Indian  Creek  Christian  Church 132 

Indian    Creek    Township 55 

Indian  Treaties 29 

Inn-keepers'   Charges    73 


Jails    81 

Judges,    Associate    91 

Judges,  County  91 

Judges.   First   Circuit 114 

Judges,  Probate 90 

Juliet    63 


Kaolin  Mines 27 

Knights    of    Pythias 148 


Land    Companies    30 

Land  Entries,  Bono  Township 46 


Land  Entries,  Fllnn  Township 35 

Land  Entries,  Gutlirie  Townsliip 44 

Land    Entries,    Indian    Creek    Town- 
ship      55 

Land  Entries,  Lawrence  Township__  48 

Land  Entries,  Marion  Township 38 

Land  Entries,  Perry  Townsliip 54 

Land    Entries,    Pleasant    Run    Town- 
ship    59 

Land  Entries,  Shawswick  Township.  60 

Land  Entries,  Spice  Valley  Township  50 

Lawrence  County  Legion 172 

Lawrence    County    Seminary 105 

Lawrenceport    47 

Lawrenceport  M.  E.  Church 130 

Leatherwood  Christian  Church 132 

Leesville    36 

Leesville  Baptist  Church 136 

Liberty 63 

Licenses,   Liquor,   1840 76 

Limestone   197 

Liquor    Licenses,    1840 76 

Local  Government 71 

Location  of  County  Seat 67 

Lot    Sales    72 


Marion    Township    36 

Marshall  Township   47 

Masonic  Order 145 

Medical    History   123 

Medical   Societies   128 

Methodist  Episcopal    Churches 129 

Mexican  War 155 

Military  Drafts   168 

Military  History 154 

Mineral  Springs 28 

Miscellaneous 204 

Mitchell   39 

Mitchell    Baptist   Church 137 

Mitchell  Catholic  Church 143 

Mitchell    Christian   Church 134 

Mitchell  Graded  School 103 

Mitchell  Lawyers 122 

Mitchell    Newspapers    94 

Mitchell  Physicians 127 

Mitchell  Presbyterian  Church 139 

Morgan's    Raid    168 

Mound  Builders  32 

Murder  Cases 120 


Natural   Features   25 

New   Courts    120 

New  Union  Christian  Church 133 

Newspapers    94 

Normal  College 107 

Nunihue's  Cave 26 


Odd    Fellows    147 

Old   Union   Church 139 

Oolitic    62 

Oolitic  Stone 26 

Oolitic  Stone  Industry 193 

Organization  of  County 64 


Palestine    68,  206 

Pentecostal  Church 141 

Perry    Township    53 

Physician,  First 123 

Piankeshaws    30 

Pierre,    Murder   of 31 

Pioneer  Lawyers 113 

Plats    205 

Pleasant  Grove  Baptist  Church 138 

Pleasant  Hill  M.  E.  Church 131 

Pleasant   Run   Township 58 

Political    History    86 

Poor  Asylum 81 

Population  Statistics 204 

Pork-packing    Industry    181 

Prehistoric  Race 32 

Presbyterian    Churches    138 

Present  Bar 122 

Present  Physicians 127 

Present  Schools   108 

Presidential  Votes 86 

Probate    Judges    90 

Prosecutors    91 

Quarries    198 


Railroads 150 

Recorders    89 


Redding    63 

Religious    History    129 

Re-location  of  County  Seat 73 

Representatives 88 


Sale    of    Lots 72 

Salt  Creek  Baptist  Church 136 

Salvation  Army 141 

Schafer  Murder 215 

School  Examiners 91 

School   Statistics,  1883 101 

School   Superintendents 91 

Schools    100 

Schools,    Present    108 

Second  Regiment  155 

Secret   Orders   145 

Seminary,    County    105 

Senators    88 

Settlement,  First  in  County 34 

Shawswick  Township 60 

Sheriffs    90 

Silverville   58 

Slander    Suits    117 

Southern  Indiana  Normal  College___  107 

Southern    Indiana   Power   Co.    57 

Spanish-American   War   174 

Spice  Valley  Baptist  Church 136 

Spice    Valley    Reminiscences 51 

Spice   Valley   Township 50 

Springville    55 

Springville    Baptist   Church 137 

Springville    Christian    Church 132 

Springville  M.   E.   Church 130 

Stone  Club  203 

Stone   Companies   198 

State   Senators    88 

Spring  Creek  Baptist  Church 137 

Streams   25 

Superintendents,  School  91 

Surveyors  90 

Stone  Industry  193 

T  ■ 

Tavern   Charges    73 

Tax  Levies,  Early  71 

Towns  in  Lawrence  County 214 

Township  Boundaries 69 

Townships,  First  Civil 66 

Traverse    Jury,    First 114 

Treasurers,  County   89 

Treaties  with  Indians 29 

Tunnelton   45 

Utah  War 158 


Valuation   Assessed   85 

Village  Plats   205 


War   of   the    Rebellion 158 

War  with  Mexico 155 

Williams    57 

Woodville    63 


Agricultural  Societies 258 

Agricultural  Statistics 257 

Agriculture 257 

Artesian  Well    442 

Assessed  Valuations 245 

Associate   Judges   253 

Attorneys,    Prosecuting    253 

Auditors 249 

Banks    and   Banking 382 

Baptist  Churches   308 

Bean  Blossom  Township 217,  226,  399 

Bedford    Stone    Industry 360 

Bench  and  Bar 321 

Benton  Township 219,  229,  404 

Bloomington     368 

Bloomington  Baptist  Church 309 


Bloomington  Catholic  Church___^—  316 

Bloomington   Christian   Cliurch 309 

Bloomington    Clubs   391 

Bloomington,   1840  to  1860 377 

Bloomington  Episcopal  Church 315 

Bloomington,   1830  to   1840 376 

Bloomington  Female  College 266 

Bloomington  M.  E.  Church 304 

Bloomington,    Municipal    History 385 

Bloomington  Physicians 329 

Bloomington    Plats    370 

Bloomington,   Postofflce   390 

Bloomington  Presbyterian  Church —  306 

Bloomington    Reminiscences    393 

Bloomington  Township 226,  367 

Bloomington  U.  P.  Church 307 

Blue   Spring   Community 431 


Campus,    Old    284 

Catholic  Church  316 

Cession    Treaties    222 

Chapel   Hill   419 

Christian  Ohurches  309 

Church  of  Christ  316 

Churches   304 

Churches    in    1861 304 

Circuit    Judges    ^  253 

Civil  War  334 

Clear  Creek  Township 219,  227,  407 

Clerks  of  County 250 

Co-Education    284 

Commissioners    255 

Coroners    251 

Counterfeiters    419 

County  Agent   234 

County    Auditors    249 

County  Clerks 250 

County    Commissioners    255 

County  Finances 244 

County  Government 234 

County  Jail 240 

County  Library 245 

County    Poor    241 

County   Recorders    250 

County   Seminary 265 

County    Surveyors    252 

County    Treasurers    250 

Court   Houses    237 

Cox   Tragedy   406 


Doctors,    Early    325 

Doctors,    Present   329 

Drafts    347 


Early  Doctors   325 

Early  Lawyers   321 

Early  Mail  Service 378 

Early   Settlement   »231 

Early    Market    Quotations 379 

Early   Railroads   443 

Early  Stages  443 

Early   Tax   Levies 236 

Education    261 

Election,  Local  Option 256 

Elections   246 

EUettsville    424 

Enlistments 334 

Episcopal  Church 315 

Equestrian   Fairs    259 


Fairfax    410 

Fairs    259 

Finances  of  the  County .--  244 

First    Grand    Jury 235 

First    Newspaper    300 

First    Road    Petition 235 

First  Schools  261 

First  Settler 231 

Free  and  Accepted  Masons 319 

Furniture   Industry   380 


Geology    217 

Graduate    School    ^_-- 294 

Grand    Jury,   First 235 


Harrodsburg    409 

Hindostan    434 

Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows_-  319 
Indian  Creek  Township 218,  227,  411 


Indian  Occupancy 221 

Indiana  University 271 

Indianapolis   Soutliern  Railroad 449 


Jackson  Township   229 

Jail    240 

Jordan   Field   288 

Judges,  Associate 253 

Judges,   Circuit   253 

Judges,  Probate 252 

Jury,  First  Grand 235 

Justices  of  the  Peace 254 

Knights   of   Pythias 320 


Lamb   Township    227 

Land    Entries,    Bloomington    Town- 
ship       367 

Lawyers    321 

Library,  Old  County 245 

Licenses    236 

Lincoln  Funeral  398 

Lincoln's  Assassination   350 

Local   Option    Election 256 

McHolland,   David    231 


Manufacturing  Industries   379 

Marion   Township    220,  413 

Masonic    Order    319 

Medical   History   325 

Methodist   Episcopal    Churches ^  304 

Mexican  War  331 

Military  History  330 

Military    Roster    352 

Miscellaneous    435 

Monroe   Co.   Historical   Society 441 

Monroe   County,    Organization 224 

Monroe  County  Quarries 364 

Monroe  County  Seminary 265 

Morgan's    Raid    345 

Mt.  Tabor  401 

Muster    Day   375 


New  Albany  &  Salem  Railroad 446 

Newspapers  of  Monroe  County 300 


Odd    Fellows    319 

Old  County  Library 245 

Old  Settlers'  Society 437 

Old   University  Campus 284 

Oolitic  Stone  Industry .--_  360 

Organization  of  Monroe  County 224 


Perry    Township    217,  229,  415 

Physicians,    Early    325 

Physicians,    Present    329 

Pioneer   Tales 453 

Plats  435 

Platting  of  Bloomington 370 

Political  History 246 

Polk  Township 220,  229,  418 

Poor  Farm , 241 

Population    436 

Presbyterian  Churches 306 

Present  Bar 325 

Present  Court  House 239 

Present  Physicians 329 

Presidential  Vote . 246 

Probate  Judges  252 

Professional    Schools    283 

Prosecuting  Attorneys   253 

Public    Buildings    237 


Quarries    364 

Quarrying   Methods   362 


Raccoon    Township    227 

Recorders    250 

Reformed    Presbyterian    Church 307 

Religious  History 304 

Reminiscences  of  Bloomington 393 


Richland  Township 217,  229,  421 

Roster  of  Monroe  Soldiers 352 


Salt   Creek  Township -220,  229,  427 

School   Examiners    254 

School   of  Education 283,  293 

School  of  Law 283,  291 

School  of  Medicine 283,  292 

School  Superintendents 254 

Schools,   First 261 

Schools    of   1913 268 

Schools,  Township 262 

Seminary,  County 265 

"Seminary"  Township 415 

Seminary  Trustees   252 

Sheriffs    250 

Showers    Bros.    Company 380 

Smithville     410 

Spanish-American  War   357 

Stanford 430 

State  University 271 

Stinesville     402 

Stone  Companies  364 

Stone  Industry 360 

Superintendents  of  School 254 

Surveyors,  County 252 


Tales  of  Pioneer   Days 453 

Tavern    Licenses    236 

Tax  Levies,  Early 236 

Topography    217 

Township   Schools   262 

Treasurers,  County 251 

Treaties  222 

Trustees,  Seminary 252 


Unionville   405 

United  Presbyterian   Church 307 

University  Buildings 285 

University   Charter    280 

University  Chronology 294 

University    Expenses    290 

University  Funds 281 

University,  Indiana 271 

University  Legislation   272 

University   Library   Building 285 

University   Observatory   288 

University  Presidents 296 


Valuations,   Assessed    245 

Van    Buren    Township 218,  229,  429 

Village  Plats  435 

Vincennes   University 273 


War   Meetings   334 

Washington  Township 219-,  229,  432 

Wayport    434 

White   Men,   First  Here 222 



Acoam,  John  W.   635 

Akin,  R.  A. 542 

Allen,  William  J.   743 

Atwater,    Amzi    520 


Bailey,  John  S. 544 

Baker,  Herschel  E.  699 

Barnes,  Alexander  675 

Barrow,  Harrison  R. 746 

Batman,  Ira  C. 592 

Bell,  Oscar  E. 748 

Blair,  J.  W. 558 

Blakely,  William  O. 655 

Boruff,  James  E. 627 

Bray,    Samuel    583 

Breeden,  W.  T.   659 

Brinkworth,  Thomas  M. 625 

Brooks,  Thomas  J. 482 

Brown,  John  S. 597 

Brown,  William  A.   534 

Bryan,  William  Lowe 471 

Burton,  Martin  A. 727 

Buskirk,  Lawrence  V. 672 

Buskirk,  Philip  K. 530 

Butler,  Charles  P. 615 

Byrns,   James   D.    723 


Caress,  James  M. 740 

Carey,  Harry  K. 651 

Carpenter,  Earl  C. 665 

Chapman,  Thomas  N.   628 

Chase,  Hollis  H. 562 

Chitty,  Howard 700 

Clark,  M.  C. 643 

Collier,  James  F. 732 

Collins,  S.  W. 648 

Corr,  Edwin 751 

Cox,   Alex   683 

Crabb,   Mortimore    708 

Cravens,  Oscar  H. 712 

Crim,  Isaac  H. 736 


Dilley,  Joseph  T. 604 

Dodds,   Andrew 681 

Dodds,  Samuel  C. 488 

Duncan,  Henry  Clay 496 

Duncan,  J.  B. 518 

Dunihue,  Fred  T. 620 


East,  Rufus  H. 581 

Edwards,  Ezra  W. 742 


Fenneman,  Fred  W.    749 

Fields,  Albert  J. 560 

Fowler,  John  P. 716 

Freeland,  John   T.   550 

Fulwider,  W.  A. 704 


Gibbons,  John  A.   733 

Grant,  Herman  U.   588 

Guthrie,  Alfred 552 

Guthrie,  Marshall 762 

Guthrie.  Mitchell   R.   646 


Hamer,  G.  Albert 721 

Hanna,  Ulysses  S. 573 

Hardwick,  Thomas  S. 694 


Harris,  C.  E.  590 

Harris,  John   G.   533 

Harris,  Oliver  K. 596 

Harris,   Thomas   L.    614 

Harris,  Walter  W. 596 

Harris,   William  B.   756 

Henley,  George  W.  662 

Henley,  Joseph  E.   696 

Hill,   Nathaniel   U.,    Sr.    461 

Hill,  Nat  U.  664 

Hill,  Philip  B.  587 

Hinkle,  Charles , 624 

Hoadley,  Albert  T.   656 

Hoadley,  Burt  G. 610 

Hobbs,  Joel   L.   516 

Hobbs,  E.  M.  C. 688 

Holland,  J.  E.  P. 515 

Holmes,  Joseph  L. 725 

Hostetler,  Alonzo  H. 667 

Howe,  Jesse  A.  690 

Hubbard,  William  A. 670 

Hughes,  Louis  W.   556 


Jackson,  George  B. 701 

Jones,  Walter  A.  684 

Jones,  Walter  H.  674 

Julius,  Fred  F. 735 


Keach,  Sherman  L.  602 

Keane,  Edward  M.  719 

Kelly,  John  C.   629 


Lamkins,  Frank  W. 557 

Lannert,  Joseph 543 

Lee,  Henry  A. 568 

Lee,  Rogers  A.  720 

Louden,   Theodore    J.    676 

Louden,  William  M. 728 


McDonald,  Arthur   J.    __     494 

McKinley,   Cornelius   759 

McPheeters,  Joseph  G. 640 


Martin,  William  H.   484 

Marxson,  C.  H. 536 

Mathes,  William  A. 622 

Matthews,  Fred 616 

Medaris,    William    H.    601 

Miers,  Robert  W. 1 584 

Miller,  Robert  G.   570 

Milligan,  Thomas 537 

Moore,  Edward  P. 578 

Moore   Family   576 

Moore,   Milton  N.   577 

Moore,  Silas -, 576 

Murphy,  Edgar  R.   709 

Myers,   Burton   Dorr 760 


Neeld,  Cyrus  N.  S. 668 

Newland,   Ben    504 

Nichols,  John  L. 509 

Nichols,  Leo 509 

Norman,  Olin  B. 745 


O'Harrow,  John  W. 632 

Otis,  Fred  B. 633 

Owen,   McHenry   539 

Owens,  Fred  I.   692 

Owens,  James  K.  641 


Palmer,  Robert  N. 547 

Pearson,  Henry  P. 715 

Pearson,  John  R.   510 

Perry,  Eugene  H.  R. 618 

Plummer,  Richard  E. 714 


Reed,  Millard  C. 730 

Regester.  J.  F. 717 

Rice,  J.  Marion  575 

Rogers,  O.  F. 706 

Rogers,  R.  C. 706 

Rothrock,  David  A. 579" 



Sanders,  Lawrence  B. 487 

Shaw,  Lyman  Emery  680 

Short,  Earl  G. 499 

Showers,   J.   D.   608 

Showers,   William  N.   480 

Simpson,  Morrell 653 

Small,  Charles  S. 527 

Stalker,  Elbert  J. 612 

Stipp,  William  E. 686 

Strain,  Joseph  755 

S*rout,  Noyes  E. 652 


Thornton,   Edmund   B.    502 

Thornton,   George   D.   753 

Tourner,  J.  P. 478 

Trainor,  Joseph  W. 649 

Van  Valzah,  F.  B. 549 

Voris,  Archibald  C.   512 

Voris,   Joseph   R.    476 


Waldron,  Charles  B.   500 

Walker,  RoUa  F. 660 

Weaver,  William  W. 507 

Whitted,  Silas   N. 637 

Wilcox,  Asher  S. 528 

Wilcox,  Thalus  M. 606 

Williams,  Canaan 590 

Williams,    Isaac    693 

Wilson,  J.  B. 594 

Woodburn,  Walter  E. 524 

Woolery,  Marshall 738 




From  various  state  geological  reports  the  following  has  been  deduced 
concerning  the  geolog}'  of  Lawrence  county,  in  a  general  way : 

Undulating  or  gently  rolling  plateaus,  drained  by  deep,  narrow  valleys, 
obtain  in  the  eastern  and  northeastern  portions  of  the  county.  The  central 
region  north  of  \\'hite  river  is  very  hilly,  and  the  western  and  southwestern 
is  rough  and  broken.  Each  of  these  divisions  is  covered  with  a  soil  almost 
wholly  formed  from  decomposition  of  underlying  rocks.  In  that  part  of  the 
county  underlaid  by  St.  Louis  limestone,  comprising  a  broad  belt  twelve  miles 
in  width,  passing  centrally  from  northwest  to  southeast,  "sink-holes"  are  very 
numerous.  The  chief  streams  are  the  East  fork  of  White  river,  Indian,  Big 
Salt,  Little  Salt,  Leatherwood,  Guthrie,  Back,  Sugar,  Fishing  and  Beaver 
creeks.  Originally,  the  county  was  well  timbered  with  large  forests  of  oak, 
hickory,  beech,  maple,  chestnut,  walnut,  elm,  etc. 

The  geological  formations  of  this  county  comprise  three  divisions  of 
the  quarternary  age,  two  of  the  coal  measure  group  and  four  of  the  sub- 
carboniferous  group.  •  The  formations  dip  slightly,  with  a  variable  rate,  from 
east  northeast  to  west  southwest,  and  the  outcrop  from  east  to  west  in  the 
county  represents  a  vertical  measurement  of  about  seven  hundred  feet.  From 
east  to  west  the  formations,  in  the  order  of  age,  outcrop  as  follows:  Knob- 
stone  group,  Keokuk  group,  St.  Louis  group,  sub-carboniferous  group,  car- 
boniferous group,  quarternary  group.  No  drift  is  to  be  found  in  the  county, 
save  occasional  traces  brought  down  by  streams  which  have  their  origin 
farther  to  the  north. 

Briefly,  the  geological  sections  and  stratas  are  these :  The  quarternary 
system;  the  carboniferous  group;  the  sub-carboniferous  group;  the  St.  Louis 
beds ;  the  Chester  beds ;  Keokuk  beds ;  Knobstone  formation ;  the  coal  meas- 
ure, in  the  western  portion  of  the  county,  represented  only  by  beds  of  shale 


and  shaley  sandstones  on  the  tops  of  some  of  the  high  elevations  and  hilltops; 
the  conglomerate  or  millstone  grit  below  the  coal  measure.  Then  comes  the 
real  Chester  fomiation  the  upper  member  being  a  valuable  limestone,  whitish 
gray  to  dark  brown. 

Number  21,  known  as  "Bedford  stone,''  is  the  material  so  well  known 
and  so  extensively  used  by  builders  throughout  the  countrv',  especially  in  the 
West.  It  appears  to  be  formed  almost  entirely  of  minute  fossil  cemented 
together  with  shell  and  coal  dust.  It  varies  in  color  from  gray  to  creamy 
white,  and  is  found  in  almost  endless  quantity  as  thick  as  twelve  feet,  suitable 
to  saw,  cut,  carve  and  mold  in  any  desired  shape.  Beneath  this  is  the  famous 
fossil  bed,  containing  seventy  species,  and  it  is  from  a  few  inches  thick  to 
four  feet  in  some  localities.  xMl  are  very  small  and  some  even  microscopic, 
yet  very  perfect  and  beautiful. 

The  knobstone  shale  is  the  lowest  visible  formation  in  the  county,  and  is 
nearly  five  hundred  feet  thick  and  outcrops  on  the  eastern  and  southeastern 
portions.  Outcrops  are  seen  at  Ft.  Ritner,  Guthrie  and  at  other  places  in  this 

A  mile  or  so  southwest  of  Bedford  is  what  is  known  as  Dunihue's  ca\e. 
It  contains  many  beautiful  chambers,  with  stalactites  of  rare  purity  and  many 
other  beautiful,  curious  formations.  Here  the  fine  white  limestone,  so  valu- 
able in  this  section  of  Indiana,  is  found  in  immense  quantities.  As  long  ago 
as  1883  it  was  written  of  this  location :  "The  stone  is  so  soft  at  first  that  it  is 
easily  chiseled  and  moulded,  and  it  is  peculiarly  suited  for  door  and  window 
caps  and  sills,  columns  and  highly  ornamented  capitals  and  brackets.  Weather 
hardens  it.  The  hard  laminated  limestone  is  four  feet  thick ;  the  white  quarry 
limestone  is  ten  feet  thick  and  the  blue  quarry  limestone  is  seven  feet  thick. 
The  quarry  of  N.  L.  Hall  was  extensively  worked  in  this  stone.  A  powerful 
engine  drove  three  gangs  of  saws.  The  white  limestone  has  all  the  excellent 
qualities  above  described.  It  has  been  used  in  the  Bedford  court  house,  the 
postoffice  at  Indianapolis,  the  State  University  at  Bloomington,  the  new  state 
house  of  Illinois,  the  Louisville  custom  house,  etc.    It  is  a  famous  stone." 

The  St.  Louis  section  in  the  valleys  of  Salt  and  Leatherwood  creeks  near 
Bedford,  the  whole  depth  of  the  St.  Louis  limestone  outcrops,  have  a  perpen- 
dicular measurement  of  about  one  hundred  feet. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Fayetteville  the  blue  and  gray  limestone  measures 
thirty-five  to  forty  feet  in  thickness. 

The  hills  north  of  White  river  are  generally  capped  with  members  of 
the  Chester  formation,  and  sometimes  almost  six  hundred  feet  above  the  river 
bed.     A  half  mile  west  of  Chester  Huron,  the  Chester  beds  are  found,  and 


at  one  time  were  extensively  worked,  and  the  material  was  known  as  "Huron 
stone."    The  bed  is  twenty-five  feet  thick. 

At  Connelly's  Hill,  the  flint  bed  section  was  worked  by  the  Indians. 
Here  they  C[uarried  material  for  their  arrow  and  spear  points.  Fire  hearths 
are  seen  in  the  adjoining  \alley,  surrounded  with  flint  chips.  Mounds  are  also 
found  on  this  hill. 

The  country  around  Mitchell  was  originally  a  valley  of  erosion,  and 
later  the  flood  plain  of  White  ri\er.  The  surface  rocks  are  of  the  upper 
cherty  member  of  the  St.  Louis  beds.  Here  fossils  abound  in  great  quantities. 
In  numerous  wells  have  frecjuently  been  found  eyeless  fishes.  Here  the  soil 
is  rich  in  plant  food. 

On  section  26,  township  4,  range  i  west,  is  a  coral  reef.  Valuable 
specimens  of  coral  have  been  found  and  sent  to  national  collections.  The  pre- 
historic people  here  evidently  made  their  reddish  colored  stone  implements 
and  ornaments.  Years  ago  large  amounts  of  lime  were  burned  near  this 
point.  Asa  Erwin  made  fully  twenty  thousand  bushels,  which  found  ready 
sale  on  account  of  its  superiority.  The  waste  lime  was  then  used  for  com- 
post. There  are  many  caves  near  this  point.  Hamer's  cave,  on  section  2,-^ 
township  4,  range  i  west,  is  forty-five  feet  above  the  valley.  The  floor  is 
level,  six  feet  wide,  and  covered  with  a  swift  stream  of  water  eight  inches 
deep,  though  in  some  places  twenty  feet  in  depth.  Three-fourths  of  a  mile 
from  the  entrance  is  the  first  fall.  The  "grand  cascade"  is  found  three  hun- 
dred feet  farther  on.  Eyeless  fish,  crawfish,  etc..  are  here  seen  in  great 

Donnelson's  cave,  with  its  blind  fishes,  is  on  section  2>2>  of  this  same 
township  and  range.  Here,  at  one  time,  was  a  large  line  of  mills,  including 
a  saw  mill,  grist  mill,  woolen  factory,  etc.,  all  driven  by  a  positive  water 
power.  The  interior  shows  that  at  one  date  gunpowder  was  manufactured 
here.  Within  this  wonderful  cave  the  roar  of  a  magnificent  cascade  may  be 
heard.  Here  one  finds  a  well  formed  hall,  twelve  feet  high  by  three  hundred 
feet  in  length  and  forty-four  feet  wide.  There  thousands  of  bats  congregate; 
eyeless  fishes  and  crickets  are  also  found. 

In  1884  it  was  written  of  the  great  kaolin  mines  of  Spice  valley:  "The 
substance  known  as  kaolin  is  a  variety  of  clay  produced  by  the  decomposition 
of  the  mineral  feldspar,  fused  with  other  minerals,  and  is  used  for  the  pro- 
duction of  porcelain  ware.  These  mines  are  by  far  the  best  in  the  state — not 
surpassed  anywhere.  They  were  first  opened  in  1874  by  Dr.  Joseph  Gardner, 
E.  T.  Cox.  state  geologist,  and  Michael  Tempest,  potter,  of  Cincinnati.  They 
made  a  fine  white  earthenware.     In  1877  these  interests  were  taken  over  by 


the  Pennsyhania  Salt  Manufacturing  Company  of  Philadelphia  and  near 
Pittsburg.  For  years  they  shipped  annually  two  thousand  tons  of  this  clay 
to  their  factories  in  Pennsylvania.  From  the  product  they  made  alum  of  a 
superior  quality." 

Mineral  springs  abound  at  many  places  within  this  county.  Their  waters 
are  higlily  medicinal  in  their  composition,  and  in  many  instances  have  been 
found  to  do  \^■hat  the  more  celebrated  waters  of  French  Lick  will  not  do. 
Some  of  these  springs  have  been  used  with  good  results,  but  the  lack  of 
developing  and  keeping  them  advertised  before  the  general  public  has  kept 
them  in  the  background.  In  an  early  day,  when  salt  was  scarce  and  high 
priced,  many  salt  wells  were  made  in  Lawrence  county,  some  of  these  being 
along  Salt  creek.  One  was  sunk  a  hundred  and  fifty  feet  on  section  8,  town- 
ship 5,  range  i  west.  Long  years  since  these  salt  wells  were  abandoned  as  not 
being  profitable,  with  the  discovery  of  better  methods  of  procuring  salt. 

In  conclusion,  it  may  be  added  that  the  stone  industry  of  this  county  has 
made  it  famous  and  this  will  form  a  separate  chapter,  hence  need  not  be 
further  mentioned  in  this  connection. 



In  taking  up  the  early  settlement  of  Lawrence  county  it  is  fitting  that 
the  aboriginal  inhabitants,  the  discoveries,  and  the  various  treaties  and  other 
deals  incident  to  the  settlement  of  the  county,  should  be  given  introductory 
space.  The  Indians  had  practically  disappeared  as  a  nation  from  the  south  of 
Indiana  when  the  first  settlements  were  made  in  the  county.  The  war  with 
Tecumseh  was  just  nearing  the  close,  which  came  with  the  battle  of  Tippe- 
canoe on  November  7,  1811,  and  the  Indian  opposition  to  the  land  grants 
made  to  the  United  States  by  various  tribes  was  being  destroyed. 

These  famous  treaties,  ceding  the  land  of  southern  Indiana  to  the  gov- 
ernment, were  three  in  number,  and  were  all  written  before  Tecumseh  and 
his  Shawnees  rebelled  against  the  white  man.  The  first  treaty  was  made  at 
Fort  Wayne,  on  June  7,  1803,  and  was  called  the  Vincennes  tract.  It  in- 
cluded in  Lawrence  county  all  of  the  area  south  of  a  line  commencing  on  the 
western  boundary  near  the  middle  of  section  31,  township  4,  range  2  west, 
and  running  in  a  direct  line  to  the  southeast  corner  of  section  14,  township  3 
north,  range  i  west,  where  it  leaves  the  county  on  the  southern  border.  This 
tract  includes  nearly  a  third  of  Spice  Valley  township,  and  a  part  of  the  south- 
west corner  of  Marion.  The  treaty  was  signed  by  chiefs  of  the  Shawnee, 
Delaware,  Pottawatomie,  Eel  River,  Kickapoo,  Piankeshaw  and  Kaskaskia 
tribes  and  granted  to  the  United  States  about  one  million  six  hundred  thousand 
acres  of  land,  of  which  over  twelve  thousand  \\'ere  in  Lawrence  county  proper. 

The  second  treaty  was  made  at  Grouseland,  near  Vincennes,  on  August 
21,  1805,  and  in  this  compact  tribes  of  Pottawatomies,  Miamis,  Delawares, 
Eel  Rivers  and  Weas  gave  to  the  United  States  all  their  land  south  of  a  line 
running  from  a  point  north  of  Orleans,  Orange  county,  to  the  old  Greenville 
boundary  line  near  where  it  crossed  the  Whitewater  river  in  the  eastern  por- 
tion of  the  state.  This  line  traversed  Lawrence  county  in  a  northeast  direc- 
tion, from  the  middle  of  section  17,  to\\nship  3  north,  range  i  east,  to  the 
point  where  the  county  corners  with  Jackson  and  Washington  counties,  mak- 
ing a  total  area  in  this  county  of  nine  thousand,  nine  hundred  and  twenty  acres. 

The  remainder  of  the  territory  comprising  Lawrence  county  was  ac- 
quired by  the  government  in  what  was  known  as  the  Harrison  Purchase,  a 


treaty  made  at  Fort  Wayne  on  September  30,  1809.  This  included  a  large 
area  of  land  mostly  on  the  east  side  of  the  Wabash  river  and  below  Raccoon 
creek  near  Montezuma,  Parke  county,  and  running  to  a  point  near  Seymour, 
Jackson  county,  where  it  intersected  the  line  mentioned  in  the  previous  treaty. 
The  area  included  in  this  compact  was  approximately  two  million  nine  hun- 
dred thousand  acres. 

French,  English,  and  American  financiers,  in  this  early  day,  fornied 
immense  land  companies,  for  the  purpose  of  trading  or  buying  immense  tracts 
of  valuable  territory  from  the  Indians.  In  the  Northwest  most  of  these  real 
estate  deals  were  executed,  and  in  the  numl^er  was  one  to  the  Wabash  Land 
Company,  for  an  area  two  hundred  and  ten  miles  wide,  extending  from  Cat 
creek,  near  Lafayette,  Tippecanoe  county,  down  the  Wabash  river  to  the 
Ohio,  covering  a  total  area  of  nearly  thirty-eight  million  acres.  For  all  of 
this  the  remuneration  was  as  follows :  "400  blankets,  21  pieces  of  stroud,  250 
shirts,  12  gross  of  star  gartering,  120  pieces  of  ribbon,  24  pounds  of  vermil- 
ion, 18  pairs  of  velvet  laced  housings,  i  piece  of  malton,  52  fusils,  35  dozen 
large  buckhorn  handle  knives,  40  dozen  couteau  knives,  500  pounds  of  brass 
kettles,  10,000  gun  flints,  600  pounds  of  gunpowder,  2,000  pounds  of  lead, 
400  pounds  of  tobacco,  40  bushels  of  salt,  3,000  pounds  of  flour.  3  horses,  11 
silver  armbands,  40  wristbands,  6  Avhole  moons,  6  half  moons,  9  earwheels,  46 
large  crosses,  29  hairpipes,  60  pairs  of  earbobs,  20  dozen  small  crosses,  20 
dozen  nose  crosses  and  no  dozen  brooches."  On  October  18,  1775,  the 
deed  was  signed  in  Vincennes  by  eleven  Piankeshaw  chiefs.  Congress  refused 
to  recognize  the  validity  of  this  deed,  even  though  the  agents  of  the  land  com- 
pany made  many  efl^orts,  the  last  being  in  t8io.  A  portion  of  Lawrence 
county  was  included  in  this  treaty  as  the  land  here  was  originally  the  home  of 
the  Piankeshaw  tribes. 

In  saying  that  the  Piankeshaws  were  the  original  Indian  inhabitants  of 
the  land  of  Lawrence  county,  some  exceptions  must  be  noted.  At  certain 
times  the  Delawares,  Shawnees  and  Pottawatomies  acquired  a  part  of  this 
land.  However,  upon  the  first  advent  of  the  white  settlers  very  little  trace  of 
the  Indian  remained.  A  few  scattering  camps  and  burying  grounds  were  all 
that  constituted  the  Indian  occupancy  of  the  time.  The  towns  were,  even  in 
the  days  before  the  pioneer,  very  small,  and  unproductive  of  records  available 
for  history,  Heltonville,  Spring\'ille  and  Dougherty's  Mill,  on  Indian  creek, 
marking  the  sites  of  the  most  prominent  of  the  Indian  settlements.  Nomadic 
bands  fisbed  along  the  banks  of  Salt  creek  (We-pe-pe-moy),  the  east  fork 
of  White  river  (Gun-dah-quah),  or  White  river  proper,  which  was  called 


The  white  men  were  seldom  molested  by  these  roving  bands.  The  mur- 
der of  Pierre,  a  trapper,  supplies  the  chief  incident  of  this  character  in  the 
early  histoiy  of  the  county,  and  even  his  death  has  been  a  question.  The 
Rawlinses  were  liA'ing  in  a  shanty  in  Bono  township,  a  temporary  home  dur- 
ing the  com  crop  season.  Just  the  men  of  the  family  were  there,  the  women 
having  been  left  at  Maxwell's  Fort,  on  Lost  river.  Orange  county,  as  the 
Indians  were  known  to  be  on  the  warpath.  Arising  one  morning  the  men 
discovered  that  their  horses  were  gone.  Upon  returning  to  the  camp  they 
found  additional  evidences  of  Indian  depredations  there  and  they  immediately 
made  all  preparations  for  their  own  protection.  On  the  following  morning 
the  men  began  the  journey  to  the  fort,  meeting,  on  the  way,  the  old  trapper, 
Pierre,  who  was  told  of  the  presence  of  hostile  Indians.  ■  This  old  Frenchman 
was  on  the  way  to  tend  to  his  traps  along  Fishing  creek,  and  declined  to 
abandon  his  journey,  being  slightly  credulous  as  to  the  danger  from  the  tribes. 
The  Rawlinses  reached  the  fort,  procured  mounts,  and  joined  Captain  Big- 
ger's  company  of  rangers.  After  a  few  days  the}-  \entured  back  to  their 
former  camp  in  Bono  township,  and  disco\'ered  that  the  Indians  had  been 
there  before  them,  as  everything  had  been  destroyed  or  stolen.  The  old 
trapper,  Pierre,  was  missing,  and  a  search  was  made  for  him.  Finally,  his 
canoe  was  sighted  in  the  branches  of  a  tree  which  had  fallen  in  the  river. 
In  the  bottom  lay  the  lindy  of  tlie  old  trapper,  shot  through  the  heart,  and 
scalped.  It  is  almost  an  unquestioned  fact  that  he  was  murdered  by  the 

In  the  year  1810  two  families,  the  Flinns  and  the  Guthries,  built  a  fort 
near  Leesville  for  their  protection,  the  fort  being  located  ab()ut  a  mile  north 
of  the  village.  By  ]\Iarch.  181 5.  the  usual  vigilance  had  been  relaxed  due  to 
the  apparent  absence  of  Indian  trouliles.  A  band  of  Pottawatomies  suddenly 
appeared  from  the  north,  however,  and  swooped  down  on  the  fort.  The  men 
were  engaged  in  felling  a  tree  nearl^y,  and  were  attacked  before  they  were 
aware  of  even  the  presence  of  Indians.  John  Guthrie  was  shot  through  the 
breast,  but  retained  strength  to  reach  the  gates  of  the  fort,  where,  in  the  face 
of  the  Indian  bullets,  his  courageous  wife  dragged  him  inside.  He  was  not 
wounded  mortally,  but  his  comrade,  Josiah  Flinn,  was  toniahawked  and 
scalped,  which  caused  his  death  four  days  afterward.  Jacob  Flinn,  the  other 
of  the  three  attacked,  was  made  prisoner,  and  taken  to  the  chief  Pottawatomie 
village  at  the  headwaters  of  the  Wabash  river.  Forced  to  undergo  the  sever- 
est hardships  and  nearly  perishing  from  starvation,  he  was  kept  four  months 
in  this  Indian  village.  One  night  he  escaped  in  a  canoe  and  started  down  the 
river,  traveling  at  night  and  hiding  during  the  day,  subsisting  all  of  the  time 


on  frogs,  fishes  and  roots  of  trees.  He  at  last  reached  the  post  of  V^incennes 
in  a  desperate  condition.  Strangely,  he  made  the  statement  that  he  could 
have  fled  sooner,  but  he  wanted  to  wait  until  he  could  take  Guthrie's  axe, 
which  had  been  stolen  at  the  time  of  the  attack.  It  is  difficult  to  appreciate 
how  an  axe  was  worth  the  risk  of  a  life  unless  we  know  that  the  axe,  in  those 
days,  was  the  prime  necessity  of  life. 

Lawrence  county  has  scattered  over  her  territory  many  evidences  of  a 
prehistoric  race.  The  mysteries  of  these  early  peoples,  their  habits,  customs 
and  modes  of  living,  have  been  lost  to  mankind,  and  the  silent,  tomb-like 
mounds  left  have  resisted  every  effort  of  the  archaeologist  to  fathom  their 
dark  secretiveness.  The  [Mound  Builders  they  have  been  called,  because  no 
other  name  was  possible.  AA'here  they  sprang  from  or  whether  the  Indian 
was  a  descendant  has  ne^■er  been  learned.  They  existed  thousands  of  years 
ago,  but,  notwithstanding,  there  is  a  well  founded  supposition  in  the  minds  of 
the  scientific  world  that  they  were  further  along  in  the.  scale  of  civilization 
than  the  American  Indian  as  the  white  man  found  him.  "Not  entirely  voice- 
less, they  tell  of  a  people  who  once  possessed  the  valley  of  the  continent. 
Peaceful  and  law-abiding,  they  were  skilled  in  agriculture  and  the  arts  of  the 
'stone  age,'  and  executed  works  that  required  the  united  and  persistent  efiforts 
of  thousands  under  the  direction  of  a  well  matured  design.  In  the  compara- 
tive absence  of  war-like  implements,  we  conclude  that  this  work  was  a  labor  of 
love,  and  not  of  fear;  that  it  was  inaugurated  and  directed  by  a  regal  priest- 
hood to  erect  votive  temples  in  honor  of  the  sun,  a  visible  creator  of  comfort, 
food  and  life." 

There  are  three  types  of  these  mounds,  as  classified  by  the  scientists  who 
ha^•e  investigated  them,  namely:  IMounds  of  habitation,  the  temple  and  sepul- 
chral mounds.  The  sepulchral  mounds,  of  course,  were  for  the  burial  of  the 
dead,  and  inside  of  them  have  been  found  human  bones  and  diverse  instruments 
and  ornaments  buried  with  the  body.  The  tem]:)le  mounds  were  evidently 
used  as  a  place  of  devotion. 

John  Collett,  in  the  Geological  Survey  of  Indiana  for  1873,  writes:  "On 
the  southeastern  slope  of  the  hill  over  Connelly's  cave,  two  miles  east  of 
Huron,  is  a  group  of  seven  mounds,  from  two  to  four  feet  high,  and  an 
obscure  winding  way  may  be  traced  leading  from  the  cave  spring  to  the  top 
of  the  hill.  On  the  summit  fragments  of  sandstone,  reddened  by  burning, 
and  small  shell  heaps  are  seen.  The  mounds  were  probably  habitations. 
From  protruding  pieces  of  stone  seen  on  the  sides,  the  internal  construction 
was  of  that  niaterial  instead  of  timber,  as  was  usual  in  similar  structures  on 
the  Waliash  and  ^lississippi.     .\  central  tumulus,  having  a  double  circular 


wall,  was  probably  for  sepulchral  purposes.  A  mound  similar  to  the  last  at 
the  site  of  the  former  county  seat,  Palestine,  or  'Old  Palestine,"  as  it  is  called, 
was  explored  in  1870,  by  Messrs.  Newland,  Dodd  and  Houston.  On  the 
surface  of  the  hill  a  confused  mass  of  stones,  such  as  a  man  could  conveniently 
carry,  were  noticed,  indicating  a  circular  wall  twenty  feet  in  diameter.  It 
was  found  to  be  a  vaulted  tomb.  The  first  or  upper  vault  contained  the 
bones  of  many  women  and  children:  a  layer  of  flat  stones  divided  this  from 
the  second,  which  contains  the  bones  of  men:  another  la\  er  of  flags,  and  at 
the  bottom,  six  feet  below  the  surface,  two  skeletons  were  found  with  their 
heads  placed  to  the  east  and  faces  to  the  north.  The  last  were  persons  of 
great  size,  being  not  less  than  six  and  a  half  feet  high.  With  the  skeletons 
were  found  a  quantity  of  flints,  arrow-points,  etc. ;  near  the  head  of  the 
largest  individual  a  pair  of  hammered  cojiper  earrings  and  a  globular  'war- 
whistle.'  The  keen  noise  of  the  latter  ma^'  be  compared  to  the  sound  of  a 
policeman's  whistle  and  can  be  heard  nearly  a  mile.  .Stone  axes  and  pieces  of 
pottery  are  found  on  the  surface  near  this  tomb." 

Immediately  after  the  period  of  time  in  which  the  Mound  P>uilders  had 
their  existence,  there  was  another  race  known  as  the  fishermen.  Lawrence 
county  has  a  number  of  tomlxs,  shell  hea|)S  and  mounds.  Human  bones  and 
antiquities  supposed  to  have  belonged  to  this  primitive  race  have  lieen  found 
in  different  parts  of  Lawrence  county.  The  Indian  was  the  next  inhabitant  of 
Lawrence  county,  and  as  history  records  he  probably  came  from  the  ancient 
country  of  Scvthia  when  continents  were  formed  differently  and  Asia  was 
connected  with  the  land  now  Xorth  America.  The  Indian  was  a  cruel,  liar- 
barous  race,  and  their  position  in  the  scale  of  civilization  was  very  low.  Just 
treatment  was  extended  to  his  race,  but  he  reciprocated  with  murder,  treach- 
ery and  bloody  outrage,  and  today  he  is  approaching  a  well-deserved  extinc- 
tion as  a  race. 




Lawrence  county  was  at  first  a  portion  of  Knox  and  Harrison  counties. 
In  tlie  vear  1814  it  liecame  identified  witli  Washington  county,  and  in  1816 
a  part  of  Orange  county.  The  county  of  Lawrence  itself  was  created  in  1818, 
and  uanied  for  Cajn.  jaines  Lawrence,  a  Ignited  States  navy  ofificer.  com- 
mander of  the  frigate  "'Chesapeake."  Captain  La\\  rencc  lost  his  life  in  the 
battle  witli  the  English  frigate  "Sliannon." 

The  first  years  of  the  nineteenth  century  saw  very  little  settlement  in 
this  coiinlx-  1)\-  white  men.  Tlie  Indians  were  Iiostile  and  the  jierils  of  making 
a  home  -were  great.  The  slow  imnugration  of  the  trihes  to  the  West  had  not 
vet  begun,  and  the  ])ioiieer  hesitated  to  be  the  lirst  to  coni])at  with  their 
treacherous  tmstonis.  The  (Ibin  ri\er  was  then  the  a\-enue  of  commerce  to 
ihe  IMiddle  West,  and  conse(|uentl\-  the  settlement  i>f  the  state  ])roceeded 
northward  from  this  ri\-er.  The  ad\ance  was  slow,  made  so  by  the  necessity 
for  large  numl)ers  tn  keep  together  in  order  to  repel  the  Indian  attacks.  Not 
until  the  \ear  1  cS  n  ,  the  year  of  the  ])attle  of  Ti])i)ecanne.  did  Lawrence  county 
recei\e  auv  number  of  wliile  fanu'lies. 

Records  ^bnw  iIkiI  prolnlib'  the  tirsl  -settlement  of  any  couse(|uence  was 
made  at  the  spot  wbere  Lee'^x  ille.  Minn  tnwu'-hi].).  now  stands,  on  the  eastern 
bountlar\-  of  the  county.  The  settlers  of  this  ])lace  had  left  Lee  county.  Vir- 
ginia, in  \><c.(),  and  ])assed  the  next  winter  in  Kentucky.  In  l'\-bruary.  1810, 
they  came  to  the  aboxe  menlionecl  ])lace  and  liuill  a  fort  near  the  ])resent 
grist  mill  in  Lees\ille.  Tlic  Idock-house  comi)leted.  the  men  journexed  back 
to  Kentucky  after  their  families,  ddiese  families  were  the  (luthries  and 
Elinns.  who  were  attacked  In-  the  I'ottawatomies  later,  and  their  names  ha\e 
been  per])etuated  in  the  history  of  the  county  as  the  highest  types  of  honor. 
courage  and  self-sacrifice,  and  today  their  descendants  are  numbered  among 
the  most  respected  citi/ens  of  Lawrence  county.  Daniel  Guthrie  and  his  sous 
and  Jacob  and  William  I'linn  were  the  men  of  the  group,  and  each  was  a 
frontiersman  skilled  in  all  the  art?  of  pioneer  life,  in  hunting,  fishing,  farm- 
ing, and  in  fighting  the  warlike  tribes.  Daniel  Guthrie  is  noted  as  being  one 
of  the  Continentals  who  defeated  General  Braddock  prior  to  the  Revolutionary 



Flinn  township  is  situated  on  the  eastern  liorder  of  the  county  near  the 
center,  and  was  called  after  the  Flinn  famil\ .  whose  history  is  written  above. 
The  early  settlers  were  classed  as  .squatters,  or,  in  other  words,  men  who 
lived  on  the  land  without  an\-  title.  Not  until  the  )'ear  1817  was  there  a  land 
entry  made  in  the  tow  nshin,  and  then  thev  followed  in  rapid  succession.  Some 
of  these  were:  R.  HunlMU,  1S20;  Al.  \\'nr)le\-,  r8_'o:  Xoah  Wright,  i8ic;; 
Thomas  Hodges,  1817;  Israel  Hind,  1819;  John  Parr,  1810;  H.  Nichols. 
1820;  James  FJlison.  i8jo:  F.noch  Parr,  1817;  T.  C'arr,  1820:  Arthur  Parr, 
181Q:  Martin  Minn,  i8jo:  Patrick  Welch,  1817;  Noah  Wright.  i8jo;  Will- 
iam White,  rSjo:  1).  Minn,  1820:  James  Taggart,  1820;  John  (hithrie,  1820; 
Thomas  Flinn,  1820:  Benjaun'n  Drake,  1818:  ^\'illiam  Flinn,  1820;  J.  Allen. 
1820;  Hugh  Guthrie,  1820:  R  ihert  Flinn,  1819;  Penjann'n  .New  kirk,  1820 
George  Stell,  John  Speer.  Fphraim  1).  Lux,  John  IVespc}-,  Abraham  Suther- 
land, David  White,  .\lfred  .\le\ander,  Jacob  AA'eaver.  Abtses  Minn,  William 
Smith,  Flijah  Curry.  Micai.ah  I'oole,  and  Gamaliel  Millgar  were  early  resi- 
dents around  Leesville. 

Perha])s  tht-  uio^t  important  feature  (if  the  earlv  settleuient  of  Minn 
township  was  the  gri'^t  nu'lls.  .\  "stump"'  mill,  al  the  p'ace  where  Lees\ille 
now  stands,  was  owiied  by  Joliu  Speer.  and  wa<  the  first  uiill  in  the  townshi]). 
The  next  was  the  I'orgev  mill,  on  (iuthrie  creek,  a  half  nn'lc  from  Leesville. 
The  first  mill  built  here  was  constructed  hv  William  I'bnu  about  the  year 
1817.  This  structure  descended  to  his  son,  Robert  bdinn,  who^e  successor 
was  Andrew  Forge\'.  The  mill  bore  the  name  of  the  !a>t  owuer.  and  was 
in  operation  for  man\-  years;  in  the  year  i8_|o  it  was  run  by  horsepower,  the 
tread-mill  method,  although  in  a  great  many  cases  a  steer  was  used  in  ]jlace 
of  the  horse.  Hiram  fiuthrie  owned  the  nn'll  for  a  time,  and  then  it  jiassed 
into  the  bands  of  the  Hollands.  The  latter  owners  supplied  the  mill  with 
steam  motive  power,  and  three  -^ets  of  buhrs.  two  bir  wheat  and  one  for  coi-n. 
John  C.  \'ovles  wa'^  the  last  owner,  aud  after  he  discarded  the  pl.ant  it  re- 
mained abandoned. 

A  Mr.  Phillips  owned  a  horse  null  at  I'm  Hook  about  18.^0.  aud  nu  Pack 
creek,  northwest  of  Leesxille.  a  water  mill  known  as  the  McGlemery  mill  was 
built  about  the  same  time.  Fdward  Montgomery  possessed  a  water  mill  on 
Back  creek  in  1840.  operated  by  a  turbine  water  wheel.  This  mill  was  the 
last  in  the  township,  failing  in  1872  while  under  the  owtiershi])  of  Matteson 


Distilleries  were  also  operated  in  this  ])art  of  the  country  during  the  early 
days.  A  great  many  of  the  settlers  were  from  Virginia  and  Kentucky,  where 
"stills"  were  a  common  feature,  so  it  is  not  sui-prising  that  they  should  con- 
tinue the  practice  here.  Also  it  is  a  well  known  fact  that  corn  was  the  prin- 
cipal produce  of  the  pioneer  region,  and  the  facilities  for  conveying  the  crop 
to  market  were  very  poor.  Consequently,  the  corn  was  brewed  into  whiskey, 
which  commodity  was  easier  handled  and  yielded  a  better  profit  than  the 
grain  itself. 


Leesville  is  the  namesake  of  Lee  county,  Virginia,  from  whence  the  first 
settlers  came  to  this  locality.  Tlie  town  was  laid  out  in  June,  1818,  and  is 
next  to  tlie  oldest  town  recorded  in  Lawrence  county.  Bono  leading.  John 
Speer  was  the  first  merchant,  and  he  owned  a  small  huckster  shop  about  181 7. 
George  Still  began  the  same  trade  in  tStq,  and  was  followed  by  nierchants 
whose  names  became  well  kno\\-n  in  the  entire  county.  A  few  of  them  were : 
Turner  J.  Holland,  William  n\u-pen,  William  IMcNeal}^,  William  and  John 
Holland,  Norman  Benton,  John  Ferguson,  W.  C.  Richards  and  John  Hunter. 
In  183 1  Leesville  decided  to  incorporate  by  election,  and  accordingly  did  so. 
However,  the  incorporation  did  not  last  verv  long.  The  population  is  now 
one  hundred  and  twenty-five. 


The  two  Carolinas  and  Virginia  supplied  the  first  settlers  of  Marion 
township.  The  township  was  named  after  Gen.  Francis  Marion,  the  famous 
Southern  commander  in  the  Revolutionarv  war.  The  township  is  about 
sixty-six  square  miles  in  area,  about  eight  miles  square.  The  northern 
boundary  is  the  east  branch  of  White  ri\er,  the  south  is  Orange  county,  the 
east  Bono  township,  and  on  the  w  est  Si:)ice  Valley  township. 

Tn  the  early  fall  of  tlie  year  1815,  Lewis  Phillips  built  himself  a  cabin  at 
John  Tolliver's  upper  s])ring,  near  the  meridian  line,  on  the  southwest  quarter 
of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  31,  town  4  north,  range  t  east.  The  cabin 
was  made  of  round  poles  and  was  primitive  in  every  respect.  Ilie  last  of  the 
family  was  Mar}^  Ann  While,  who  died  near  Juliet  in  1883;  there  are  now  no 
descendants  of  the  Phillips  family  living. 

In  November.  181 5,  when  the  first  drear  signs  of  approaching  winter 
were  seen  in  the  seared  leaves  and  grav  skies,  Samuel  G.  Hoskins.  who  had 
broken  through  the  rough  country  from  South  Carolina,  pitched  his  quarters 


on  Rock  Lick  creek,  on  the  southeast  quarter  oi  section  19,  town  4  north, 
range  i  east.  At  this  spot  Hoskins  built  a  cabin  of  hewn  logs,  and  prepared 
to  brave  the  winter  through.  This  occurred  when  Phillips'  family  was  the 
only  other  family  in  the  townshii).  The  winter  ])assed  quietly  enough;  Indians 
passed  by,  and  frequently  st<)])ped,  l)ut  not  one  lixed  in  tlie  township.  Hoskins 
afterwards  became  prominent  in  the  affairs  of  the  county.  He  was  a  justice 
of  the  peace,  and  captain  of  tlie  first  military  compan\-  organized  in  this 
county  south  of  \A'hite  ri\er.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first  grand  jury,  was 
a  surveyor  and  a  teacher.  In  the  spring  of  i8i()  many  new  settlers  began  to 
come  in  from  North  and  South  Carolina,  among  them  lieing  George  Sheeks, 
William  Erwin,  John  Finger,  J(jsei)h  Pless,  Elijah  Murray,  Thomas  Rowark, 
John  Sutton,  James  Boswell,  and  Joseph  Roswell.  .\11  of  these  men  followed 
farming  as  an  occupation,  except  Rowark.  who  was  a  blacksmith. 

In  181 7  many  families  came  into  the  township  from  the  South,  and  built 
their  cabins  along  the  bank-s  of  AMiite  ri\-er,  and  in  the  valleys  of  Rock  Lick 
and  Mill  creek.  Roben  Hall  erected  his  home  on  the  George  Field  place. 
Squire  Hoskins  built  a  hcwn-log  on  the  old  F^^\■iu  ])lacc,  and  there  the 
first  election  Avas  held  the  nrsl  Monday  in  August.  There  were  thirteen 
voters,  ten  Federalists  and  three  Republicans.  The  former  were  Samuel  G. 
Hoskins,  William  Erwin.  Joseph  Rless,  James  Boswell,  Joseph  Boswell,  Elijah 
Murray,  James  Mathis,  Rol)ert  Erwin,  Thomas  Rowark,  and  .\rthur  Dycus. 
The  Rejmblicans.were  George  Sheeks,  John  Finger  and  Joseph  Culbertson. 
The  voting  place  was  afterward  changed  to  Hoskins"  new  home  on  the  Terre 
Haute  and  Louisville  road  until  1842.  then  the  jjrecinct  was  mo\-ed  to  Red- 
ding, thence  to  Woodville,  and  in  183(1  to  Alitchell. 

A  rifle  company  was  organized  in  r^larion  township  in  1817,  and  some 
thirty  men  enlisted,  a  few  from  Bono.  The  men  armed  themsehes  and  were 
clad  in  blue  hunting  shirts,  trimmed  with  red.  and  cap  with  a  feather. 

Some  time  previous  to  1815  Sam  Jackson — not  Samuel — had  entered 
the  southwest  quarter  of  section  32:  the  entry  antedates  the  Lawrence  county 
records.  This  fackson  was  a  Canadian,  and  had  seen  serxice  in  the  war  of 
1812  along  the  Canadian  border.  For  his  services  he  was  given  a  land  war- 
rant, which  accounts  for  the  taking  up  of  this  land.  On  the  tract  i';  the  noted 
Hamer's  cave  and  the  picturesque  valley  in  which  the  old  stone  mill  stands. 
During  the  period  of  Jackson's  ownership  there  was  a  com  mill  erected  there, 
close  to  where  the  mill  stood,  built  of  logs,  and  the  water  was  carried  from 
the  cave  by  poplar  logs  hewn  into  troughs.  AA'illiam  AA'right,  of  Orange 
county,  was  the  miller.  In  September,  T8r6.  Jackson  sold  the  land  to  Thomas 
Bullett  and  Cuthbert  Bullett,  and  in  the  spring  of  1817  the  stone  was  quarried 

i^.S  i,.\\vri;mi-.   and   monroe   colxtjks,   ixdiaxa. 

for  the  stone  mill.  In  1818  the  mill  was  linished  atul  was  a  model  for  the 
<la_\-.  The  lliil'etts  sold  the  mill  in  1823  to  the  two  Montgomery  brothers, 
who  im])ro\e(l  the  ijropertv  and  started  a  distillery.  There  had  been  one  dis- 
tilleiy  pre\ious  to  this  one.  owned  liy  William  IMallett  and  Dennis  Frost,  on 
Rock  Lick,  iielow  Tomlinson's  lime  kiln.  In  1825  Hugh  Hamar  bought  the 
property  of  the  Alontgomerv  boys.  i)a}ing  seven  thousand  dollars  in  seven  an- 
nual payments.  The  nevv"  owner  re-established  the  distillery,  started  a  store, 
gathered  man\-  laboring  men  about  him.  Iiaulcd  i^roduce  to  Louisville,  built 
flatboats  at  the  boat  yards  on  AA  bite  river,  and  shipped  flour,  whiskey,  pork, 
etc..  to  Xe\\  Orleans  by  water.  In  ^S'2()  the  tirst  postoffice  was  established 
at  Mill  Springs,  and  Hugh  Hamar  was  named  postmaster.  The  mill  property 
descended  to  Robert  B.  Hamar.  who  in  turn  sold  it  to  Jonathan  Turley. 

Lsaac  b'iglit  Iniill  a  mill,  with  overshot  wheel,  at  Shawnee  cave  in  1819. 
This  mill  passed  into  the  hands  (jf  Shelton  and  William  Smith,  and  they 
erected  a  distiller)-  in  connection  in  183T.  bTilton  had  a  distillery  at  the  head 
of  Fulton's  creek  about  18.2^,  and  ground  his  grain  on  a  treadmill.  James 
Beasley  also  had  a  distillerv  afterwards  at  Lind.^ey's  Spring. 

The  (."Av'.y  land  eiuries  of  Marion  to\\iis]up  are  as  follows:  (Tithbert  and 
Thomas  Bullitt.  1820;  Tetlow.  LTughes  and  (n^iger.  1820:  Moses  Grav.  1816; 
R.  Hall,  !8?n:  Aliraham  Flartman.  1818:  Samuel  Jackson,  1816:  Ambrose 
Carlton,  181  <^>:  Rolx-rt  Lewi^^,  1817  and  t8t6:  Samuel  lirown,  1820:  John 
Edwards.  1820:  John  Maxwell,  i8i<):  William  Tcrrilk  i8ir.;  William 
Tolliver.  1818;  Robert  IMcLean,  1817:  Williaiu  AlcLean,  i8if,:  Zachariah 
Sparling.  1818:  John  AA'orkman.  1817:  AA'illiam  Baldwin,  1817:  Theophilus 
Baldwdn,  i8tq:  Jesse  Hill,  !8r7:  Martin  Hardin.  1817:  AAilliam  Maxwell. 
1819;  Charles  Tolliver,  1817;  AAil'iam  ronuerly.  T8r7:  AA'illiam  Denny.  1818; 
Alfred  Maden  and  |ohn  Hav-,  1818:  John  Lowrey.  1817:  AA'illiam  Blair, 
1817;  John  McLean.  18 T7:  James  Fulton,  i8ir);  Lewis  Byram,  1817;  Henry 
Speed,  1816:  AA^illiam  Trueblood.  1816:  Jonathan  Lindley,  t8t6:  d.  Eli,  1817; 
Joshua  Tavlor.  \Rt~\  R.-.hert  Fields,  1817:  AA'iUkmi  Connelly.  i8t8;  George 
Hinton,  Jr..  Arthur  Henrie  and  Benjamin  Drake,  t8i8:  Ezekiel  Blackwell, 
t8i8:  JohU  Finger.  1817;  Joseph  Culbertson.  i8t8:  AA'illiam  Frwin.  t8t8: 
fsom  Maden,  1816;  AA'illiam  Carmichael,  t8t8:  Joel  Conley,  1817:  Josiah 
Trueblood.  i8r8 :  AA'ikiam  Connelly.  1817:  .Aaron  Davis.  1819:  Lewis  Phillips. 
1817;  Zeiiedec  AA'ood.  [820:  ?\licbael  Dunihue.  1817;  David  Harris,  ^S'^-■. 
John  Sutton,  1817;  Robert  Hollowell,  t8t6;  Robert  Fields,  T8r6:  Jacob  Piles 
and  Jonathan  AA'illiams.  181 5. 

Hunting  w^as  a  great  diversion  and  pa.stime  in  the  early  days  of  Marion 
township.      There  were  many  interesting  incidents  which  happened  in  con- 


nectioii  with  these  spurts,  the  hrst  of  which  ocrurred  in  the  fall  of  1816. 
Thomas  Rowark  killed  a  panther  near  his  caliin  on  Rock  Lick  creek.  Rowark 
espied  the  animal  in  a  tree  and  shot  it.  Everyone  went  to  see  the  lieast.  and 
all  pronounced  it  the  large.'^t  ever  seen  in  the  township.  The  animal  measured 
three  yards  in  length.  ^Nlany  hears  have  heen  killed  in  the  townshi]).  Xedd}' 
Edwards  chased  a  hear  into  a  ca\'e  in  .Allen  C.  Piurton's  orchard  and.  calling 
assistance,  smoked  Mr.  I'.ruin  out  and  killed  him.  In  the  same  year.  1820,  a 
party  of  hunters  killed  a  large  liear  in  a  ca\e  on  J(^hn  E.  Dodson's  farm,  just 
west  of  the  Solomon  Bass  residence.  The  last  bear  killed  in  the  township  was 
shot  from  a  tree  l\v  William  Edwards,  in  1821.  ,\n  interesting  and  amusing 
incident  occurred  in  1825,  in  which  the  chief  actors  were  John  Sutton  and  a 
very  credulous  bear.  Sutton  was  searching  for  his  hogs  in  the  woods  north 
of  Mitchell,  when  he  discovered  fresh  bear  tracks  in  the  snow,  lie  urged  his 
horse  on  and  took  up  the  trail.  Ele  had  not  gone  far  when  bruin  loomed  up 
before  him.  Sutton"s  horse  ca\orted  and  lieat  a  retreat,  leax'ing  his  rider 
lying  in  the  snow  and  within  arm"s  length  of  the  Ix^ar.  Sutton  was  too  much 
frightened  to  move,  so  he  lay  still.  Idie  bear  lowered  himself  c'nul  smelled  of 
the  prostrate  man,  then  unexpectedly  walked  away.  Sutton,  once  sure  of  his 
solitude,  arose  and  made  ol^'  in  the  direction  the  horse  had  gone.  The  many 
caverns  and  caves  of  Marion  township  were  ideal  homes  for  packs  of  timber 
wolves,  and  up  until  1832  it  was  next  to  imi)0ssible  to  raise  sheei),  for  the 
nightly  raids  of  the  jxicks  were  common.  1lie  sport  of  wolf  I'aiting  became 
very  popular,  among  the  most  skilled  being  ITugh  Mamar  and  llenjamin  Tur- 
ley,  and  it  was  not  long  until  the  animals  were  exterminated.  Deer  and 
turkey  and  numerous  other  small  game  w  ere  plentiful,  and  constituted  the  chief 
meat  supplv.      The  jiresent  p(^])ulation  of  this  township  is  6,482. 


Mitchell,  Marion  township,  was  named  in  honor  of  Gen.  O.  Al.  Mitchell, 
an  officer  in  the  Federal  arm\-.  who  died  at  Huntsville.  .Maliama.  in  1862. 
The  location  of  the  town  is  on  the  south  half  of  section  36.  town  4  north, 
range  i  west,  and  on  the  north  half  of  section  i,  town  3  north,  range  i  west. 
and  was  platted  on  September  29,  1853,  ''}'  ^^^-  ^^'-  Cochran  and  lohn  Sheeks. 
Good  railroad  facilities  are  afforded  the  people  of  this  town,  the  Baltimore  & 
Ohio  and  the  Chicago,  Indianapolis  &  Louis\ille,  or  the  .Abjnon,  passing 
through  the  town  at  present.  West  Mitchell,  an  addition,  was  laid  out  Janu- 
ary 17,  1859,  by  Jonas  Mnger,  and  on  November  20,  18(15.  there  was  another 
addition  bv  D.  Kellev  &:  Company.      Since  that  time  other  .additions  have  been 


made,  and  now  the  lo\sn  co\ers  quite  an  extent  of  territory.  Some  earlier 
merchants  were  Silas  Moore  &  Son,  John  R.  Nugent,  and  Robert  Barnard. 
J.  T.  Biggs  and  G.  A\'.  Dodson  were  early  druggists.  Sam  Cook  was  the 
premier  blacksuiitli,  and  J.  T.  Biggs  was  the  hotel  keeper.  In  i860  the  town 
contained  six  Imndred  and  twehe  ]:)eoi)le.  and  in  t88o,  one  thousand,  four 
hundred  and  forty-three. 


On  December  23,  18(14.  Mitchell  was  incorporated  as  a  town.  Joshua 
Budd,  R.  Barnard  and  Z.  L.  AV'arren  were  named  as  the  first  trustees,  and 
A.  T.  McCoy,  the  first  clerk.  McCoy  resigned  later  in  favor  of  H.  S.  Maning- 
ton.  The  same  officers  served  in  1865.  In  1866,  S.  Moore,  J.  D.  A'IcCoy  and 
F.  M.  Lemon  were  elected  trustees,  and  H.  S.  Manington.  clerk.  In  1867, 
the  trustees  were  S.  Moore,  J.  D.  McCoy,  and  William  .A.  Burton.  In  1868, 
S.  Moore.  J.  D.  McCoy  and  Z.  L.  Warren.  The  following  list  gives  the  suc- 
cessive trustees,  with  the  year  of  their  entrance  into  office,  from  1869  until 
the  time  of  incorporation  as  a  city :  1869,  W.  V.  T.  Murphy,  A.  L.  Munson, 
Samuel  Cook;  1870,  same  officers;  1872,  Allen  Edwards,  J.  P.  Tapp,  William 
A.  Burton:  1873,  Isaac  B.  Faulkner,  Isaac  H.  Crim,  James  A.  Head:  1875, 
Allen  Fdwards.  Dennis  Coleman,  Jacob  J.  Bates:  1876,  James  D.  Moore,  A. 
A.  Pearson,  David  L.  Fergurson ;  1877,  John  Mead,  I.  H.  Crim,  Milton  N. 
Moore;  1878,  John  O'Donnell,  James  Richardson,  Jacob  Bixler;  1879,  John 
O'Donnell,  James  Richardson,  Jacob  Bixler;  1880,  George  Z.  Wood.  James 
D.  Moore,  George  W.  Burton;  i88t,  Thomas  Richardson,  Wilton  N.  A-Ioore, 
William  J.  Flumston ;  1882,  Milton  N.  ]\Ioore.  A\'illiam  H.  Edwards.  Thomas 
Richardson;  1883.  Milton  N.  Moore,  Charles  W.  Campl)ell,  AA'illiam  H.  Ed- 
wards; 1884.  John  Mead.  M.  X.  Moore.  Thomas  Welsh:  1883,  A.  Edwards, 
F.  J.  Wolfe,  H.  II.  Crawford;  1886,  M.  N.  Moore.  H.  A.  Trendley :  1887, 
Abbott  C.  Robertson:  1888.  H.  A.  Trendley,  1880,  .Mien  Edwards,  Gus  Levy; 
1890,  Sam  Cook,  F.  R.  Elackwell :  i8qi,  Allen  C.  Burton;  1892.  James  D. 
Moore,  F.  R.  Blackwell ;  1803,  Milton  N.  Moore:  1894,  William  Newby,  John 
M'ead ;  1895,  J.  L.  Holmes,  Sr..  Ralph  Prosser ;  1896,  Charles  Coleman,  Ralph 
Prosser;  1897,  M.  N.  Moore;  1898,  Thomas  W.  Welsh,  Fred  R.  Blackwell; 
1899,  same;  1900,  David  Kelly,  M.  N.  Aloore,  James  F.  Mitchell;  1901,  David 
Kelly,  Henr>'  Scott,  James  F.  Mitchell:  1902.  G.  \A'.  Walls,  Lewis  Barlow; 
1903,  George  W.  Walls,  Hemw  S.  Scheibe,  Lewis  Barlow  ;  1904,  M.  N.  Moore, 
H.  Scheibe,  Henry  Chappie;  1905,  H.  S.  Scheibe,  Harry  Chappie,  and  Noble 
L.  Moore;  1906,  Harry  Chappie.  John  L.  Murphy,  and  N.  L.  Moore;  and  in 
1907,  Chapi)le,  N.  L.  Moore  and  John  T.  Murphy. 



On  July  29,  1907,  an  election  was  held  in  Mitchell  to  determine  whether 
or  not  the  town  should  be  incorporated  as  a  city,  under  the  statutes  of  Indiana. 
The  result  was  a  majority  of  four  hundred  and  nine  in  favor  of  incorporating. 
The  town  was  divided  into  three  wards,  and  an  election  ordered  for  August 
23,  1907,  to  elect  the  mayor,  clerk,  treasurer,  and  fi\e  councilmen,  one  for  each 
ward,  and  two  at  large.  The  result  was  as  follows :  Mayor,  William  L. 
Brown ;  treasurer,  Harry  V.  Shepherd :  clerk,  Clyde  A.  Burton :  councilmen, 
Thomas  W.  Welsh.  William  H.  Dings,  John  L.  Holmes,  John  B.  Sims  and 
John  A.  Dalton.  E.  Massman  later  took  the  place  of  Dalton.  Frank  L.  Dale 
was  appointed  chief  of  police,  Dr.  James  D.  Byrnes,  health  officer,  and  Sam 
S.  Doman,  city  attorney.  The  first  regular  meeting  of  the  common  council 
was  held  on  September  2,  1907. 

Mayor  Brown  resigned  on  January  30,  igoo,  and  Clyde  .\.  Burton  took 
the  office.  Perry  M.  McBride  succeeding  as  clerk.  Burton,  in  turn,  resigned 
on  June  11,  1909,  and  AVilliam  H.  Dings  was  ap])ointed  mayor  ])ro  tern,  which 
office  he  held  two  weeks.  William  Stipp  was  elected  by  the  council  on  June 
25,  1909.  At  the  regular  election  on  November  2,  1909.  the  following  city 
officers  were  chosen,  and  are  at  present  active:  iNIayor,  Joseph  T.  Dilley ; 
clerk,  Kenley  E.  Harn ;  treasurer,  Edward  M.  Keane :  councilmen.  Will  D. 
Ewing,  Joseph  A.  Munger,  hVank  Collier,  Alliert  Mi>rris  and  Walter  C. 

The  city  of  Mitchell  has  had  a  wonderful  growth  during  the  last  ten 
years.  The  population  by  the  census  of  1900  ^^■as  1,772,  and  in  iC)io  the 
startling  increase  was  made  to  3,438.  In  1910  the  total  assessed  valuation, 
less  mortgage  exemptions,  was  $953,505.  In  the  city  clerk's  report  for  1910, 
the  city  bonds  outstanding  amounted  to  $15,500,  which  has  since  lieen  reduced 
to  $13,700.  The  gross  debt  then  was  '$2y,-j02.  l>ut  this  has  l)een  lowered  to 
less  than  $23,000.  The  cash  in  the  city  treasury-  at  jiresent  amounts  tn  ,$4,563. 
The  electric  light  plant  of  Mitchell  was  established  in  February,  1907,  with  a 
one-thousand-Hght  dynamo.  Seven  thousand  dollars  in  bonds  were  author- 
ized by  the  council  when  the  subject  of  a  light  plant  was  first  forwarded,  and 
accordingly  the  money  was  borrowed.  The  plant  in  iqio  embraced  thirty-six 
arc  lights,  and  twenty-six  hundred  incandescents.  The  Central  Union  Tele- 
phone Companv  was  granted  a  twenty-five  year  franchise  on  July  \(\  1897. 


BUSINESS  inti-:rests  of  1913. 

The  present  attorne3'S  of  Mitchell  are  Calvin  Ferris.  John  VV.  Edwards, 
W.  H.  Edwards  and  Harry  Kel'.ey.  There  are  two  banks,  the  First  National 
and  the  Bank  of  Mitchell.  The  physicians  are  J.  C.  Kelley,  ].  D.  Byrnes, 
John  Gibbons,  George  Giblions  and  W.  C.  Sherwood.  Clothing  .stores  are 
operated  by  W.  T.  Moore  &:  Company  and  Jacob  Effron ;  Van  Ra\-  and  Reed 
&  Son  conduct  meat  markets ;  Samuel  fhay,  Harry  Sanders  and  Hiram  Gerkin 
conduct  blacksmith  shops:  Jnhn  Shamer  has  a  harness  sliop :  Harry  Clem- 
mons  and  N.  P.  Martin  are  jewelers:  in  the  lumber  trade  are  the  Randolph 
Lumber  Company  and  H.  FT.  Craw  ford :  Henry  Schiebe  is  a  tailor  and  clothier; 
Kate  Mischoe  and  Miller  &  Alexander  have  millinery  stores :  John  Clark  runs 
a  barber  shop:  W.  M.  Shanks  and  Emmett  Brown  have  furniture  stock,  the 
fomier  being  also  an  undertaker:  the  grocery  industry  is  managed  by  W.  E. 
Lagle,  C.  W.  Coleman,  Ewing  &  Son.  J.  T.  Dilley  &  Company,  M.  Mathers, 
J.  F.  Matthews.  Holmes  Brothers.  T.  J.  Wood.  AVilliam  Sutton  and  Terrell 
Brothers ;  John  Shanafelt.  Charles  Coyle.  F.  1^^.  Braman  &  Son,  W.  G.  Oldham 
and  William  Mantler  have  general  stores:  \A'.  A.  Burton.  W.  R.Richardson, 
Carr  &  Jones  and  M.  C.  Reed  have  drug  stores :  Noah  Cassiday  and  Smith 
O.  Smith  have  dray  lines:  H.  H.  Crawford.  W.  F.  Thorne  and  J.  F.  Collier 
are  grain  dealers:  Frank  Chastain  manages  a  garage:  H.  H.  Crawford  and 
Botorf  &  Simmons  own  hardware  stores:  Evans  i\:  Gordon  have  restaurants; 
Flarry  Sanders  is  a  veterinary,  and  R.  J.  Seigminnd  and  J.  B.  Gambrel  are 
denti.sts.  The  hotels  in  Mitchell  are  the  Putnam  and  the  Grand.  There  are 
(wo  newspapers  in  the  city,  the  Tribune  and  the  Coinntercial. 


In  1884  the  Bank  of  Mitchell  (private),  with  a  capital  of  $50,000,  was 
being  successfully  conducted,  and  it  was  doubtless  the  pioneer  bank  of  the 
town.  It  was  organized  in  September,  1882.  by  Milton  N.  Moore,  with  a  cash 
capital  of  $25,000,  which  it  still  carries.  It  now  has  deposits  amounting  to 
$350,000.  Their  liuilding  was  erected  in  1896.  The  Hrst  officers  were: 
Milton  N.  Moore,  president:  \V.  T.  Moore,  cashier.  The  property  was,  how- 
ever, all  owned  by  Milton  N.  Moore.  The  officers  at  this  date  (1913)  are: 
Edward  P.  Moore,  presiilenl  :  \\\  T.  Moore,  cashier,  ll  was  chartered  in 

The  b'irst  .\ational  Hank  was  organized  in  1903  by  William  A.  Holland, 
president:  Henry  C.  Trueblood,   vice-president:  A\'alter  \\'.   Burton,  cashier. 

I.  \\vj?i-:xcE  AM)   Moxi^oK   corxTirs.   ixdiaxa.  _^^ 

Its  first  capital  was  $25,000,  same  as  today.  They  now  ha\'e  a  sur[)lL\s  of 
$3,500,  with  deposits  amounting  lo  $180,000.  In  1903  a  hanking  house  was 
erected,  at  a  cost  of  $5,000.  The  present  officers  are:  \\".  Tl.  Burloii.  ]»resi- 
dent;  A.  B.  Hall,  \ice-president :  Walter  W.  Burton,  cashier;  Kdwara  M. 
Keane,  assistant  cashier. 

These  two  banks  afford  ample  lianking  facililic-  for  one  of  the  best  of 
the  smaller  cities  in  all  southern  Indiana.  Tlie  officers  and  directors  of  these 
banks  are  well  known  and  highly  respected  in  their  enterprising  city  and 
county.  The  financial  affairs  are  well  cared  for  and  depositors  never  question 
the  integrity  of  the  banks.  The  deposits  in  both  banks,  today,  show  a  good 
business  and  a  well  settled  financial  policy  in  the  community  in  which  they  are 


At  JNlitchell.  Indiana,  are  two  brancli  factories  of  the  Lehigh  Portland 
Cement  Company,  employing  a  thi>usand  men,  and  under  the  acti\e  manage- 
ment of  William  H.  Weitknecht.  1lie  daily  production  of  these  two  fac- 
tories is  six  thousand  five  hundred  liarrels.  The  raw  products  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  the  cement  are  iimestone  and  shale,  which,  after  being  pulver- 
ized to  a  fineness  of  ninety-five  and  ninety-six  per  cent,  on  standard  of  > me 
hundred-mesh  silk,  is  burned  into  a  clinker  at  two  tliousand  five  hundred  de- 
grees Fahrenheit,  and  the  resulting  clinker  is  again  ground  into  tlie  pulverized 
condition.  The  cement  from  these  factories  is  shipped  to  various  states  be- 
tween the  Alleghany  mountains  and  the  Mississippi  river.  All  the  exporta- 
tion is  done  by  the  Eastern  mills. 

The  Lehigh  Portland  Cen;ent  (,  ompany  is  capitalized  at  twehe  million 
dollars,  and  the  general  offices  are  situated  in  Allentown,  I^ennsyhania.  The 
main  sales  office  is  at  Chicago.  The  officers  of  the  comi)an\-  are:  Col.  H.  C. 
Trexler,  president:  K.  'M.  Young.  ( leorge  Ormrod  and  \.  \.  (iowan,  vice- 
presidents.  Ciowan  resides  at  Cleveland.  f)hio.  and  the  others  at  Allentown, 
Pennsylvania.  There  are  e]e\en  mills  in  the  company,  located  as  follows: 
Five  at  Allentown.  two  at  Newcastle.  Pennsyh'ania,  one  at  AA'elLton.  Ohio, 
two  at  Mitchell.  Indiana,  and  one  at  .Mason  City,  Iowa. 

Mill  Xo.  r,  at  .Mitchell,  was  Imilt  in  Mini  and  i()OJ.  and  null  Xo.  2  was 
constructed  in  11)05  and  \[)OiK  The  limest'me  i|uarr_\-  whicli  supi)lies  these 
two  mil's  is  located  at  Mitcljell.  but  the  two  shale  uuarrit-s  are  in  Jackson 
countv.  Twehe  hundred  acres  of  land  are  detached  for  factory  pnrposes. 
The  factories  manufacture  their  own  steam  and  electric  i)')wer. 



Guthrie  township  \\as  the  last  to  lie  formed  in  the  county,  and  was  named 
for  one  of  the  most  prominent  families  of  the  early  days.  The  township  was 
formed  in  the  early  sixties,  and  is  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  East  fork  of 
White  river,  on  the  north  by  Shawswick  and  Flinn  townshii:)s,  and  on  the  east 
by  Jaclcson  counlv.  When  the  countv  was  organized  in  1818,  all  of  the 
present  ( inthrie  township  was  included  in  Shawswick  township,  but  on  the 
formation  of  the  new  townshi]^  land  was  taken  from  Shawswick,  Flinn  and 

Although  some  portions  of  Guthrie  township  were  settled  very  early,  the 
record  of  land  entries  until  1820  is  surprisingly  small.  As  is  the  case  of  many 
others  of  the  Lawrence  county  townships,  Guthrie  is  too  hilly  to  be  valuable 
as  an  agricultural  region.  , 

Land  entries  until  1820  included:  Israel  Hind,  1819:  Ambrose  Carlton, 
1817;  Eflward  Johnston,  1820;  William  Barnhill,  1819:  John  Kerns,  1820; 
Solomon  Rowers,  i8r7:  Robert  Millsap,  1820;  Conrad  f-biopingarner,  1818; 
Thomas  Butler,  1820:  Daniel  Guthrie.  1816;  J,  Edwards.  1820;  Preston  Beck. 
1820;  Elisha  Simpson.  1820:  George  AV.  ^'lullis.  1817:  Cuthbert  and  Thomas 
Bullitt.  1820.  Others  included  in  this  earl\-  list  wvvc  Thomas  Dixon.  William 
Shadrach.  AA'illiam  Plolland.  Sr..  John  Allen.  Robert  Millsap  and  his  sons, 
A'Villiam  and  James,  \bncr  AA'alters.  Samuel  and  AMlliam  Foster,  Benjamin 
and  Isaac  Xewkirk.  Jriculi  Mullis  .nnd  John  Dowland. 

Probably  the  lirst  settler  of  Guthrie  township  was  James  Connelly,  a 
squatter,  and  a  natixe  of  Xorth  ("ardlina,  from  whence  he  came  to  (Grange 
count}-,  hidiana.  shortlv  afterward  seltbng  here.  The  vcar  was  about  1815. 
Connelly  brought  lu's  family  with  him.  and  for  their  home  he  built  a  doitble 
log  cabin.  .\m1)rose  Carlton,  with  his  large  family,  came  after  Connelly,  and 
in  1816  also  Pleasant  and  Ambrose  Parks  came  from  North  Carolina  to  this 
townshii),  after  a  short  sojourn  in  P>ono  township.  Tulward  Johnston  came 
in  i8i(i,  raised  a  cro]).  ,-md  the  ne>.t  _\ear  brought  hi^  family.  One  of  the  first 
mills  of  this  section  was  that  built  bv  James  Connellv  in  1817.  James  Heron 
later  had  a  mill  on  Guthrie's  creek,  and  Robert  and  Thomas  Carlton  also  con- 
structed mills.  Tn  1840,  the  latter  mill  burned,  but  was  rebuilt  by  the  owners. 
Distilleries  were  scattered  over  the  township,  and  were  of  \'arying  ownership. 
\A'ild  hogs  were  aliundant  along  the  streams,  and  ex'erv  vear  large  (|uantities 
of  the  pork  was  loaded  into  flatboats  and  started  for  New  Orleans  and  the 
South.  Wild  hog  hunting  was  one  of  the  popular  sports  of  the  day,  the  animal 
being  a  dangerous  foe,  much  different  from  his  domesticated  brother. 




William  and  Thomas  Dixon  platted  this  village  in  the  northeast  corner 
of  the  township  on  April  8,  1833.  It  comprised  twenty-four  lots.  The  first 
merchant  of  the  villas^e  was  Thomas  Dixon,  and  he  was  followed  hv  Elder 
T.  N.  Robertson. 


On  the  north  part  of  section  19.  township  4  north,  range  2  east,  on  the 
28th  of  April,  1859,  the  town  of  Tunnelton  was  platted.  An  addition  was 
added  in  1863.  The  first  merchant  of  this  thriving  little  village  was  Alfred 
Guthrie,  who  began  in  1859  witli  a  stock  of  merchandise.  The  first  drug 
store  was  owned  by  T.  L.  Linder,  w  Iid  was  succeeded  in  this  line  liy  L.  .V.  Crim 
&  Bros.  The  first  physician  was  Hugh  L.  Kimberlin.  Henrv  Kipp  operated 
the  first  mill,  which  was. of  the  steam  circular  saw  t^•pe.  :\lfred  Guthrie  be- 
came the  first  postmaster  in  i860. 

The  town  of  Tunnelton  at  present  has  an  ad\-antageous  position  on  the 
Baltimore  &  Ohio  railroad.  The  country  surrounding  the  village  is  valuable, 
part  of  it  being  the  most  productive  of  Guthrie  township.  Tn  the  commercial 
side  of  the  village.  Reed  &  Huddleston  and  Malott  Brotliers  own  general 
stores,  and  carry  a  large  and  varied  line  of  merchandise.  H.  E.  Elinn  has  a 
blacksmith  shop.  There  is  one  saw  mill,  operated  by  the  Tunnelton  Milling 
Company.     Dr.  H.  J.  ^Matlock  is  the  resident  physician. 

The  Knights  of  Pythias  haAc  a  lodge  in  Tunnelton,  and  in  religious  mat- 
ters the  interest  is  divided  between  the  ^lethodist  and  Christian  churches. 

The  present  population  of  Tunnelton  is  about  two  hundred. 


The  town  of  Fort  Ivitucr  was  named  in  honor  of  Michael  Ritner,  a  fore- 
man in  the  construction  of  a  tunnel  on  the  old  Ohio  &  Mississippi  railroad  . 
nearby.  Ritner  was  also  the  first  merchant,  having  started  a  store  while  en- 
gaged in  the  construction  work.  Later  merchants  included  the  firm  of  Reed 
&  Waters.  Moses  Wortham  and  one  Brosika,  John  and  William  A.  Holland. 
Gabriel  Brock  was  the  first  postmaster,  the  office  having  been  estalilished  in 


Bono  township  is  situated  on  the  southeast  corner  of  the  county,  and  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  East  fork  of  White  river,  and  on  the  west  by 

4^  ).  \\\R):.vci-:  axii   monroe   countiks.  indfaxa. 

Marion  luwusliii).  Due  tn  its  locatinii,  Ijcint^  near  lo  the  older  settlements  in 
the  smitliern  i)arl  of  the  state,  and  on  the  early  roads  to  the  north,  also  its 
place  on  the  ri\er  which  was  a  nnich  tra\'eled  hi^-hwav,  the  township  has 
alway-  claimed  the  hrst  white  settlement  of  the  county.  William  \Vrig-ht  made 
the  hrst  land  entr\'  in  the  county  on  Sei)temher  _'_',  i-'^i^.  The  entr}-  consisted 
of  one  luuidred  and  forty-two  acres  in  the  northeast  (piarter  of  section  5, 
townshi])  T,  north,  range  2  east. 

The  other  entries  up  to  and  including  the  year  \H20  were  li_\-  the  following 
persons:  Henry  I'ulton.  Septem])er,  1817;  Cuthhert  and  Thomas  ]^>u]litt. 
Se])temher.  iSjo:  j.  Hikes,  1820;  Richard  C.  Anderson.  j8_'o;  John  Edwards, 
J820;  Edward  Johnson,  1820:  Clark  EToggatt  and  Kitchell.  t8i8;  Thomas 
Blank.  r8n);  .*~^amr.el  Brown,  i8ir);  John  B>rown,  1820:  John  Fiammersly. 
r8[S;  Thom;is  jo!l\-.  iSji;;  r)a\i(l  (Ireen.  i8r8:  Conrad  Crass,  ]8r8:  So'omon 
Eitzpatrick,  j8io;  Pa\id  flumniel,  1818:  Asher  ^^■ilson,  1820;  Elisha  Simp- 
son, 18)7:  William  Hoggatt,  1818. 

Bono  townshi])  originnll\-  inclufled  a  pail  of  w  h;U  is  now  Marion  and 
Cuthrie  lo\\nshi])>.  heing  one  of  the  h\e  original  town>hi])s  of  the  co^untv- 
The  first  elections  were  held  at  the  town  of  Bono,  and  wei'e  under  the  super- 
vision of  Inspector  I^^Hsha  .Simjison.  In  i8i()  David  Creen  hecame  insjjector 
of  elections,  hut  the  \'oting  p'ace  remained  the  same.  Moses  Eee  and  Thomas 
Tolly  were  the  hrst  oxerseers  of  the  ]ioor  and  were  elected  to  the  office  in 
t8i().      Rcvhevt  Henderson  was  the  first  constahle. 

There  is  no  douht  that  Bono  townshi])  was  the  scene  of  the  second  settle- 
ment in  the  count\-.  Roderick  ]\awlins  and  his  two  ne])hews,  James  and 
Josejjh,  settled  in  the  '^])ring  of  181  .',  on  a  farm  in  section  22.  later  owned  hy 
^^'illi^ml  Turlew  and  near  the  \illage  of  .Scott xiTe.  1"hese  men  were  verv 
])rominent  in  ihe  earlv  de\elo|)ment  ()f  the  countv,  and  tor>k  acti\"e  jtart  in  the 
ranger  warfare  along  the   frontier. 

I'.eck's  iuil],  on  Bhie  ri\er,  in  A\'ashington  county,  was  the  ])lace  the 
earl\-  ])ioneers  did  most  of  their  inilling.  The  lau'lding  of  llaniar"s  n'i'l  \u 
Marion  townshi])  w  as  an  adxantage  later,  and  there  the  Bono  settlers  took  their 
grain.  Blowexcr,  mills  hegan  to  spring  uj)  in  numerous  ])laces,  and  the  task- 
of  going  to  the  nn'll  was  lessened.  John  Hammersly  made  a  business  of  Iniild- 
ing  these  mills  and  then  selhne  them  to  others.  In  the  rixer  at  B)ono  11am- 
mersly  constructed  a  grist  mill  ovA  of  the  ordinary.  He  luilt  a  coiie-'^lia])ed 
dam,  permitting  the  water  to  go  tlu-ough  an  opening  in  the  center,  at  a  ])oint 
where  a  large  undershot  wheel  was  ])laced  between  the  ilat-l)()ats.  The  buhrs 
were  on  these  l)oats  and  the  grinding  was  done  in  midstream.     This  mill 


worked  well  until  a  flood  washed  the  whole  construction  awav.     The  buhrs 
were  later  used  in  a  mill  in  Indian  Creek  township. 

Bono  has  the  (Hstinclion  of  beino-  tlic  oldest  town  in  Lawrence  county, 
having  been  settled  in  1816.  Tine  town  was  laid  out  (in  April  4th  and  the 
proprietors  were  W'illiani  Hogg'att.  Alarston  (i.  Clark  and  I()sq)li  Kitchell. 
The  first  merchant  tn  settle  in  I'ono  was  ^^■i]Iian^  r!o!land,  aliout  1S18.  (  )ther 
early  merchants,  mostly  "Down-East  Yankees."  drifted  in  during  the  later 
years,  some  of  tlie  more  ])romiuent  l;eing  John  Kelly.  Charle.s  Miller,  Thomas 
Lemon,  James  AW  Prow,  James  Batman.  AshL'r  Wilcox,  Ephraim  Brock. 
Uriah  Dilly.  .Mberl  loliu^^on.  |ohn  .Shade.  Thomas  \\'.  Stevens  and  Cabriel 
Harvey.  A\'alker  Kelso  is  known  to  ha\e  ])cen  the  first  physician  to  settle  in 
Bono,  and  A\'illiamson  D.  T)unn  was  another  earl\-  doctor.  Tames  (  )l(lham 
built  the  first  grist  null  here  Sometime  during  the  fifties.  Patrick  Callan  was 
prol;abIy  the  lir-t  ]iostmaster.  the  oft'ce  lia\ing  been  estaldislied  about  tlie  vear 

Bono  \\;is  one  of  the  most  fiotu-ishing  towns  in  the  couut\-  in  agriculture 
and  commercialism  until  the  building  of  the  Louis\ille.  Xew  A!I)an\-  ^':  Chi- 
cago, now  the  Alonou  railroad.  At  that  time,  the  trarle  was  drawn  to  the 
west,  and  Bono  ■suffered  immeastu-ably  ])\  the  change. 


The  \illage  of  Lawrence])ort  was  laid  out  on  Ma\-  17.  1837.  ''•^'^l  consisted 
at  that  time  of  one  Inmdred  and  se'/enty-nine  lots.  The  A'illage  is  situated 
at  the  mouth  of  Fishing  creek  on  White  rixer.  S.  1'.  Moore' ha-  the  honor  of 
being  the  ])ioneer  merchant  of  this  town,  w  bo  also  ow  ned  a  mill  there.  S.  B. 
Barnes  and  Henrv  Harnn-er  were  future  owmers  of  tiie  mill.  A  few  of  the 
early  merchants  and  store  keepers  of  Lawrenceport  were  William  Turlev, 
J.  T.  .Andrews  and  Brice  Xe^vkirk.  Dr.  Knight  was  ]irobablv  the  first  plnsi- 
cian  of  the  town. 


Of  the  three  townshijis  wdiich  form  the  northern  end  of  the  county. 
Mai'shall  is  the  center,  and  is  next  to  the  smalle^l  in  the  count}'.  The  town- 
ship was  named  for  John  Marshall,  the  eminent  chief  justice  of  the  United 
States.     Land  entries  were  made  in  this  townshii)  as  earlv  as  t8i6.  and  this 


is  hard  to  account  tor.  as  the  agricultural  facilities  in  the  greater  part  of  the 
county  are  poor,  the  land  heing  broken  and  hilly.  The  southern  portion,  how- 
ever, contains  some  excellent  soil,  and  has  been  the  scene  of  stone  quarrying 
on  a  large  scale,  the  stone  being  shipped  to  all  parts  of  the  country. 

Until  the  year  1S20  the  land  entries  were  as  follows:  Jacob  Hatta- 
baugh.  1816:  William  Curl.  1816;  Hamilton  Reddick,  1817;  John  Fairley, 
1819  :  John  Goddwin.  1818  ;  Robert  Anderson.  1819 ;  John  Hargis,  1816 ;  Will- 
iam Sackey,  1817:  Jesse  Brown.  iHi():  James  Culley,  1816;  Michael  Hatta- 
baugh,  1816;  Jacob  Bruner,  1818;  Henry  Brown.  1818;  John  Zumwald,  1818; 
Henry  Leonard.  1818:  Patrick  Tyler.  1817;  Nicholas  Bruner,  1816:  Will- 
iam Ouillen,  1818;  John  Dryden,  1817:  Joshua  Gullett,  1816;  /Vdam  House, 
1816;  Thomas  Reynolds,  1S17;  and  Absalom  Sargeant,  1817. 

The  first  mill  of  the  county  was  built  at  Avoca  about  the  }ear  i8u).  liy  a 
man  named  l-'itzjiatrick.  The  next  owner  of  this  mill  was  Absalom  Hart,  an 
experienced  miller.  ba\  ing  o\vned  a  mill  on  Indian  creek.  After  fifteen  years 
of  success.  Hart  sold  the  null  to  the  Hamer  brothers,  who  owned  the  mill  for 
ten  years,  and  then  sold  out  to  Levi  ^klitchell,  who  in  turn  disposed  of  the  prop- 
erty to  Dr.  Bridwell.  The  Doctor  sold  out  to  George  Thornton,  of  Bedford. 
Short  &'  Judali  were  the  next  owners,  and  while  in  their  possession  the  mill 
burned  down.  Samuel  Short  rebuilt  the  structure  soon  after,  and  in  1865 
Hayden  Bridwell  obtained  a  half  interest  in  it,  holding  the  same  until  1868, 
when  he  became  the  sole  o\vner.  The  mill  was  operated  by  a  turbine  water 
wheel,  and  had  tb.ree  sets  of  l)uhrs.  one  each  for  corn,  wheat  and  chop  feed. 

About  1830  the  Humpston  mill  was  built.  Tt  was  on  the  farm  later 
owned  by  Ephraim  Decker,  and  was  operated  liy  an  undershot  wheel  and  the 
current  of  Salt  creek.  There  was  but  one  set  of  buhrs.  The  plant  was 
abandoned  in  the  late  forties.  Kinser  S:  Whisman  erected  a  steam  grist  and 
saw  mill  in  1870  near  the  present  site  of  Guthrie.  This  plant  was  successful 
from  the  first,  and  in  1880  the  necessary  machinery  for  making  spokes  was 
added  at  a  large  cost. 

The  first  merchant  in  Marshall  township  was  Eliphalet  Pearson,  the  father 
of  Judge  E.  D.  Pearson  of  Bedford.  His  former  occupation  had  been  as  a 
keeper  of  the  ferry  on  the  Ohio  river,  at  Jeffersonville,  but  he  traded  that 
business  for  a  stock  of  merchandise  valued  then  at  about  five  thousand  dollars. 
After  this  he  moved  to  the  McCrea  farm,  in  section  5.  in  the  northw-estern 
part  of  the  township.  This  spot  was  on  the  old  stage  line  from  Leavenworth, 
on  the  Ohio  river,  to  Indianapolis,  stopping  at  Springville.  Bedford  and 
Orleans  and  Paoli  in  Orange  county.  Pearson's  ideal  location  made  his  ven- 
ture a  profitable  one.  and  for  three  years  he  conducted  a  thriving  business. 


He  also  owned  an  oil  mill  there,  and  manufactured  quantities  of  linseed  oil, 
as  flax  was  grown  then  in  this  locality  in  large  quantity.  The  method  of 
making  the  oil,  of  course,  would  seem  primitive  in  this  day  of  labor-saving 
machinery;  the  seed  was  ground  by  a  large  stone  operated  by  horse-power, 
and  the  oil  was  pressed  out  by  a  common  bean  press.  Later  Pearson  moved 
his  mercantile  business  to  Springville,  in  Perry  township,  w  here  he  continued 
until  1840.  In  that  year  he  constructed  a  wool  carding  machine,  operating 
the  same  for  eight  years.  He  also  started  a  tan  yard  in  1846,  but  a  few  years 
later  resumed  the  merchandise  business,  and  followed  the  same  until  his 
death,  in  January,  1863. 

In  the  town  of  Avoca,  while  operating  the  grist  mill.  Doctor  Bridwell 
opened  a  general  merchandise  store.  He  also  established  the  first  postoffice 
there,  and  acted  in  the  capacity  of  postmaster.  This  office  was  abandoned 
after  a  few  years,  but  was  taken  up  again  by  O.  A.  Owens  in  1866.  Owens 
began  to  keep  articles  of  merchandise,  and  built  up  a  good  trade.  The  suc- 
cessor to  Owens  in  the  merchandise  line  was  John  Heaton,  and  he  continued 
for  two  years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  he  removed  to  Newberry,  in  Greene 
county,  the  business  at  Avoca  being  conducted  by  the  Blackburn  brothers. 
Heaton,  however,  soon  returned. 

One  mile  and  a  half  northwest  of  Oolitic,  in  Marshall  township,  is  the 
little  village  of  Avoca.  There  are  alwut  two  hundred  and  fifty  people  in  this 
village.  There  are  no  officers,  not  even  a  constable.  Two  churches  provide 
places  of  worship  for  the  people,  the  Baptist  and  the  Missionary  Baptist.  L. 
S.  Stout  conducts  a  general  store,  and  P.  H.  Bedwell  owns  a  grocery.  Earl 
Martindale  is  the  barber,  and  the  physicians  are  Claude  Dollins  and  O.  M. 
Stout.     T.  A.  Hudson  is  the  postmaster. 

Winepark  Judah  was  responsible  for  the  laying  out  of  Guthrie  on  Decem- 
ber 10,  1865.  The  first  merchant  was  undoubtedly  W.  \\'.  Owens,  and  he 
located  in  Guthrie  about  1854,  at  the  time  of  the  building  of  the  Louisville, 
New  Albany  &  Chicago  railroad,  now  the  Chicago,  Indianapolis  &  Louisville 
railway.  Wesley  Brown,  James  Bryant,  (leorge  Bascomb  and  James  Tincher 
were  later  merchants.  W.  W.  Owens  was  the  first  postmaster,  the  office  hav- 
ing been  established  during  the  time  he  was  engaged  in  the  merchandise  busi- 


ness.      This  tuwii  lias  ne\  er  gTown  to  any  considerable  extent,  bnt  is  still  a 
small  hamlet.      In  1910  it  had  a  population  of  one  hundred  and  fifty. 

spjcp:  v.\u;ey  townsi-tip. 

Another  ni  the  h\e  unqinal  townships  in  the  southwest  [jortiun  of  the 
county  is  Spice  \'allev  to\\n>hii'.  The  i)resent  area  of  this  localit}-  is  aj^proxi- 
mately  fifty-two  miles  square.  l!ea\er  creek  flows  through  the  southwestern 
part,  on  the  west  and  south  it  is  hounded  by  Martin  and  Orange  counties,  on 
the  north  the  blast  fork  of  White  ri\er  is  situated,  and  on  the  east  is  Marion 
townshi]).  lM)r  the  most  i)arl,  the  land  in  this  townshi])  is  too  broken  to  be 
of  much  value  for  agriculture,  l)ut  is  well  suited,  for  g'razing.  The  grt)und 
along  the  i-ner  is  an  excention,  and  U  is  to  this  that  the  earl)-  settlement  of  the 
count\-  is  indebted,  l^i  the  \ear  iSjo  there  were  thirt\-four  purchases  of 
land,  while  in  Indian  Creek  townshi])  there  were  fift)-eight  during  the  same 
time,  thus  indicating  the  relaliw  \alue  oi  the  land,  'bhese  entries  were 
Simon  (iilbert.  William  T. indie)  ,  W  aufl  T.  Bullitt,  Iv^ekiel  Blackwell.  Jonathan 
Lindlex-.  .\cpulla  (iilbert.  1  lenr\  Speed.  Alisalom  Field,  TlK)mas  Lindley, 
Joseph  Hastings,  .\braham  lloladaw  Thomas  Coulter,  losiah  Trueblood.  Joel 
Connelly,  josiab  Connell)  in  iSUi;  josiah  Connelly.  Joel  L'onnelly.  Robert 
Fields,  John  Chapman,  (iideon  ("ouller.  Henr\-  Cosner,  Jolm  Connelly  in  1817; 
Jesse  Beazlew  .X'icbols  Koon.  |ohn  Uninn.  l)a\id  Bruner.  U'illiam  Cochran, 
John  Luttre'!.  Roger  McKnight.  and  John  Swaim  in  18  iS;  William  Maxwell. 
Francis  Tincher,  in   i8k):   bTn  Sander^.  William  Hoard,  in    iNjc). 

.M^saloni  b'ields  was  the  first  ins])ector  of  elections  in  the  townsliip.  and 
the  elections  were  held  first  at  his  home,  but  were  later  changed  to  the  home  of 
Richard  Beazlev  .  Josiah  ( 'onnelh-  was  the  first  constable,  and  Absalom  b'ields 
and  Joel  Coiniel'_\  the  'ir-t  o\  erscer^  of  the  poor,  The^c  latter  oftices  ha\'e 
long  <incr  pa-^^ed  out  o  i"  fxislfnce. 

Tlie  milling  industr)  of  Siiice  \  ;ille\  township  ni  the  earl\-  dax's  was 
mosll)-  confined  to  I  lamer's  niil!  in  Marion  townshiii.  in  the  eastern  part.  Ihitil 
1840  or  later  the  ]>eopk-  oi  ilu^  localil\  ])atronize(l  tbis  mill,  becausf  the  mills 
in  this  townshi];  were  snial!  ann  inadeijuatc.  Josiah  Trueblood  owned  a  \ery 
primitixe  horsemill.  .W-ar  iSj;o  a  horse  mill  was  in  o])eration  near  Bryants- 
ville,  owned  Ii\  llcnry  Weatliers.  but  Ikin  since  disa])]ieared.  I  )istilleries  were 
an  im]^orlant  fcalnrf  in  the  earl\  indnstnal  life,  and  inan\-  things  bawe  been 
attributed  to  the  largt-  jiracticf  of  making  b(]uor.  The  Rowing  s])rings  and 
various  features  of  the  land,  al^o  the  earl\  training  of  the  settlers,  contributed 
to  the  occu])ation.  b'shua  Barnes  c)\\ned  the  most  im]iortant  n\  these  dis- 
tilleries about  1850,  and  he  also  did  a  great  deal  of  fruit  distilling. 

I.A\\"KJ-:\'CF.     AND     .VldNROE     COrXTIKS,     INDIANA.  5I 

The  following  interesting?'  items  are  fi'om  the  ])en  of    I".  M.   Brinkworth; 

■'William  Hoard,  at  the  time  of  his  deatli.  in  1833,  owned  about  six  hun- 
dred acres  of  land  and  out  of  this  farm  the  town  of  Huron  was  platted  in  1859 
by  his  heirs  and  descendants.  No  one  of  the  earlier  settlers  has  left  so  many 
direct  descendants,  in  this  and  neighboring  townshi])S  as  William  Hoard. 
They  furnished  twelve  or  fifteen  soldiers  to  the  Union  armv  during  the  Civil 

■'This  township  was  settled  \er_\'  slowl_\-  until  about  the  vear  1850.  when 
the  land  entries  became  frecjuent :  a  large  per  cent,  of  these  entries  in  the  west 
end  of  the  township  bear  dates  between  1850  and  1858. 

"Owing  to  the  lateness  of  her  settlement  Sjiice  X^alley  cannot  boast  of  any 
Revolutionan-  or  18  ij  \elerans  and  only  two  Mexican  \eterans  (known  to  the 
writer)  sleej)  within  her  border>,  Joseph  liosler  and  (leoige  Brinkworth. 

"But  it  was  in  the  Cixil  war  thai  S])ice  \'alle\'  made  a  record  that  is 
une(|ualed  b\'  an\-  of  lu-r  sister  townsliips  in  Lawrence  county  and  doubtless 
b\'  few  in  the  entire  stale.  I  ler  (piota  was  always  ful!  and  the  draft  was  never 
resorted  to.  !  feel  safe  in  sa\-ing  thai  this  was  true  ol'  no  other  township 
in  Lawrence  or  the  neigliboring  I'ounties  of  ( )ra.nge  and  Martin.  I  dare  say 
that  there  are  more  old  >ol(!n'rs  residmg  in  the  vicinity  of  .Huron  in  propor- 
tion to  the  population  than  an\-  '-ommnnitx  in  the  state.  Iiai'ring  a  soldier's 

■■'I'his  township  wa'-  hea\il\  timbered  with  oak.  popkir,  walnut,  hickory, 
beech  and  ash.  l)ut  less  maple  tbrni  the  eastern  townships.  The  working  of 
this  timber  was  the  chief  inihislrv  from  the  time  of  the  building  of  the  Ohio 
&:  Mississip]ii  railroad,  wliich  was  com])'eted  about  1855,  until  these  fine  forests 
were  almost  entireh"  exhausted  some  twenty  \ears  ago,  since  when  more 
attention  has  been  given  to  the  cultivation  and  fertilization  of  the  soil,  and, 
while  the  im.iiro\emenl  in  the  methods  of  farnu'ng  from  yeai"  to  year  is  slow, 
yet  it  is  stead\-  and  perceptible. 

"1'he  schools  of  Spice  Waliey  were  few  and  the  teachers  indifferent  until 
about  the  Near  1857.  when  the  Legislatm-e  created  the  office  of  township 
trustee,  giving  the  s\'stem  «  auv  heail,  and  a  marked  improvement  both  in  the 
number  of  school  houses  and  in  the  character  of  teachers  is  noted.  John  \k-- 
Ginness,  one  of  the  old  teachers,  far  ,-d)o\e  the  average  of  tliat  time,  was  e'ected 
as  the  first  trustee  at  the  ,\pr;l  election.  1857.  I'eelected  in  1858  and  r85C)  (the 
last  time  for  a  term  of  two  years  )  and  served  till  18^1  .  at  the  Ajiril  election  of 
wdiich  \ear  Jesse  Coimerly  was  elected  trustee  and  served  continuously  until 
1868.  He  bears  the  unirpie  rlistinction  of  being  the  onl\-  Democrat  elected  to 
that  office  during  the  entire  history  of  the  township.      I de  was  not  of  much 


education,  but  possessed  a  remarkable  personality  that  drew  men  to  him.  The 
writer  regards  it  one  of  the  greatest  fortunes  of  his  life  to  have  known  Jesse 
Connerly.  He  lived  at  the  old  Connerly  Switch,  on  the  farm  his  father  bought 
in  1823,  and  he  lived  in  that  same  spot  until  his  death  in  1891.  His  home  was, 
a  rendezvous  for  the  neighbors  for  miles  around  and  the  traveler  never  asked 
in  vain  for  a  rest  at  his  place.  To  him  and  George  W.  Jones  must  largely  be 
ascribed  the  credit  for  the  good  showing  of  the  township  during  the  Civil 
war.  lliey  saw  to  it  that  the  families  of  the  absent  soldiers  did  not  want 
and  this  assurance  induced  many  a  man  to  go  to  the  front.  Mr.  Jones  still 
lives,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-six.  His  grandfather,  Thomas  Jones, 
settled  a  mile  east  of  Huron  in  the  early  twenties  and  on  this  farm  he  was 
reared  and  later  owned  it  and  collected  together  a  farm  of  over  one  thousand 
two  hundred  acres.  He  is  the  last  of  the  early  settlers  and  soon  will  sleep 
with  the  stalwart  pioneers,  by  whose  side  he  struggled  so  faithfully  to  build 
up  a  community. 

"There  were  many  noble  men  who  cast  their  lot  in  Spice  Valley,  but  this 
sketch  must  be  too  brief  to  mention  all.  However,  there  are  some  that  stand 
out  above  the  rest  and  we  will  mention  a  few  of  them.  The  township  is  in- 
debted to  two  branches  of  the  powerful  Burton  family  which  did  so  much  in 
the  development  of  the  sister  township  of  Marion.  Eight  of  the  ten  brothers 
settled  in  Marion,  but  two  came  to  Spice  Valley,  Hardin  and  Eli.  The  first 
was  a  Baptist  preacher  and  fanner  and  a  great  deal  more.  He  was  a  splendid 
type  of  man.  He  reared  an  intelligent  family.  Drs.  John  W.  Burton  and 
George  W.  Burton  were  his  sons  and  did  splendid  service  in  their  profession. 
Two  other  sons,  Isom  and  Hardin,  taught  many  schools  in  Spice  Valley  and 
were  instrumental  in  liringing  the  schools  to  the  high  plane  they  have  attained. 
A  grandson,  Jackson  i'.urton,  also  did  yeoman  service  in  the  uplift  of  the 
schools  of  this  section.  F(ir  the  last  twenty  years  he  has  been  engaged  in  the 
mercantile  business  and  is  now  a  leading  merchant  in  this  part  of  the  country. 

"Eli  Barnes,  son  of  Joshua  Barnes,  heretofore  mentioned,  was  one  of  the 
old  teachers  and  served  in  the  capacity  of  township  assessor  for  many  years. 

"Richard  Williams,  who  owned  much  fine  land  near  Port  William,  was 
among  the  most  suljstantial  and  respected  of  our  early  citizens.  Dr.  A.  W. 
Bare  was  another  leading  citizen  who  lived  a  pleasant,  gentle  and  useful  life 
in  the  l)eautiful  valley  of  Bn^antsville. 

"Spice  Valley  has  quite  a  deposit  of  kaolin  and  alluminum  clay  and  at 
one  time  this  industry  employed  several  men.  but  of  late  years  the  mines  have 
not  been  worked. 

"Some  of  the  men  of  recent  vears  who  have  been  most  active  in  the  affairs 


of  this  township  are  Leonidas  W.  Spencer,  Daniel  W.  Sherwood,  Thomas  J. 
Daniel  and  William  Trowbridge.  And  now,  as  T  close  this  short  story,  I  wish 
to  mention  one  of  the  latterday  and  present  teachers,  \A'il]iam  McNabb.  Since 
1882  he  has  taught  school  almost  cnntinuously.  I  Te  is  original  in  his  methods 
and  never  fails  to  inspire  his  pupils  ti)  strive  for  better  things.  There  is 
hardly  a  district  in  the  township  in  w  hich  he  has  not  taught  and  always  with 
the  highest  success.  Were  I  asked  the  question,  wliat  man  in  the  last  thirty 
years  has  performed  the  greatest  service  in  Spice  Valley,  the  answer  would  be 
without  a  moment's  hesitation,  "Bill"  McNabb." 

On  February  12,  1859,  John  Terrell  platted  the  town  of  Huron,  on  a 
part  of  the  northeast  ([uarter  of  section  6,  township  3  north,  range  2  west, 
and  in  April,  1868,  an  addition  was  made.  In  1857  Anderson  Beasley  began 
as  the  first  merchant,  later  was  succeeded  by  James  Coleman,  also  a  black- 
smith. The  first  mill  at  Huron  was  built  by  D.  Prosser  in  1857.  In  Janu- 
ary, 1873,  Huron  was  incorporated.  The  United  States  census  for  1910 
gives  this  town  a  population  of  one  hundred  and  ninety-seven. 


The  date  of  the  platting  of  Bryantsville  was  May  28,  1835,  and  Henry 
Connelly  was  the  first  settler.  The  town  was  first  named  Paris,  but  was  later 
changed  to  its  present  name.  Among  the  early  merchants  of  the  village  were 
numbered  Henry  W^eathers,  Tucker  Williams,  Frederick  R.  Nugent,  James 
Taylor  and  William  Weathers.  Alexander  Coleman  was  the  first  blacksmith, 
and  the  first  physician  was  S.  A.  Raridan.  With  the  passing  years  not  much 
growth  has  attended  this  town.  Its  population  in  1910  was  only  seventy-five 


Perry  township  is  situated  in  the  northw^est  corner  of  Lawrence  county, 
and  is  composed  of  the  congressional  thirty-six  sections  in  township  6  north, 
range  2  west.  The  name  Perry  was  given  in  honor  of  the  famous  sea  com- 
mander who  conquered  the  British  on  Lake  Erie  during  the  war  of  1812. 
When  Lawrence  county  was  organized  in  1818.  all  of  the  territory  now  in 
Perry  township  v^^as  a  part  of  Indian  Creek  township.  It  was  converted  into 
an  independent  township  on  May  14,  1822,  and  included  all  of  the  land  west 
of  Salt  creek  and  north  of  the  line  between  townships  5  and  6  north. 


The  following  is  a  list  of  some  of  the  early  land  entries  in  Perry  town- 
ship, including  some  of  the  most  prominent  men  in  the  county  :  Eli  Powell, 
1817:  Alexander  Clark,  1817:  Jesse  Davis,  1818;  Warner  Davis,  1816; 
Robert  Holaday,  [816;  Ralph  Lowder,  1819;  Benjamin  Phipps.  [818;  Mich- 
ael and  Mathias  Sears.  1817:  William  Newcomb,  1817;  William  Sackley. 
1 81 7;  William  Kern.  1817:  Thomas  Hopper.  1817:  William  Hopper.  181 7; 
Jonathan  Osborn,  1816:  Azel  Bush,  1818:  Isaac  V.  Buskirk,  1818;  Joseph 
Taylor.  i8t6:  Benjamin  Dawson,  t8i8;  Archibald  Wood,  1816:  John  Gray, 
1817:  William  Kerr,  1817;  William  Tincher.  1817;  Reuben  Davis,  [816; 
Seymour  Cobb.  1816;  John  Armstrong.  1817:  Samuel  Steel.  1817;  John 
Duncan.  1817;  Coats  and  Samuel  Simon.  1817:  John  Dishman,  r8i8;  Adam 
Hostetter.  1817,  Others  noteworthy  among  the  early  settlers  were:  Wesley 
Short,  William  Whitted.  Aden  (jainey,  Samuel  Owens,  Caleb  Odell,  Nathan 
Melton,  Kenneth  Dye.  John  Jarvis.  William  McDowell.  James  McDowell. 
Thomas  Cobb,  Dixon  Cobb,  and  later.  Noah  Bridwell,  Elza  Woodward, 
Zedekiah  Robinson.  Melcart  Helmer,  Samuel  Tincher.  Franklin  Crooke,  M. 
C.  Rafferty.  Milton  Short,  John  and  Thomas  Hert,  Thomas  Armstrong, 
John  Pledrick.  John  Rainbolt,  Andrew  McDaniel.  James  Beaty,  Booker  Wil- 
son, Martin  Plolmes,  James  Carton.  Eliphalet  Pearson.  John  D.  Pedigo. 
John  Vestal  and  A.  H.  Gainey. 

Milling  w^as  the.  chief  pioneer  industry  in  the  township,  and  the  first 
mill  was  operated  by  Benjamin  Dawson,  beginning  probably  in  the  year  1818. 
This  mill  was  a  very  primitive  affair,  and  was  abandoned  in  1835,  when 
water  mills  began  to  be  built.  Noah  Bridwell  conducted  a  horse  mill  run  by 
a  tramp  wheel  until  1840.  also  had  a  still  in  connection.  Wesley  Short  also 
owned  a  small  mill  on  his  farm  about.  1835.  In  the  early  forties  Levi  Butcher 
and  Eliphalet  Pearson  had  carding  mills  in  the  tow-nship.  and  they  carded  con- 
siderable quantities  of  wool  brought  in  by  the  farmers.  Pearson  sold  out  to 
Elza  Woodward,  who  in  turn  placed  the  mill  in  the  hands  of  Zachariah 
Purdy.  Under  the  last  ownership  the  mill  was  abandoned  in  the  fifties.  Cot- 
ton was  another  produce  raised  in  this  portion  of  the  county  during  the  early 
days,  and  several  cotton  gins  were  constructed.  Aden  Gainey  and  Samuel 
Owens  operated  a  gin  for  about  seven  years.  This  gin  gained  notoriety  at 
the  time  from  the  fact  that  Lorenzo  Dow  preached  a  sermon  there  to  one 
of  the  largest  crowds  ever  assembled  in  the  township. 

Hunting  constituted  the  prime  sport  of  those  days,  deer  and  bear  being 
very  plentiful.  John  Gray,  who  came  up  from  Kentucky  in  the  fall  of 
181 5,  became  noted  for  his  skill  as  a  hunter,  and  he  killed  enough  game  to 
support  his  family.     He  performed  the  feat  of  killing  four  deer  with  one 


hnllet ;  he  shot  two,  recovered  the  bullet  from  the  second  deer,  and  later  had 
two  others  lined  up  for  a  shot,  using-  the  same  slug  of  lead. 


Samuel  Owens  laid  out  the  \illage  of  Springville  on  July  ii,  1832,  on 
section  22,  in  the  central  portion  of  Perry  township.  Later  additions  were 
made  in  1836  and  1846.  Samufel  Owens  himself  was  the  first  merchant,  and 
he  began  about  1825.  Other  men  followed  him,  some  of  whom  were  A.  H. 
Gainey,  John  Vestal,  Eliphalet  Pearson,  Giles  Gainey,  Samuel  Reddle,  Cor- 
nelius Wells,  Franklin  Crooke,  Jabez  Owen,  Thomas  Butler,  Winepark 
Judah,  Dr.  W.  B.  Woodward,  James  Tincher,  J.  E.  Dean.  The  postoffice 
was  established  in  1825,  and  Samuel  Owens  was  the  first  postmaster.  Jabez 
Owens  was  the  first  blacksmith.  Henry  Lingle  was  the  first  doctor  to  locate 
in  the  village,  and  he  came  in  about  1835.  Springville  today  has  about  three 
hundred  population  and  the  usual  number  of  stores  and  shops  found  in 
towns  of  its  size.     Its  people  are  seeminglv  contented  and  happy- 


Indian  Creek  township  is  the  center  one  of  the  three  which  form  the 
western  border  of  I^awrence  county.  The  name  is  taken  from  the  creek  that 
enters  at  the  northwest  corner,  leaving  near  the  southwest  corner.  Salt 
creek  and  the  Fast  fork  of  White  river  form  the  eastern  and  southern  bound- 
aries. The  township  is  one  of  the  original  live,  and  now  is  much  smaller 
than  at  first,  at  present  comprising  about  fifty-three  square  miles.  In  the 
agricultural  life  of  the  county  this  township  stands  very  high,  by  \  irtue  of 
the  excellence  of  the  soil.  The  ground  is  rich  bottom  land  in  most  places  and 
is  very  productive,  although  not  the  most  valuable  in  this  resj)ect  in  the 

A  few  of  the  men  who  entered  land  in  this  township  during  the  days  up 
until  1820  were:  Henry  Speed,  John  Towell,  Simon  Ruebottom,  Benjamin 
Beeson,  Silas  Dixon,  Jonathan  Lindley,  Ephraim  Lee,  Isaac  Williams,  Joseph 
Richardson,  Seymour  Cobb,  Archibald  Wood,  Felter  Hughes,  James  Gallon, 
David  Sears,  Jesse  Towell.  and  Peyton  Wilson,  in  1816;  David  Ribelin, 
James  Duncan.  Adam  Siler,  John  Duncan,  John  Cloud,  John  Roberts,  Reu- 
ben Short,  Jeremiah  Boone,  Elijah  Boone,  John  Rochester,  Wesley  Short, 
John  Crook,  Daniel  Todd,  Abraham  Kern,  Robert  Garton  and  R.  Browning, 
William   Dillard,   John   and    Michael    Waggoner.   Joseph    Sargeant.    Henry 


Waggoner,  Elbert  Howard,  Sullivan  and  Duncan,  John  Duncan,  in  1817; 
Robert  Wood,  William  Gartin,  Henry  PiersoU,  Holland  Pitman,  William 
Dougherty,  James  JNIulloy,  Isaac  Waggoner,  William  Cochran,  Robert  Mit- 
chell, Peyton  W^ilson  and  Martin  Ribelin,  in  1818;  Andrew  Howard,  Sterling 
Sims,  John  Short,  Albert  Howard.  Benjamin  Chestnut  and  William  Wood- 
run,  in  1819:  John  Donaldson,  in  1820. 

The  iirst  elections  of  Indian  Creek  township  were  held  by  Joseph  Sulli- 
van as  inspector  at  Stepp's,  but  a  little  later  were  held  at  the  house  of  Samuel 
Owens,  not  far  from  the  present  site  of  Springville.  James  Cully  held  the 
office  of  constable  for  the  first  time,  and  Patrick  and  Adam  Tyler  were  over- 
seers of  the  township  poor  in  1819.  In  1822,  when  Perry  township  was 
formed  out  of  part  of  Indian  Creek,  the  southern  border  was  extended  to 
White  river,  and  the  election  place  changed  to  the  house  of  Frederick  Hamer. 

In  the  early  days  of  Indian  Creek  township  there  were  many  grist  mills 
situated  within  her  borders.  One  of  the  earliest  was  situated  on  Indian 
creek,  and  was  operated  by  water  power.  Robert  Dougherty  operated  it  in 
the  year  1818,  and  then  sold  it  to  a  man  named  Bowers.  Henry  Purcell 
owned  it  next,  and  in  his  hands  it  was  shut  doAvn.  John  Craig,  in  1824, 
built  a  horse  mill  on  his  farm,  and  ran  it  successfully  for  about  ten  years. 
This  mill  failing.  Mr.  Craig  erected  a  new-  and  better  one.  which  descended 
to  his  son,  Robert  Craig.  Elijah  Garton  had  a  "corn  cracker"  near  what  is 
now  Fayetteville.  and  the  power  was  furnished  by  an  inclined  wheel  and  a 
voung  steer.  John  Short,  Simon  Ruebottom,  Oliver  Cox  and  Isaac  Rector 
also  owned  small  mills. 

The  making  of  salt  was  at  one  time  a  good  industry  in  the  township. 
The  value  of  the  product  was  high,  due  to  the  poor  transportation  facilities 
with  the  outside  world.  In  1824  Joseph  Laughlin  dug  a  salt  well  on  the  farm 
owned  l:)y  Jackson  Kern,  but  the  produce  was  not  sufficient  to  pay  for  the 
expense  of  manufacture. 

Samuel  Simons,  one  of  the  earlier  settlers,  kept  a  tavern  where  Fayette- 
ville now  stands.  The  bill  of  fare  was  very  simple,  consisting  at  times  of 
roasting  ears  and  sweet  milk,  for  ^^hich  a  sum  of  twenty-five  cents  was 
charged.  This  tavern  was  kept  for  a  period  of  two  years,  when  the  owner 
abandoned  it  and  went  to  farming.  Among  the  first  merchants  was  John 
Vestal,  who  came  to  Fayetteville  in  1816  or  1817.  and  there  set  up  a  stock 
of  merchandise  in  a  log  house.  He  replenished  his  stock  from  Louisville,  the 
goods  being  hauled  from  there  in  wagons.  Frederick  Hamer  also  undertook 
the  merchandise  trade  in  1826.  and  enjoved  a  verv  lucrative  trade. 



On  the  banks  of  the  East  fork  of  White  river,  in  the  southwestern 
portion  of  Indian  Ceek  township,  is  situated  the  A'illage  of  Williams,  located 
on  the  Chicago,  Terre  Haute  &  Southeastern  railroad.  The  village  is  one  of 
the  most  individual  in  its  artistic  beauty  of  any  in  the  county.  The  houses 
are  built  upon  and  at  the  base  of  a  thickly  wooded  hill,  and  the  winding  bank 
of  White  river  encloses  the  whole  into  a  spot  of  natural  lieauty  and  uncon- 
ventional form. 

There  are  three  hundred  and  fifty  people  in  Williams.  McCarty  &  Fer- 
guson, C.  Wagner,  Mundy  Brothers,  and  J.  H.  Beavers  own  the  general 
stores  and  have  complete  stocks.  S.  O.  McClung,  "the  prophet  of  Eden," 
conducts  a  hotel  and  store.  H.  Barnes,  Z.  R.  Craig  and  J-  L.  Sullivan  have 
blacksmith  shops.    The  physician  is  J.  T.  McFarlin. 

One  church  is  located  here,  the  Church  of  Christ.  The  Independent 
Order  of  Odd  Fellows  and  the  Knights  of  Pythias  both  have  lodges  in 
Williams,  the  former  having  been  established  in  1907. 


One  of  the  strongest,  if  not  the  strongest,  contributing  forces  to  the 
importance  of  Williams  is  the  presence  of  the  main  station  of  the  Southern 
Indiana  Power  Company  on  White  river,  just  below  the  village.  This  plant 
was  built  during  the  years  1910  and  191 1,  and  its  purpose  is  to  supply  the 
stone  industiy  of  Indiana  with  electrical  power.  The  plant  also  lights  the 
villages  of  the  surrounding  country  and  the  cities  of  Bedford  and  Blooming- 
ton.  There  is  at  present  a  sub-station  located  at  Bedford,  one  at  Blooming- 
ton,  and  one  near  Saunders.  The  officers  of  the  company  are :  H.  C.  Still- 
well,  president ;  H  M.  Mansfield,  vice-president,  and  Charles  B.  Fletcher, 
secretary-treasurer.  The  construction  of  the  plant  was  in  charge  of  the 
Mansfield  Engineering  Company,  F.  H.  Burnette,  chief  engineer,  and  the 
electrical  equipment  and  apparatus  was  designed  by  the  Easterline  Company, 
and  installed  by  D.  G.  Angus,  who  is  the  present  general  manager. 

The  present  generating  capacity  is  8,000  K. :  4,000  K.  water  and  4,000 
K.  of  steam  being  generated.  The  plant  is  equipped  with  a  hollow,  rein- 
forced concrete  dam,  three  hundred  feet  long,  spanning  the  river,  and  it 
impounds  the  water  to  the  water  wheels,  which  are  directly  connected  to 
umbrella-type  generators.  There  are  four  of  these  units,  1,000  K.  each,  and 
with  a  maximum  available  head  of  seventeen  feet.     The  steam  plant  consists 


of  two  750  K.  generators  directly  connected  to  steam  turbines,  and  one  2,500 
K.  generator,  directly  connected.  A  2.442  horse-power  boiler  is  being  in- 
.stalled.  From  the  main  station  power  is  transmitted  to  the  sub-station  at 
Bedford  over  double  transmission  lines,  supported  on  steel  towers.  A  trans- 
mission line  is  being  constructed  from  Bedford  to  Bloomington. 


The  village  of  Fayetteville  was  laid  out  on  February  6.  1838.  by  Ezra 
Kern,  and  in  October.  1874.  an  addition  was  made  to  the  original  by  Noah 
Kern.  Near  the  year  t8i8  John  Vestal  opened  up  the  first  merchandising 
house,  his -place  being  constructed  of  logs,  and  his  stock  very  small,  but  large 
for  the  dav.  The  goods  in  his  store  were  hauled  by  wagon  from  T.ouisville, 
Kentucky.  Solomon  R.  Frazier.  Ambrose  Kern.  .Ambrose  Parks,  Robert 
Boyd.  William  C.  Pitman.  Milton  Short.  John  Lackey.  Ezra  Kern  and 
George  W.  Morris  were  later  merchants  The  earlier  doctors  of  the  village 
were  E.  F.  Allen  and  Harvey  Voyles.  Tn  1910  Fayetteville  had  a  population 
of  about  one  hundred  and  twenty-five,  being  a  mere  country  town  trading 


Robert  C.  McAfee  platted  the  village  of  Silvenille  in  1855.  on  the  26th 
of  July,  and  the  whole  originally  comprised  seventy-six  lots.  Eewis  J. 
Baker  was  probably  the  first  merchant,  doing  business  here  as  early  as  1850. 
Soon  after  Wallace  Craig  joined  him.  Dr.  S.  D.  Honnochre  was  a  druggist 
and  doctor,  also  Dr.  J.  S.  Blackburn.  J.  E.  Kera  owmed  a  valuable  grist 
mill,  operated  by  steam  power.  In  1910  the  census  .tables  show  this  town 
to  have  a  population  of  two  hundred  and  seventy. 


The  northeast  corner  of  Lawrence  county  is  the  location  of  Pleasant 
Run  tow-nship,  and  it  was  created  when  the  county  was  organized  in  1818. 
The.towmship  now  comprises  sixty  sections,  being  all  of  township  6  north, 
range  i  east,  and  the  western  half  of  township  6  north,  range  2  east.  As  in 
Spice  Valley  township,  the  land  is  much  too  rough  to  be  of  great  value  for 
crops,  although  along  the  streams  may  be  found  some  excellent  land.  Back, 
Leatherwood,  Little  Salt  and  Pleasant  creeks  cross  the  township,  and  from 
the  latter  the  name  is  derived.      In  the  list  of  Lawrence  cotmty  townships 


Pleasant  Run  had  the  fewest  settlers  until  1829,  having  but  twenty-three  land 
entries,  as  follows:  Jesse  Gilstrap,  1820:  William  Clark,  1820:  Adam  Hel- 
ton. 1820;  William  J.  Anderson,  1818;  Arnold  Helton,  i8t8;  E.  Terrill, 
1820;  Heirs  of  Abraham  Martin,  r82o;  Rene  Julin.  1818;  R.  Brooks,  1820: 
Samuel  Gwathney.  1820;  Joseph  Dayton.  1816:  Joseph  Trimble.  1820;  E. 
Parr,  1820;  Edmund  Garrison,  1820;  James  Mundell.  1816;  John  McClellan, 
1820;  David  McKinney.  t8t6;  Edward  Moore.  1820;  Cuthbert  and  Thomas 
Bullitt,  1820;  Vana  Wilson.  1817;  Jacob  Woolerv.  1820:  Edward  Tewell. 
1820;  and  John  N.  Nichols.  1817. 

Mills  and  distilleries  were  the  chief  vocations  during-  the  early  days  of 
the  county.  Adam  Helton  and  a  man  named  Alitchell  owned  a  few  of  these 
mills,  but  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  water  they  were  compelled  to  wait 
until  a  storm  before  they  could  grind  at  all.  Among  the  distilleries  probablv 
the  most  important  one  was  that  kept  by  William  Glark,  familiarlv  called 
Billy.     John  Hunter  also  kept  a  still  on  his  farm. 

The  first  elections  of  the  township  were  held  at  the  home  of  Joseph 
Dayton,  with  Thomas  Henton  as  inspector.  William  Fish  and  Drury  Mobley 
were  overseers  of  the  poor  in  the  township. 


The  town  of  Heltonville.  I^leasant  Run  township,  was  platted  on  Septem- 
ber 8.  1845.  ^y  Andrew  Helton,  on  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  26,  towmship  6  north,  range  i  east.  The  town  originally  comprised 
twenty-seven  lots,  but  since  that  time  several  additions  have  been  made,  en- 
larging the  town.  Before  1839  Andrew  Helton  opened  the  first  merchandise 
store,  first  being  a  partner  of  William  Templeton.  Houston  &  Ragsdale  were 
also  among  the  first  merchants.  J.  C.  Foster,  John  R.  Browning,  George 
Brock,  A.  M.  Ramsey,  J.  W.  Browning,  William  Logan.  James  vS.  Denniston. 
William  Elston,  Jefferson  Ragsdale.  W.  C.  Denniston.  M.  D.  Reid  and  An- 
drew S.  Fountain,  Dr.  W.  T.  Ellison  were  following  merchants  and  business 
men  of  the  town.  David  Carson  was  one  of  the  first  blacksmiths,  and  John 
Raney,  Ziba  Owens,  the  Hamer  brothers.  I.uke.  James  and  John,  and  John 
Lane  were  wagon  makers. 

The  present  population  of  Heltonville  is  about  four  hundred  and  fifty. 
The  town  has  no  officers  other  than  the  township  justices  of  peace.  William 
F.  Kinser  and  William  Stackleather.  G.  N.  Norman  and  B  L.  Store  have 
general  stores ;  J.  S.  Hanna,  the  postmaster,  conducts  a  drug  store ;  Don 
Browning  has  a  saw  mill  and  the  grain  mill  is  run  by  the  Williams  Milling 


Company:  J-  M.  Butchre,  the  East  brothers,  W.  M.  and  George  W.,  are 
blacksmiths ;  J.  W.  Grubb  has  a  dray  Hne ;  Otto  White  is  the  proprietor  of  the 
hotel;  R.  E.  Martin  has  a  drug  stock;  D.  B.  Stafford  is  an  undertaker;  Rags- 
dale  &  Alexander  also  ha^e  a  general  store,  and  L.  R.  Thompson  owns  a 
barber  shop.  The  ])hysicians  are  Drs.  Jasper  Cain.  W.  T.  Ellison  and  Ptrvy 

There  are  tliree  churches  in  Heltonville,  the  ATethodist,  the  Baptist  and 
the  Church  of  Christ.  The  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  have  a  lodge 
in  Heltonville.  No.  532.  which  was  granted  a  charter  May  18,  1876.  The  first 
noble  and  vice  grands  were  William  Denniston  and  G.  T.  Starr,  and  the 
original  lodge  started  with  ten  meiubers.  The  IMasons  also  had  a  charter  in 
Heltonville  in  the  early  fifties  and  until  1822,  when  the  charter  was  sur- 
rendered, and  their  liuilding  sold  to  the  Odd  Fellows.  Major  Bemen  was  the 
first  worshipful  master.  There  are  many  men  in  Heltonville,  however,  who 
belong  to  outside  bodies  of  the  Masonic  order. 


In  the  central  part  of  tlie  countv  is  Shawswick  township.  On  the  south 
the  East  fork  of  White  river  flows,  and  on  the  west  Salt  creek.  The  land 
adjacent  to  these  streams  comprises  the  best  agricultural  ground  within  the 
borders  of  the  county.  Also,  Leatherwood  creek  flows  diagonally  across  the 
townshi])  from  northeast  to  southwest,  and  the  land  through  which  this 
stream  flows  is  named  the  Leatherwood  district,  and  is  famous  for  the  rich- 
ness and  fertility  of  the  soil.  Nearly  all  the  land  to  the  east  of  Bedford  is 
under  cultivation  and  the  farms  are  supplied  with  the  latest  and  best  im- 
provements all  indicative  of  the  prosperity  of  the  region.  The  bottom  land 
along  \\'hite  river  is  a  strong  rival  of  the  land  of  the  Leatherwood  district, 
and  it  is  exen  claimed  by  some  to  be  richer.  The  number  of  land  entries 
made  prior  to  and  in  1820  proves  how  inviting  the  locality  was  to  the  settler 
coming  on  his  way  to  the  northward.  These  early  land  entries  were  as 
follows :  Tames  Mandell,  Samuel  Lindley,  Ezekiel  Blackwell.  Hiram  Kil- 
gore,  Charles  Kilgore,  Preston  Beck,  William  Bristoe,  Reuben  and  Simpson 
Kilgore,  Marguis  Knight.  Joseph  Glover,  James  Gregory,  John  Hays,  Will- 
iam Thornton,  William  Foot,  John  Gardner,  John  Williams  and  William 
Fisk  in  1816:  Dixon  Brown,  David  Johnson,  Thomas  Thompson,  John  Hor- 
ton,  Melcher  Fehgelman,  Robert  Whitley,  Vinson  Williams,  Peter  Galbert, 
Martin  Ribelin,  William  Dougherty,  John  Hawkins,  Thomas  McManus,  Ross 
and  McDonald,  James  Maxwell,  Samuel  Dougherty,  Robert  Dougherty,  Alex- 


ander  Butler,  George  Silver,  Thomas  Elrod.  Roger  ]\'lcKnight,  Jacob  Castle- 
man  and  Thomas  Allen  in  1817;  Pleasant  Padgett,  Lewis  Woody,  James 
Blair,  Andrew  Owen,  James  Riggins,  Mark  Tully,  William  Denson,  Stephen 
Shipman,  Absalom  Hart,  Abraham  Mitchell,  John  Spears,  David  Wilson. 
Timothy  Ward,  Arta  Garrison,  Ebenezer  McDonald,  Fetler  and  Hughes, 
Peter  Harmonson,  James  Erwin  and  Henry  McGree  in  1818:  T.  McAfee, 
Michael  Johnson,  R.  Bowles.  James  Blair,  James  Denson,  Joseph  James, 
James  Owens,  in  1819;  Jacob  Hikes,  Cuthbert  and  Thomas  Bullitt,  Dixon 
Brown,  Roger  McKnight,  Jacob  Geiger,  Bartholomew  Thatcher,  Fetler  and 
Hughes,  Phillip  Starr.  J.  Thompson,  James  Allen,  Jonathan  Henderson, 
Isaac  Jamison,  Samuel  Gwathney,  Thomas  Maffith,  James  Pace,  Thomas 
Hill  and  Jacob  Clark,  in  1820. 

Shawswick  was  one  of  the  original  five  townships,  and  the  name  came 
in  the  following  manner:  A  judge  in  the  early  history  of  the  state  bore  the 
name  of  Wick,  and  he  had  many  admirers  in  this  county  who  insisted  that  the 
township  should  be  named  after  him.  One  of  the  county  commissioners  at 
the  same  time,  by  the  name  of  Beazley,  had  a  comrade  by  the  name  of  Shaw, 
who  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe.  Beazley  advocated  the  name  of 
Shaw  and  had  many  supporters  in  his  desire.  The  two  parties  finally  com- 
promised on  the  name  Shawswick. 

It  is  highly  probable  that  the  first  elections  were  held  at  the  town  of 
Palestine.  Pleasant  Parks  was  the  inspector  at  the  first  voting,-  but  in  the 
following  year  was  succeeded  by  William  Kelsey.  Joshua  Taylor  and  James 
Mimdle  were  chosen  overseers  of  the  poor  in  the  same  year.  Instead  of  one 
constable,  Shawswick  township  maintained  that  the  dignity  of  the  law  could 
be  upheld  by  no  less  than  three,  so  accordingly  Nathaniel  Vaughn.  William 
Dale  and  John  Sutton  were  appointed  as  constables. 

The  many  streams  in  the  township  gave  rise  to  many  water  mills  of 
various  types,  some  for  grinding  grain  and  others  for  sawing  timber.  Early 
in  the  twenties  Alexander  Butler  and  Robert  Dougherty  built  a  saw  mill  on 
Leatherwood  creek,  about  a  mile  and  a  half  southeast  of  Bedford.  The  mill 
was  run  by  a  flutter  wheel,  which  was  faster  and  easier  of  operation  than 
the  undershot  w'heel.  Edward  Humpston,  whose  name  was  prominently 
identified  with  mills  over  the  whole  country,  built  another  saw  mill  above  the 
above  mentioned  one  and  on  Leatherwood  creek.  After  a  time,  and  as  was 
his  custom,  he  sold  the  mill  to  Richard  Evans,  who  ran  the  plant  for  seven 
years  before  abandoning  it.  Humpston  also  built  a  grist  mill  in  1826,  which 
lasted  for  several  years.  It  was  operated  by  a  breast  water  wheel.  Farther 
up  the  creek,  and  near  the  present  site  of  Erie,  a  grist  and  saw-  mill  was 


built  in  1832  by  Wesle}  and  Michael  Johnson.  Also  the  Rawlins  mill  was 
among  the  best  of  the  day,  and  was  built  by  Joseph  Rawlins  about  1835.  It 
was  (ine  nf  the  largest  in  the  county,  having  three  runs  of  buhrs,  and  quan- 
tities of  flour  were  ship])ed  from  here  to  all  parts  of  the  country  By  rail- 
road it  was  shipped  north  to  Detroit  and  other  northern  cities,  while  the 
soutliern  transpnrtation  was  conducted  by  means  of  flatljoats.  i)rincipally 
down  the  Mississippi  to  New  Orleans.  There  were  many  other  mills,  but 
each  in  turn  suffered  an  ignominous  end,  either  being  abandoned  by  the 
owners  or  being:  waslied  out  bv  a  sudden  rise  in  the  streams. 

Three  miles  and  a  half  northwest  of  Bedford  in  Shawswick  township, 
is  situated  the  town  of  Oolitic  with  a  present  population  of  about  two  thou- 
sand, a  substantial  growth  since  the  census  of  iqto,  when  it  was  1.079. 
Under  the  statutes  of  Indiana,  the  village  of  Oolitic  was  incorporated  as  a 
town  in  igoo.  The  present  town  officers  are:  Trustees,  Marshall  Miller,  S. 
L.  Roberts  and' Ira  A1.  (.'amiichael :  marshal,  lose|)h  Pace:  clerk  and  treas- 
urer, R.  V.  Worman.  The  town  has  no  water  system,  l:>ut  is  supplied  with 
electricity  l)y  the  Oolitic  Light,  Heat  &  Power  Comiiany.  whicli  was  estab- 
lished in    \])ril,   M)13.     The  c\\\  has  a  town  hall. 

The  business  interests  of  1013  are  as  follows:  H.  L.  Pa.xton  .-md  Wal- 
ter Mosier.  attorneys;  blacksmiths,  .Vl.  Anderson  and  T\.  L.  Clark;  barbers, 
Smallwood  ^s:  Johnson,  and  Noali  Flarney  :  clothing  stores.  R.  IT  Riddell ; 
dry  goods,  K.  Dobbins,  Berney  Mitchell  and  Isaac  Siletz  ;  drug  stores.  L.  A. 
Sma'lwood.  C  \'.  Gforge  and  Har\e\'  II.  l>elfon;  furniture.  Ooolitic  Inuni- 
tm-e  ('oni])any.  Meadows  &-  Meadows,  projirietors,  and  the  Miller  Furniture 
Company;  grocerx-  stores.  Cook  &-  Cook.  D.  Watson,  \V .  M.  Cuddy,  Plarry 
Bvers,  Deford  Brothers;  (h-av  lines,  TI.  L.  Clark.  Ira  M.  Carmichael ;  shoe 
stores.  I.  A.  Busli,  also  a  iewelr^-  and  general  store  keeper;  grain  dealers, 
William  Cuddy.  Claude  Cook  and  Delberl  Watson;  livery.  H.  L.  Clark  and 
Thrasher  P.rothers ;  liardNvare.  .\.  ( ".  Clark;  lumlier.  Ziba  Owens.  Gilbert 
Pierce  and  the  Oolitic  Lumlier  Company;  grain  mill.  .\rch  .'\nderson;  mil- 
linery, Mrs.  Joseph  Pace  and  Mrs.  Clarinda  Smallwood;  meat  markets,  Del- 
bert  Watson  and  Deford  Brothers.  The  i)hysicians  of  Oolitic  are  R.  B. 
Short,  Oliver  McLaughlin,  Claude  Dollins  and  Dr.  Ray.  Dr.  J.  B.  Blessing 
is  the  dentist.     Tliere  is  one  newspaper,  the  Prof/ressk'c. 

The  town,  of  C)olitic  owes  its  existence  mainly  to  the  stone  industry. 
The  town  is  a  center  of  nianv  quarries  and  mills  liearing  a  world-wide  reputa- 


tion.  Among  the  principal  ones  surrounding  the  town  are :  The  Indiana 
Stone  Company,  the  Reed  Stone  Company,  the  Indiana  Quarries  Company, 
the  Consohdated  Stone  Company,  the  Furst-Kerber  Company,  and  the  Ingles 
Stone  Company.  A  drive  through  the  country  nearb}-  reveals  mammoth 
stacks  of  cut  stone,  black  smoke  from  myriad  mill  chimneys,  and  stone- 
heaped  cars  sidetracked  ready  to  be  rushed  to  different  points  of  the  countrx-. 
The  workers  live  in  the  picturesque  and  beautiful  hills  of  Lawrence  county, 
close  to  their  working  ground,  little  noting  the  magnificent  proportions  and 
impressive  detail  of  the  wooded  and  rockv  elevations  around  them. 

In  Oolitic  there  are  three  churches,  the  Baptist,  the  ^Methodist  and  the 
Church  of  Christ.  The  lodges  are  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  the  Independent 
Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  including  the  encampment  and  the  Rebekah. 


Scattered  over  the  county  are  se\eral  towns,  or  rather,  sites  of  towns, 
which  stand  as  lonely  monument^  tn  villages  once  flourisliing,  l>ut  abandoned 
to  decav  on  account  of  sonic  climatic  or  commercial  reason. 

Liberty,  four  miles  and  a  half  southwest  of  Bedford,  is  one  of  these. 
This  x'illage  was  platted  iii  iSjg.  and  sexeral  small  buildings  immediately 
sprang  u]).  John  S.  Daughlon,  b'rank  7'illy.  Alexander  H.  Dunihue  were 
among  the  early  merchants.  The  health  condition^  finally  l;ecame  so  bad 
that  residence  there  was  dangerous,  and  accordingl\-  ihe  town  was  abandoned. 

W'oodville.  laid  out  Deccuilier  ro.  iS-jc;,  by  F.dwin  Wood,  was  located 
on  the  Louisville,  Nen  ,-Mban\'  &-  Chicagr.  railroad.  The  proprietor  of  the 
town  manufactured  lumber. 

I\ei!ding  w  ai^  laid  oiu  l)y  kol)erl  PoUer  and  lolm  R.  Xugent.  on  .\ugust 
2^.  1H.1.J.  and  was  situated  on  tiie  southwest  i|uarter  of  section  J^.  This 
town  has  jia-'^ed  into  history. 

Juliet,  also,  has  been  relegated  to  the  ages.  This  village  was  opened  in 
1850  on  the  _southwest  corner  of  section  i  i.  jiuring  the  first  years,  the  town 
was  the  terminus  of  th(>  Louisville,  Xe\\-  .\llian)-  ..K-  ("hicago  railroad,  and  con- 
sequenth'  became  a  trade  center.  The  comisletion  oi  the  road  to  the  north 
ruined  the  town,  bowexer,  and  early  death  was  its  fate. 

For  other  defunct  places  see  "A'illage  Plats"  in  Miscellaneous  chapter  of 
this  work. 



At  one  time  Lawrence  county  was  a  part  of  Washington  and  also,  at  an- 
other date,  of  Orange  county.  The  act  of  the  Legislature  creating  Lawrence 
county  out  of  a  part  of  Orange  county  was  approved  January  7,  1818,  and 
reads  as  follows : 

"Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Indiana,  That 
from  and  after  the  third  ^Monday  of  March  next,  all  that  part  of  the  county 
of  Orange  contained  in  the  following  bounds  shall  form  and  constitute  a 
separate  county.  \'iz. :  Beginning  at  the  range  line  dividing  ranges  2  and  3 
west,  at  the  center  of  township  3  north,  and  running  thence  east  to  the  line 
dividing  the  counties  of  Washington,  Orange  and  Jackson;  thence  north  with 
said  line  dividing  townships  6  and  7  north ;  thence  west  with  said  line  dividing 
ranges  2  and  3  west;  thence  south  with  said  range  line  to  the  place  of 

"Section  2. — The  said  new  county  shall  be  known  and  designated  by  the 
name  and  style  of  the  county  of  Lawrence,  and  shall  enjoy  all  the  rights  and 
privileges  and  jurisdictions  which  separate  counties  do  or  may  properly  be- 
long or  appertain :  Provided,  that  all  suits,  pleas,  plaints,  actions  and  pro- 
ceedings in  law  or  equity  which  may  have  been  commenced  or  instituted  be- 
fore the  third  Monday  of  March  next,  and  shall  be  pending  in  the  county  of 
Orange  shall  be  prosecuted  and  determined  in  the  same  manner  as  if  this  act 
had  not  passed;  provided,  also,  that  all  taxes  which  may  be  due  on  the  said 
third  Monday  of  IMarch  next  shall  be  collected  and  paid  in  the  same  manner 
and  by  the  same  officers  as  if  the  said  new  countv  of  Lawrence  had  not  been 

"Section  3. — Al:)raham  Huff,  of  Jackson  county,  Abraham  Bosley,  of 
Orange  county,  Joel  Holbert.  of  Daviess  county,  William  Hobbs,  of  Wash- 
ington county,  and  George  Boone,  of  Harrison  county,  are  hereby  appointed 
commissioners  agreeable  to  the  act  entitled  '.A.n  act  for  the  fixing  the  county 
seat  of  justice  in  all  new  counties  hereafter  to  lie  laid  off."  The  commission- 
ers alinve  named  shall  convene  at  the  house  of  James  Gregory  in  said  county 
of  Lawrence  on  the  third  Monday  of  M'arch  next,  and  shall  immediately 
proceed  to  discharge  the  duties  assigned  them  by  law.     It  is  hereby  made 


the  duty  of  the  sheriff  of  Orange  county  to  notify  the  said  commissioners, 
either  in  person  or  by  written  notification,  of  their  appointment  on  or  before 
the  first  day  of  March  next,  and  the  said  sheriff  of  Orange  county  shall  receive 
from  the  said  county  of  Lawrence  so  much  as  the  county  commissioners  shall 
deem  just  and  reasonable,  who  are  hereby  authorized  to  allow  the  same  out 
of  any  moneys  in  the  county  treasury,  in  the  same  manner  other  claims  are 

"Section  4. — The  circuit  and  other  courts  of  the  county  of  Lawrence 
shall  be  holden  at  the  house  of  James  Gregory,  in  the  said  county,  until  suit- 
able accommodations  can  be  had  at  the  seat  of  justice,  and  so  soon  as  the 
courts  of  said  county  are  satisfied  that  suitable  accommodations  can  be  had  at 
the  county  seat,  they  shall  adjourn  thereto,  after  which  time  all  the  courts  of 
the  county  shall  be  holden  at  the  county  seat  of  Lawrence  county  established 
as  directed  by  this  act. 

"Section  5. — The  agent  who  shall  be  appointed  to  superintend  the  sale 
of  lots  at  the  county  seat  of  Lawrence  county  shall  receive  ten  per  sent,  out 
of  the  proceeds  thereof,  and  pay  the  same  over  to  such  person  or  persons  as 
may  be  appointed  by  law  to  receive  the  same  for  the  use  of  a  library  for  the 
county,  which  he  shall  pay  over  at  such  time  or  times  as  may  be  directed  by 
law.  This  act  shall  take  efifect  and  be  in  force  from  and  after  the  third  Mon- 
day of  March  next." 

Approved  January  7,  1818. 

From  this  enactment  it  will  be  observed  that  originally  Lawrence  county 
did  not  comprise  two  tiers  of  sections  north  and  south  along  the  eastern  side 
which  now  fall  within  her  borders.  These  two  tiers  included  the  towns  of 
Leesville  and  Fort  Ritner,  both  of  which  were  in  existence  in  1822,  at  which 
date,  through  the  influence,  mainly,  of  these  towns,  by  means  of  petitions,  the 
following  enactment  of  the  Legislature  was  secured : 

"Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Indiana,  That 
from  and  after  the  first  day  of  January  next,  all  that  part  of  the  county  of 
Jackson  included  within  the  following  boundaries,  to-wit :  Beginning  at  the 
northwest  corner  of  section  16,  township  5,  range  2  east,  thence  east  two  miles 
to  the  northeast  corner  of  section  15,  thence  south  to  the  Driftwood  fork,  of 
White  river,  thence  down  said  river  to  the  line  which  at  present  divides  the 
counties  of  Jackson  and  Lawrence,  thence  to  the  place  of  beginning,  be  and 
the  same  is  hereby  attached  to  the  county  of  Lawrence,  and  shall  after  the 
date  above  mentioned  be  deemed  and  taken  as  a  part  of  Lawrence  to  all  in- 
tents and  purposes  to  form  and  constitute  a  part  of  said  county  of  Lawrence : 
Provided,  however,  that  all  suits,  pleas,  plaints  and  proceedings  which  shall 


have  been  commenced  and  pending  within  the  said  county  of  Jackson  previous 
to  the  said  first  day  of  Januar\'  next,  shall  be  prosecuted  to  final  efifect  in  the 
same  manner  as  if  this  act  had  not  been  passed;  provided,  further,  that  the 
state  and  county  taxes  wliich  may  be  due  on  the  said  ist  of  January  next 
shall  be  collected  and  paid  in  the  same  manner  and  by  the  same  oi^cers  as  if 
this  act  had  not  been  passed.  This  act  to  be  in  force  from  and  after  the  first 
day  of  January,  1823." 

Approved  Decemljer  31,  1822. 


Before  the  organization  of  Lawrence  county  in  1818,  and  while  the 
territory  was  yet  attached  to  Orange  county,  all  the  present  county  north  of 
the  river,  except  two  tiers  of  sections  on  the  east  and  a  small  tract  on  the 
southeast,  was  organized  as  Leatherwood  township,  and  that  pdrtion  of  the 
present  county  south  of  the  White  river  was  part  of  the  northern  tier  of  town- 
ships in  Orange  countv,  except  the  old  township  of  Bono,  which  had  l)een 
created  by  the  commissioners  of  Orange  county,  in  January,  1817,  with  the 
following  limits:  Beginning  on  White  ri\er  at  the  northwest  corner  of 
Washington  county,  thence  south  to  the  Cincinnati  road,  thence  west  to  Fish- 
ing creek,  thence  north  to  White  river ;  thence  north  \\ith  the  section  line 
which  at  the  mouth  of  said  creek  three  miles,  thence  east  to  Jackson 
county,  thence  south  to  the  beginning.  Leatherwood  township  had  been 
created  early  in  18 16.  The  following  is  the  results  of  the  August,  1816, 
election,  in  Leatherwood  township : 

For  (iovernor — Posev  12,  Jennings  4:  for  Congress — Hendricks  16, 
Thom  none,  Sullivan  none;  senator — Rawlins  16,  DePauw  none,  Clark  none; 
representative — Jonathan  Lindley,  13.  Pinnick,  none,  Lewis  none;  sheriff — 
Rolierts  7,  Lindley  6;  coroner — Crawford  13,  Clendenin,  none. 


March  ii,  rSi8,  the  countv  commissioners,  ,\ml)rose  Carlton,  Thomas 
Beagley  and  James  Stotts,  met  at  the  house  of  James  Gregory  for  the  trans- 
action of  such  business  as  might  come  before  them.  The  election  of  the  cir- 
cuit clerk  was  contested  and  a  new  election  was  ordered.  James  Stotts,  Jr., 
was  appointed  lister ;  John  Anderson,  county  treasurer,  and  Robert  M.  Carl- 
ton, county  agent.  On  the  third  day  of  this  session,  the  commissioners  pro- 
ceeded to  divide  the  county  into  two  civil  townships,  Shawswick  and  Spice 


Valley.  Shawswick  was  as  follows :  Beginning  at  the  mouth  of  Salt  creek, 
thence  up  to  the  line  dividing  townships  5  and  6 ;  thence  east  to  the  county 
line;  thence  south  to  Guthrie  creek;  thence  down  the  same  to  where  sections 
II,  12,  13  and  14  unite:  thence  west  with  the  line  dividing  sections  11  and  14 
one  mile;  thence  south  with  the  line  dividing  sections  14  and  15  to  the  county 
line;  thence  west  to  the  southwest  comer  of  section  17,  township  3,  range  i 
west;  thence  north  to  White  river;  thence  up  to  the  beginning. 

Spice  Valley  township  included  all  of  the  present  Spice  Valley  town- 
ship, together  with  all  of  Indian  creek  township  south  of  the  dividing  line  of 
sections  19  and  30,  township  5,  range  2  west.  Indian  Creek  township  in- 
cluded all  of  Lawrence  county  west  of  Salt  creek  and  north  of  the  line  divid- 
ing sections  19  and  30,  township  5  north,  range  2  west.  Bono  township  com- 
prised all  of  the  county  southeast  of  Shawswick  township.  Pleasant  Run 
township  comprised  all  of  the  count\-  east  of  Indian  Creek  t(nvnship  and  north 
of  Shawswick  township. 

Pleasant  Parks  was  appointed  inspector  of  elections  in  Shawswick  and 
elections  were  ordered  held  at  the  cabin  of  Thompson,  on  the  north  bank  of 
White  river,  near  Palestine.  Elections  in  Spice  Valley  were  ordered  held  at 
Absalom  Field's,  with  himself  as  inspector:  Indian  Creek,  at  the  house  of  Mr. 
Stipps,  with  Joseph  Sullivan,  inspector:  in  Bono,  at  Bono  Village,  with  Elisha 
Simpson,  inspector:  in  Pleasant  Run,  at  the  house  of  Joseph  Dayton,  with 
Thomas  Henton.  inspector.  Two  justices  of  the  peace  were  ordered  elected 
in  each  township,  April  25,  18 J  8.  The  report  of  the 
commissioners  was  adopted  and  spread  upon  the  county's  record  as  follows : 


"To  the  Board  of  Commissioners  in  and  for  the  County  of  Lawrence, 
State  of  Indiana :  We,  the  Commissioners  appointed  by  an  act  bearing  date 
January  7,  1818,  to  fi.x;  the  seat  of  justice  in  the  county  of  Lawrence  have 
in  conformity  to  our  appointments  met  at  the  house  of  James  Gregory,  and  in 
pursuance  of  the  duty  assigned  us  In-  law.  after  being  sworn,  proceeded  to 
discharge  the  duty  enjoined  upon  us  by  law,  and  therefore  take  the  lil^erty 
of  reporting  accordingly  that  we  liave  selected  and  fixed  upon  two  hundred 
acres  of  land  on  the  north  side  of  White  river  and  on  both  sides  of  the  second 
principal  meridian  line,  which  said  land  is  given  as  a  donation  to  the  county 
aforesaid  by  Benjamin  and  Ezekiel  Blackwell,  Heniy  Speed  and  Henry  H. 
Massie.  Said  land  is  bounded  as  follows :  Beginning  on  the  river  below  the 
meridian  line  sixty-four  poles :  thence  north  sixty-nine    degrees    west    thirty 


poles  to  a  gray  ash:  thence  north  thirty-six  degrees  west  eighty-two  poles; 
thence  north  fourteen  degrees  west  eighty  poles;  thence  north  fifty-four  de- 
rees  east  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven  poles  to  the  river ;  thence  west  with  the 
meanders  of  the  same  to  the  beginning — containing  two  hundred  acres.  Hav- 
ing taken  the  necessary  lx)nd  for  the  title,  your  commissioners  find  nothing 
further  to  do  in  the  discharge  of  the  duty  assigned  them  by  law,  and  beg 
leave  to  report.  Given  under  our  hands  and  seals  this  21st  day  of  March, 
1818.  Furthermore,  we  the  commissioners  aforesaid  have  thought  proper 
to  make  a  reserve  of  one  lot  for  Benjamin  Blackwell,  provided  the  said 
Blackwell  will  for  the  same  pay  such  price  as  lots  lying  in  the  same  situation 
and  in  value  sell  for  at  the  sale  of  lots  in  said  town. 

"Abraham  Huff, 
"Abraham  Boslev, 
"Joel  Holbert. 
"William  Hobbs. 
"George  Boon, 
"Locating  Commissioners." 

"We,  the  Commissioners  as  above,  do  state  that  we  spent  each  the  num- 
ber of  days  affixed  to  our  names:  Abraham  Huff,  8  days.  $24;  Abraham 
Bosley,  8  days,  $24;  Joel  Holbert,  8  days.  $24:  William  Hobbs,  8  days,  $24; 
George  Boon,  11  days,  $33." 


At  the  suggestion  of  Benjamin  Blackwell.  the  first  county  seat  of  Law- 
rence county  was  named  "Palestine."  The  commissioners  were  given  war- 
rants for  their  services  and  to  be  paid  out  of  the  first  money  paid  in  on  the 
sale  of  town  lots.  Under  the  direction  of  the  county  commissioners,  early  in 
May,  1818,  County  Agent  Robert  M.  Carlton  laid  out  two  hundred  and 
seventy-six  lots  in  Palestine,  which  were  ordered  ad\ertised  for  sale  May 
25,  1 81 8,  in  the  LouisviUc  Correspondent,  the  Indiana  Gazette,  the  Western 
Sun,  the  Salem  Tocsin  and  the  Madison  paper.  Steps  were  immediately 
taken  to  build  a  courthouse  and  jail. 

Thus  fairly  launched  on  the  sea  of  a  separate  county,  Lawrence  began 
to  transact  her  own  business,  which  will  be  treated  in  the  following  chapter. 

From  time  to  time,  the  county  has  created  new  townships  and  changed 
the  boundaries  of  other  townships,  until  it  is  now  well  sub-divided. 

After  the  first  township  divisions  above  mentioned,  came  the  creation  of 


Drawn  from  memorj'  by  the  late  Alfred  C.  Hamm,  who.  as  a  carpenter's 
apprentice,  assisted  in  building  it. 


Perry  township  in  May,  1822,  and  Indian  Creek  township  was  extended  south 
to  the  river.  FHnn  township  was  created  about  that  date.  That  portion  of 
the  county  to  the  south  of  Fort  Ritner,  in  the  bend  of  the  river,  was  attached 
to  Bono  township.  January  23,  1826,  Marion  township  was  created,  with  its 
limits  eight  miles  east  and  west,  and  from  Orange  county  to  the  river,  north 
and  south.  In  June,  1855,  Marshall  township  was  created,  its  limits  being 
all  and  no  more  than  congressional  township  6  north,  range  i  west;  all  south- 
west of  Salt  creek  was  in  1856  attached  to  Shawswick.  In  March,  1866,  a 
petition  signed  by  one  hundred  and  eighty  residents  of  the  territory  con- 
cerned was  presented  to  the  commissioners,  asking  for  a  new  township  to 
be  formed  out  of  Shawswick,  Bono  and  Flinn,  asking  that  the  same  be  called 
Morton  township,  but  after  much  deliberation  the  township  was  named  Guth- 
rie, after  an  old  pioneer  family  of  Lawrence  county.  It  was  bounded  about 
the  same  as  it  still  exists. 

The  latest  changes  in  township  boundaries  in  this  county  was  effected  in 
the  winter  of  1910-11,  when  Flinn  township  met  with  several  changes,  which 
also  affected  other  townships  surrounding  it.  It  was  ordered  by  the  board 
of  county  commissioners  at  their  December  meeting  in  19 10  that  the  lines  be 
changed  as  follows : 

"Beginning  at  the  southeast  corner  of  section  35,  township  5.  range  i 
east;  thence  running  east  to  the  southeast  corner  of  section  31,  township  5 
north,  range  2  east,  thence  north  to  the  northeast  corner  of  section  6,  town- 
ship 5  north,  range  2  east ;  thence  west  to  the  northeast  corner  of  section  2, 
township  5  north,  range  i  east,  and  the  territory  east  of  the  present  bound- 
ary line  of  Shawswick  township,  including  in  the  aforesaid  is  added  and 
annexed  and  from  said  date  shall  be  a  part  of  said  Shawswick  township. 

"And  be  it  further  ordered,  that  the  boundary  line  of  Guthrie  township 
in  said  Lawrence  county,  Indiana,  be  and  the  same  is  hereby  altered  and 
extended  from  and  after  the  first  day  of  January,  1911,  as  follows: 

"Beginning  at  the  southeast  corner  of  section  31,  township  5  north,  range  . 
2  east:  thence  north  to  the  northeast  corner  of  section  18,  township  5  north, 
range  2  east,  thence  east  to  the  corner  of  section  15,  township  5  north,  range 
2  east:  thence  south  to  the  southeast  corner  of  section  34.  township  5  north, 
range  2  east,  and  all  the  territory  north  of  the  present  line  of  said  Guthrie 
township  and  including  within  the  aforesaid  lioundaries  hereby  annexed  to 
and  after  January  i.  191 1,  will  be  a  part  of  Guthrie  township. 

"And  be  it  further  ordered  that  the  southern  boundary  of  Pleasant  Run 
township,  Lawrence  county,  Indiana,  on  and  after  Januaj-y  i,  1911,  be  and 
the  same  is  hereby  altered  and  extended  as  follows :     Beginning  at  the  north- 


east  corner  of  section  6.  township  5.  range  2  east,  thence  south  to  the  north- 
east corner  of  section  15.  township  5  north,  range  2  east;  thence  east  to  the 
northeast  corner  of  section  3.  township  5,  range  2  east,  and  that  all  the  terri- 
tory south  of  the  present  line  of  said  township  and  included  within  the  afore- 
said boundary  is  hereby  annexed  to  and  after  said  date  will  be  a  part  of  said 
Pleasant  Run  township." 



Under  a  democratic  form  of  government,  counties,  like  states  and 
nations,  must  needs  have  their  local  organization,  and  so  here  in  Lawrence 
county,  after  the  organization  steps  were  perfected,  it  remained  for  the  board 
of  county  commissioners  and  the  various  county  officials  to  organize  such 
local  government' as  would,  in  their  own  judgment,  best  meet  the  demands  of 
those  pioneer  days.  The  following  chapter  will  treat  of  the  doings  of  the 
commissioners  and  the  county  officers,  and  enter  into  detail  regarding  the 
building  of  county  buildings  and  the  choice  of  a  permanent  seat  of  justice,  etc. 

Among  the  first  acts  of  the  county  board  were  the  looking  into  various 
petitions  for  roads  and  appointing  road  viewers.  The  following  county  tax 
levies  were  made:  On  each  hundred  acres  of  land  (first  class),  thirty-seven 
and  a  half  cents;  on  second  class  land,  thirty-three  cents:  on  third  class  land, 
twenty-two  cents.  A  license  was  granted  to  Blackwell  &  Company  to  operate 
a  feriy,  at  twenty  dollars;  Towell  & -Dixon,  for  same  privilege,  same  rate; 
also  one  very  early,  to  Milroy  &  Collins,  at  six  dollars ;  horses  were  taxed 
thirty-seven  and  a  half  cents  each. 

In  August,  of  the  first  year,  meetings  were  lield  at  Palestine.  John 
Lowerv  was  ])aid  t]iirtv-se\  en  dollars  for  countv  record  books.  A  seal  was 
adopted,  being  a  scrawl  with  the  words  "Commissioner's  Seal."  Numerous 
roads  were  ]jrojected  and  superintendents  ai:)pointed.  John  Brown,  John 
Milroy  and  John  Lowrey  assisted  in  the  survey  of  Palestine.  The  following 
ferry  rates  w  ere  established  :  Wagon  and  fciur  horses,  seventy-five  cents,  and 
on  each  extra  horse  six  and  a  foiutb  cents  ;  a  two-wheeled,  one-horse  vehicle, 
twelve  and  a  half  cents;  with  a  lead  horse,  six  and  a  fourth  cents  more; 
each  i^erson  over  twehe  years,  six  and  a  fourth  cents:  under  twelve,  two 
cents;  sheep,  each,  one  and  a  half  cents;  hogs,  one  cent  each.  The  tavern 
rates  were  fixed  at:  Each  meal,  twenty-five  cents;  bed.  twehe  and  a  half  cents; 
liorse  over  night,  fifty  cents;  single  feed,  tweh'e  anr]  a  half  cents. 

The  second  sale  (^f  lots  was  held  in  Palestine  in  November.  Robert 
Mitchell,  who  listed  the  county  in  iSt8  instead  of  James  Stotts,  Jr.,  was  paid 
thirty  dollars.  The  sherifif  under  whose  .supervision  the  elections  of  February 
and  April,  i8r8,  were  held,  was  paid  twenty-two  dollars. 


Early  in  1819  the  board  adopted  a  seal  for  Lawrence  county,  which  was 
designed  with  a  harp,  a  plow  and  three  sheaves  of  wheat,  and  a  pair  of  scales, 
and  a  weathercock  on  top. 

Andrew  Evans,  contractor,  cleared  off  the  public  square  at  old  Palestine, 
for  which  he  was  allowed  thirty-eight  dollars.  Up  to  this  time  court  had 
been  held  at  the  house  of  James  Benefield.  In  1819  the  tax  on  each  hundred- 
acre  tract  of  land  was  thirty-seven,  thirty-three  and  twenty-five  cents,  re- 
spectively. Robert  Mitchell  was  paid  thirty-two  dollars  for  listing  the  county 
in  1819.  It  was  during  that  year  that  the  work  of  pushing  the  courthouse  to 
completion  went  forward.  In  November,  1819,  County  Agent  Carlton  re- 
ported total  receipts  for  town  lots,  $6,579.38;  paid  to  the  county  treasurer, 
$5,303.56;  paid  to  the  county  library,  $657.93;  balance  on  hand.  $618.09. 
For  some  reason  now  unknown,  the  county  agent  failed  to  make  a  satisfactory 
settlement  with  the  board  and  was  removed.  William  Templeton  being  ap- 
pointed to  take  his  place ;  Carlton  refused  to  settle  with  him,  or  to  turn  over 
the  funds  to  him.  Then  Winthrop  Foote,  attorney  was  engaged  by  the 
county  to  commence  action  at  law  on  his  bond.  Finally,  County  Agent 
Carlton  made  a  sufficient  showing  and  was  allowed  to  hold  the  responsible 
position  of  agent  for  more  than  thirty  years  consecutive  years. 

John  Brown  took  the  census  in  1820.  Isaac  Farris  furnished  a  house  in 
which  court  was  held  in  March,  1820.  The  following  bills  allowed  county- 
agent  in  1820  may  be  of  interest  to  the  reader  of  these  later  years : 

Laying  out  lots  in   Palestine   $132.00 

Selling  249  lots,  giving  bond,  etc i3-50 

Drawing  432  notes  at  six  and  a  fourth  cents 27.00 

Superintending  erection  of  temporary  court  house 7.00 

Taking  Bonds,  advertising  courthouse,  etc 10.00 

Taking  Bonds,  advertising  jail,  etc 6.00 

Letting  the  clearing  of  the  public  square 4.00 

Letting  the  Building  of  the  stray  pen 2.00 

Total   $201.50 

By  the  3rd  of  February,  182 1,  the  sale  of  lots  amounted  to  $17,580; 
cash,  $8,639;  notes,  $5,551  ;  due  bills,  $2,927.  It  was  early  in  that  year  that 
Allen  Brock  was  appointed  inspector  of  flour,  beef  and  pork.  Much  of  the 
money  received  for  the  town  lots  was  in  the  shape  of  bills  of  all  the  banks 
of  the  Southwest,  the  value  of  which  was  variable  and  at  all  times  exceed- 



ingly  doubtful.  In  182 1  the  county  had  on  hand  several  hundred  dollars  of 
very  doubtful  bills,  which  were  sold  to  the  highest  bidder.  Mbney  affairs  in 
these  davs  were  not  what  we  find  them  today,  with  all  the  fault  some  citizens 
find  with  the  banking  system  of  this  country.  In  June,  1821,  $49  in  counter- 
feit bills,  taken  in  by  mistake,  were  burned  by  the  county  board ;  also  $126.50 
in  doubtful  bills  were  sold  at  auction  for  $29.98.  In  connection  with  this 
incident  the  record  has  the  following  entry:  "Ordered  that  William  Kelsey 
(treasurer)  be  paid  out  of  the  treasury',  out  of  moneys  arising  from  the  sale 
of  town  lots  in  Palestine,  the  sum  of  three  dollars  for  liquor  furnished  by 
him  and  for  his  attendance  at  the  sale  of  uncurrent  money  belonging  to  the 
county."  The  county  agent  was  ordered  to  receive  nothing  but  specie  for 
debts  due  the  county,  but  this  order  was  soon  rescinded.  Robert  Mitchell 
was  county  lister  (assessor)  for  the  years  from  1818  to  1821,  inclusive. 
Among  the  great  cases  in  the  circuit  court  about  the  time  last  named  was  that 
of  the  State  against  James  Chess,  for  counterfeiting  gold  coin. 

In  August,  1822.  Samuel  Dale  was  appointed  agent  to  have  a  well  dug 
on  the  public  square  at  Palestine.  John  Brown  made  the  first  map  of  Law- 
rence county,  for  which  he  received  two  dollars. 

In  1823  all  inn-keepers  were  compelled  to  adhere  to  the  following 
charges :  Meals,  twenty-five  cents ;  lodgings,  six  and  a  fourth  cents ;  one  half 
pint  of  French  brandy,  twenty-five  cents;  one  half  pint  rum,  eighteen  and 
three-fourths  cents;  half  pint  of  wine,  twenty-five  cents;  half  pint  of  apple 
or  peach  brandy,  twelve  and  a  half  cents ;  one  half  pint  of  whisky  was  six 
and  a  fourth  cents ;  horse  feed  over  night,  twenty-five  cents :  single  feed  for 
one  horse,  twelve  and  a  half  cents. 


Notwithstanding  the  elevated  position  in  which  Palestine,  the  first  seat 
of  justice  of  the  county,  had  been  located  in,  it  was  decided  very  unhealthy, 
as  many  deaths  had  occurred  within  a  brief  space  of  time  after  its  settlement. 
This  led  to  the  demand  for  a  change  of  location,  which  was  seized  upon  by 
speculators,  no  doubt  in  the  near-by  section  of  country,  and  these  men  greatly 
exaggerated  the  condition  at  Palestine.  The  matter  finally  came  up  in  the 
Legislature  and  that  body  appointed  a  new  commission  to  re-locate  the  county 
seat.  This  act  was  approved  February  9,  1825.  The  subjoined  is  the  report 
of  such  commissioners : 

"To  the  Board  of  Justices  of  the  County  of  Lawrence,  State  of  Indiana: 
The  subscribers,  being  the  commissioners  appointed  by  an  act  of  the  General 


Assembly  of  the  said  State  entitled  'An  act  appointing  commissioners  to  re- 
locate the  seat  of  justice  of  Lawrence  county,'  approved  February  9,  1825, 
make  the  following  report,  to-wit :  That  we  all  met  at  Palestine  of  said 
county  of  Lawrence,  on  the  second  Monday  of  March,  instant,  were  duly 
sworn  as  the  law  prescribes  for  the  faithful  performance  of  our  duties,  and 
immediately  proceeded  to  the  discharge  of  the  same  and  have  continued  in 
from  day  to  day  until  the  present  time,  and  have  obtained  by  donation  the 
following  described  tract  or  parcel  of  land  for  the  permanent  seat  of  justice 
of  said  county,  to-wit :  Beginning  on  the  dividing  line  of  sections  23  and  24. 
in  township  5  north,  range  i  west,  one  hundred  poles  south  of  the  corner  of 
sections  23,  24,  13  and  14;  thence  west  one  hundred  and  sixty  poles  to  a  stake; 
thence  north  two  hundred  poles ;  thence  east  one  hundred  and  sixty  poles  to  a 
stake  on  the  line  (li\iding  sections  13  and  14;  thence  soutli  two  hundred  poles 
to  the  beginning,  containing  two  hundred  acres  of  land,  for  which  said  tract 
we  have  taken  a  bond  for  conveyance  to  the  board  of  justices  of  said  county, 
as  the  law  provides,  within  twelve  months  from  the  date  hereof  in  the  penal 
sum  of  twentv  thousand  dollars,  conditioned  also  that  the  donors  shall  within 
six  months  from  the  re-location  or  survey  of  said  town  plat,  dig  and  stone 
on  the  public  square  of  said  town  a  well  of  living  and  dural^le  water,  and 
within  the  same  time  erect  and  finish  in  a  suitable  manner  a  temporary  court- 
house of  hewn  logs  to  be  at  least  of  equal  dimensions  with  the  old  temporary 
courthouse  at  Palestine,  which  bond  is  executed  by  Samuel  F.  Irwin,  Joseph 
Glover,  John  Owens.  Reul^en  Kilgore,  Moses  Woodruff  and  Lsaac  Stewart  as 
principals,  and  Moses  Fell,  Joseph  Rawlins,  Robert  M.  Carlton,  Marquis  D. 
Knight,  John  D.  Laughlin  and  Joseph  Lowery,  as  sureties,  and  which  we  now 
give  to  the  board  as  a  part  of  our  report.  We  have  therefore  agreed  on  the 
tract  of  land  before  mentioned  and  selected  the  same  for  the  permanent  seat 
of  justice  of  said  county.  We  have  also  valued  the  donation  which  was 
given  to  said  county  of  Lawrence  for  the  county  seat  at  Palestine,  agreeably 
to  the  provisions  of  the  act  aforesaid  mentioned,  and  have  appraised  the  valua- 
tion thereof  at  the  sum  of  three  dollars  per  acre.  In  witness  whereof  we  have 
hereunto  set  our  hands  this  9th  day  of  March,  A.  D.  1825. 

"Jonathan  Lyon, 
"Amassa  Joselyn, 
"John  Ketchum, 
"William    A^arshall, 
"E.  S.  Riley." 


Immediately  after  the  report  of  the  re-locating  commission,  arrangements 
were  made  to  impro\e  the  new  county  seat  location,  and  to  dispose  of  the 
town  lot  interests  in  the  old  town  of  Palestine.  The  name  Bedford  was 
selected  for  the  new  county  seat.  The  ground  for  a  ])uhlic  square  was 
ordered  cleared  off.  At  that  date  the  business  of  the  counties  in  Indiana 
was  conducted  by  a  board  of  justices,  who  assisted  the  county  agent  to  lay 
out  the  new  county  seat  town,  Bedford.  This  was  accomplished  March  30, 
1825.  Roads  \yere  then  projected  in  almost  every  direction  from  the  new 
town  site,  like  the  spokes  in  a  wagon  wheel.  The  county  clerk  was  directed 
to  remove  his  office  to  Bedford  at  the  earliest  moment  after  the  completion 
of  the  temporary  courthouse.  Committees  were  appointed  to  appraise  the 
values  of  the  lots  in  both  the  old  and  new  town,  according  to  legitimate  enact- 
ment, so  that  no  lot  owner  in  the  former  seat  of  justice  should  be  the  loser  by 
the  change.  The  county  buildings  located  at  Palestine  were  ordered  leased  to 
merchants  there  and  to  others.  N^umerous  claims  were  filed  against  the 
county,  differences  in  valuations  in  the  two  places  being  the  main  issues.  The 
men  who  had  originally  donated  the  lands  were  to  receive  three  dollars  per 
acre  for  their  lands.  Every  lot  owner  in  Palestine  could  claim  a  correspond- 
ing lot  in  Bedford  by  complying  with  the  law.  Many  did  not  do  this  at  first 
through  neglect  and  ignorance  of  the  inevitable  consequences,  so  finally  the 
Legislature  passed  the  following  act  as  a  means  of  honorable  relief  to  the 
suffering  parties : 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc. — That  John  Rawley  and  all  such  uther  i)ersons,  their 
heirs  and  legal  representatives  and  lawful  attorneys,  as  may  have  been,  on 
the  9th  day  of  Febmary,  1825,  owners  of  any  lot  or  lots  in  the  town  of  Pales- 
tine in  Lawrence  county,  for  which  the  purchase  money  has  been  paid  to  the 
agent  of  said  county,  and  who  may  have  neglected  to  apply  for  the  benefit  of 
the  act  to  which  this  act  is  supplemental,  shall  and  may  within  eighteen  months 
from  the  first  day  of  February,  apply  for  an  exchange  of  lot  or  lots  so  by  him 
or  them  owned  in  said  town  of  Palestine,  for  the  corresponding  lot  or  lots  in 
the  town  of  Bedford,  according  to  the  provisions  of  this  act.  .And  if  such 
corresponding  lot  or  lots  shall  ha\'e  been  .sold,  such  owner  or  owners  shall  be 
entitled  to  receive  from  the  county  treasury  of  said  county  by  order  drawn 
by  the  board  of  justices  of  said  county,  the  price  such  corresponding  lot  or  lots 
sold  for."     Approved  December  26,  1828. 


The  county  records  were  hauled  from  Palestine  to  Bedford  by  Richard 


The  public  well  on  the  square  in  Bedford  was  completed  in  September, 

Abraham  Music  was  allowed  twenty-nine  dollars  and  fifty  cents  for  clear- 
ing the  public  square  of  trees  and  grubs  in  Bedford. 

In  May,  1826,  the  townships  were  all  laid  off  into  road  districts.  That 
year  brass  clocks,  watches  and  pinch-back  jewelry  were  taxed  for  the  first  time 
in  this  county. 

Samuel  S.  Francis  was  paid  fifty-five  dollars  for  a  pump  in  the  well  on 
the  public  square. 

In  1827  it  was  found  necessary  to  bring  suit  on  the  bonds  of  the  donors 
of  land  to  the  county  at  Bedford,  to  enforce  the  signing  of  the  deeds  of  con- 
veyance. Town  orders  were  received  in  payment  for  town  lots.  Consider- 
able monev  commenced  to  be  paid  out  for  wolf  scalps. 

In  1830  the  county  agent  was  authorized  to  dispose  of  the  prop>erty  held 
at  Palestine  by  the  county.  He  was  allowed  to  sell  on  credit  in  case  no  better 
terms  could  be  made  with  purchasers. 

In  September,  1831,  the  Legislature  re-established  three  county  com- 
missioners instead  of  the  board  of  justices. 

John  Brown  was  employed  to  make  the  second  county  map  of  Lawrence 
county;  this  one  was  to  show  all  the  streams  within  the  county,  also  the  sec- 
tion lines. 

The  postoffice.  that  had  been  kept  in  the  county  clerk's  office  for  several 
years  up  to  1834,  was  then  ordered  removed  to  other  quarters. 

The  first  sale  of  lots  in  Bedford  was  in  June,  1826,  and  amounted  to  only 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  forty-nine  dollars,  and  two  hundred  old  dol- 
lars of  this  was  not  realized.  Of  course  the  sale  was  necessarily  smaller  than 
at  Palestine,  owing  to  the  even  exchange  of  lots  to  men  who  had  purchased 
over  there. 

In  1840  the  rate  of  liquor  license  was  placed  as  follows:  Bedford.  $40; 
Leesville,  $40 :  Bono.  $30 :  Lawrenceport.  $30 ;  Fayetteville,  $30 :  Springville, 
$30;  Paris,  $25;  Port  William.  $25;  Pinhook,  $25;  Helton's  store.  $25  (this 
was  in  Pleasant  Run  township),  and  each  of  all  other  places  in  the  county  $25. 

That  year  a  fence  was  constructed  around  the  courthouse  by  Rol^ert  M. 
Alexander  and  William  Stone,  at  a  cost  of  S140.  Richard  Butler  was  paid 
$100  for  laving  a  stone  pavement  around  the  public  square.  The  several 
banking  brokers  who  held  offices  in  Bedford  in  those  days  had  to  put  up  a 
hundred  dollars  a  year  to  do  business.  The  county  had  a  surplus  in  1840  of 
$10,202.91,  and  it  was  in  the  hands  of  George  G.  Dunn. 


In  1845  the  Masonic  lodge  was  allowed  the  use  of  the  jury  room  once 
each  week,  at  nightime. 

In  1848  the  county  offices  were  built  by  B.  F.  Huston.  All  shows  and 
dances  were  then  excluded  from  the  courthouse.  In  185 1  all  secret  orders, 
including  the  Masons  and  Sons  of  Temperance,  were  excluded  from  the  court- 
house. A  lot  owned  by  the  county  library  in  Bedford  was  sold  in  185 1.  In 
1853,  G.  A.  Thornton,  county  clerk,  was  paid  seventeen  dollars  for  registering 
seventeen  slaves,  negroes  and  mulattoes. 

In  the  month  of  August,  1861,  the  first  year  of  the  Civil  war  struggle, 
the  county  board  began  to  furnish  means  from  the  county  treasury  for  the 
relief  of  the  soldiers'  families ;  but  it  was  not  long  before  this  act  was  not 
approved  by  many  within  the  county,  hence  the  question  was  submitted  to  the 
people  at  the  1861  October  general  election,  and  was  approved  of  by  a  large 
majority  who  voted  to  sustain  the  appropriations.  Under  the  call  of  Decem- 
ber, 1864,  for  more  volunteers,  Lawrence  county's  quota  was  one  hundred 
and  forty-nine  men.  To  raise  this  number  of  men  a  bounty  of  one  hundred 
dollars  was  offered  by  the  board  for  each  volunteer,  and  bonds  to  the  amount 
of  fourteen  thousand  nine  hundred  dollars  were  ordered  sold.  Large  amounts 
of  funds  were  distributed  for  the  relief  and  keeping  of  soldiers'  families.  In 
this  the  county  acted  liberally  and  \yisely,  notwithstanding  there  were  not  a 
few  who  showed  their  hatred  for  the  Union  cause  by  trying  to  thwart  the 
plans  of  the  loyal  men  and  women  of  the  county. 

The  records  of  the  board  show  that  in  1868  the  commissioners  paid  one 
hundred  and  fifty  dollars  for  a  new  county  map  for  each  of  the  leading  county 

In  the  summer  of  1869  it  was  decided  to  commence  preparations  for  the 
erection  of  a  larger  courthouse. 


Of  the  various  courthouses  built  and  owned  by  Lawrence  county,  it  may 
be  said  that  the  first  was  the  temporary  log  house  erected  in  the  spring  of 
1818,  at  Palestine,  which  was  ordered  built  twenty  by  twenty-four  feet  of 
hewed  logs  "that  will  face  one  foot  front,"  and  to  be  two  stories  high,  "built 
in  a  good  and  workmanlike  manner,"  with  a  cabin  roof.  This  building  was 
completed  late  in  the  autumn  of  18 18,  and  was  used  about  two  years  until  the 
first  real  courthouse  was  erected  at  Palestine,  which  was  the  first  county  seat 
of  this  county. 



It  was  in  Xovemher,  rSiS,  when  steps  were  lirst  taken  to  erect  a  court- 
house at  the  newly  laid  out  county  seat.  Palestine.  John  AIcLane  was  ap- 
pointed to  superintend  the  construction  of  this  building.  It  was  first  designed 
to  be  built  in  (iCTagi mal  form,  with  stone  foundation  and  brick  walls,  with 
forty-five  windows  of  twelve  lights  each,  and  to  be  two  stories  and  "twenty- 
three  feet  to  the  square."  Wisely,  in  December  of  that  vear,  this  order  was 
rescinded.  In  January.  1S19,  the  sale  of  the  building  of  the  courthouse  was 
ordered  advertised  in  the  Salem  Tocsin,  and  the  Indiana  Gazette  at  Corydon, 
the  plan  of  the  structure  to  be  drawn  l)y  Robert  ]\I.  Carlton  and  John  Lowrey. 
It  was  t()  be  a  two-story  brick  building,  the  height  of  first  story  to  be  sixteen 
feet  and  the  height  of  the  second  storv  fourteen  feet,  the  foundation  to  be  of 
stone,  forty-five  b}-  forty-five  feet,  with  walls  of  brick,  two  feet  thick,  three 
doors,  thirty-six  windows,  four  chimneys,  six  fire  hearths,  each  window  to 
ha\e  twenty- four  lights  of  ten  bv  twelve  each,  the  judge's  bench, to  be  fifteen 
feet  long  and  five  feet  wide,  the  building  to  be  surmounted  with  a  cupola  bear- 
ing an  iron  rod  and  two  brass  balls  with  a  brass  eagle  between  the  latter,  three 
feet  from  tip  to  tip.  "the  liody  to  be  hollow  and  the  eagle  to  be  curiously  and 
artistically  wrought,"  the  building  to  have  four  rooms  above  and  to  have  a 
steel  lightning  rod  and  a  bell  weighing  three  hundred  pounds  and  to  be  ready 
for  occupancy  within  two  years.  The  contractor  was  to  receive  one  thousand 
five  hundred  dollars  in  advance,  two  thousand  dollars  when  the  roof  w^as  on, 
and  the  balance  when  the  building  was  finished.  James  Gregory  and  John 
Anderson  took  the  contract,  and  were  allowed  the  privilege  of  making  brick 
and  dressing  stone  on  the  public  square.  Work  was  commenced  at  once,  and 
numerous  changes  in  the  plans  were  made  from  time  to  time.  In  February, 
1819.  the  contractors  received  their  advance  payment  of  one  thousand  five 
hundred  dollars.  Sixteen  windows  were  omitted  from  the  first  plans.  The 
second  installment  was  paid  the  builders  December  17,  1819,  showing  that  the 
roof  of  the  structure  was  on.  From  that  date  on,  the  work  lagged,  and,  for 
a  reason  not  now  understood,  the  contractors  failed  to  go  ahead  with  the  build- 
ing operations,  and  in  July,  1821,  the  board  appointed  a  committee  of  three 
bricklayers  and  three  masons,  William  Rodman.  Peter  Nagel,  Lemuel  Ford, 
James  S.  Means,  John  E.  Clark  and  Jabez  Anderson,  to  examine  the  building 
and  estimate  the  value  of  the  work  already  done.  They  reported  the  building 
worth  $3,670.70.  and  Samuel  D.  Bishop  was  engaged  to  finish  the  structure, 
which  he  did  in  the  autumn  of  1821  at  a  cost  of  $1,791.37.     This  made  the 


building  cost,  all  told.  $5,500.  It  was  not  ready  for  real  occupancy  until  Aug- 
ust, 1822. 

The  old  courthouse  was  then  leased  at  fifty  dollars  a  year  to  Kelsey  & 
Mitchell,  merchants.  It  was  weatherboarded  and  painted  a  Spanish  brown 
color.     Later  the  rental  was  reduced  to  thirty-three  dollars  per  year. 

The  history  of  the  Palestine  courthouse  having  been  given,  the  reader  will 
be  interested  to  know  of  the  change  to  Bedford,  the  relocated  county  seat 


At  Bedford,  early  in  1825  a  temporary  courthouse  was  erected  of  logs, 
twenty-two  by  twenty-six  feet,  two  stories  high,  and  in  all  ways  similar  to  the 
one  just  mentioned  above,  as  the  county's  first  log  courthouse,  both  being 
designed  only  for  temporary  use. 

The  cost  of  the  Bedford  building  was  about  five  hundred  dollars.  This 
building  was  used  for  many  purposes  for  a  long  period  of  years.  In  1827  it 
was  weatherboarded  by  Samuel  D.  Bishop  for  thirty-four  dollars  and  sixty- 
six  cents.  No  one  thought  of  ])roviding  a  new  courthouse  for  a  number  of 
years,  "let  well  enough  alone"  being  the  policy  of  the  county  at  that  pioneer 
date.  In  183 1  the  board  of  county  commissioners  took  up  the  matter  of  build- 
ing a  more  suitable  temple  of  justice  and  advertised  for  bids  for  a  courthouse 
similar  to  the  one  at  Salem.  Robert  'SI.  ^Mitchell  was  accordingly  sent  to 
Salem  in  May,  and  there  obtained  complete  plans  of  that  structure.  The  old 
buildings  at  Palestine  were  ordered  sold,  the  proceeds  to  be  used  in  the  con- 
struction of  the  new  building.  The  contract  was  finally  awarded  to  John 
Lowrey  at  five  thousand  dollars,  to  be  paid  in  three  equal  installments,  except 
the  one  thousand  dollars  allowed  him  in  advance.  His  liond,  still  in  the 
county  records,  bears  date  of  May  3.  1831,  with  W'inthrop  Foote.  William 
Kelsey  and  Moses  Fell  as  sureties.  The  contract  was  carried  out  to  a  letter 
and  the  building  finished  and  accepted  in  May,  1834.  This  courthouse  served 
well  its  purpose  until  after  the  Civil  war  period.  In  the  summer  of  1869  the 
commissioners  looked  into  the  matter  of  providing  Lawrence  county  with  its 


Plans  were  prepared  in  July,  1869,  and  the  work  was  let  to  William  and 
George  Muir  for  twelve  thousand  seven  hundred  dollars.  It  was  advertised 
that  the  old  courthouse  could  be  used  in  the  construction  of  the  new.  The 
contract  with  the  Muirs  was  not   fulfilled,  and  July   t6.   1869,  Napoleon  B. 


Wilson  bid  to  erect  the  building  for  sixteen  thousand  nine  hundred  dollars, 
but  he  finally  withdrew  his  bid.  The  record  shows  that  on  August  ii,  1869, 
Thomas  N.  Stevens  and  Thomas  A.  Whitted  proposed  to  erect  the  structure 
for  eighteen  thousand  three  hundred  dollars,  and  gave  bonds  to  fulfill  such 
contract.  It  was  just  at  that  time  that  a  strong  pressure  was  brought  to  bear 
on  the  commissioners  to  locate  the  building  at  some  other  point  in  the  city 
of  Bedford,  claiming  that  the  noise  and  dirt  occasioned  by  the  nearby  Monon 
railroad  (as  now  known)  was  objectionable.  Other  reasons  advanced  were 
that  the  old  buildings,  if  torn  down,  would  not  be  of  the  value  they  might 
be  if  left  standing,  to  lease,  etc.,  for  business  purposes.  The  commissioners 
finally  went  so  far  as  to  purchase  Lot  No.  27  of  W.  C  Winstandley  for  seven 
hundred  dollars  and  Lot  No.  28  of  Clarissa  Acoam  for  one  thousand  dollars, 
intending  to  erect  the  building  thereon.  The  matter  did  not  materialize  until 
in  April,  1870,  when  the  board  were  petitioned  to  erect  the  house  on  the 
public  square,  and  a  donation  of  about  one  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  was 
tendered  as  an  inducement,  which  offer  was  accepted  by  the  board.  But  with 
this  change  there  came  a  demand  for  a  better  structure,  and  hence  new  plans 
were  drawn,  and  a  contract  entered  into  with  Thomas  N.  Stevens  for  the  erec- 
tion of  a  court  house  to  cost  $75,000,  including  the  two  lots  27  and  28,  which 
had  been  bought  by  the  board  as  before  stated  and  which  were  turned  over  to 
Stevens  for  one  thousand  seven  hundred  dollars.  Prior  to  this,  however, 
Hall  &  Harrison  had  laid  the  foundation  for  the  courthouse  at  an  expense  of 
about  $8,000.  In  September,  1870,  courthouse  bonds  were  issued  to  the 
amount  of  $10,000,  bearing  ten  per  cent,  interest  and  sold  at  par.  June  5, 
1871,  the  courthouse  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $50,000,  in  denominations  of 
$1,000  each,  bearing  ten  per  cent,  interest,  $12,000  due  in  two  years,  $12,000 
in  three  years,  $13,000  in  four  years  and  $13,000  in  five  years,  were  issued  and 
sold  at  par,  $48,000  to  Joseph  Rawlins  and  $2,000  to  E.  D.  Pearson.  With 
the  sale  of  bonds,  the  work  went  forward  rapidly  and  the  building  was  com- 
pleted in  1872.  The  old  courthouse  was  sold  in  June,  1871,  to  Davis  Har- 
rison for  $1,100.  In  September,  1872,  bonds  were  floated  to  the  amount  of 
$7,000,  with  which  money  the  county  graded  and  made  suitable  the  public 
square.  These  bonds  only  run  nine  months,  when  they  were  redeemed.  This 
building  was  constructed  of  the  celebrated  Bedford  stone  (St.  Louis  gray 
limestone),  and  cost,  everything  included,  about  $100,000.  This  is  the  pres- 
ent courthouse,  and  holds  its  age  remarkably  well.  While  the  architecture 
would  not  be  selected  today,  it  was  well  planned  for  the  date  in  which  it  was 
erected  and  has  been  a  comfortable,  safe  home  for  the  various  county  officials 
during  all  these  two  score  and  more  years. 




The  hrst  jail  in  Lawrence  county  was  constructed  in  ]\Iay,  1818,  and 
the  building  was  both  a  jail  and  jailor's  house.  It  was  at  old  Palestine  and 
was  built  under  the  bid  of  Thomas  Beagle>-.  It  was  about  fifteen  by  seven- 
teen feet  in  size  and  two  stories  high,  of  heavy  logs  one  foot  square,  eight 
feet  between  floors,  lined  with  heavy  planks  spiked  on  perpendicularly.  In 
February,  18 19,  Thomas  Beagley  was  paid  one  thousand  dollars  on  his 
contract,  and  in  August,  1819,  five  hundred  dollars  more,  but  then  the  work 
dropped.  In  1820,  on  petition  of  twelve  citizens,  suit  was  brought  upon  the 
contractor's  bond,  which,  after  search,  could  not  be  found,  and  therefore 
proceedings  were  suspended.  The  committee  appointed  to  value  the  court 
house  also  placed  a  valuation  on  the  "gaol  and  gaoler's  house."  making  a 
reduction  of  two  hundred  and  thirty-seven  dollars  on  the  contract  price, 
which  was  two  thousand  dollars.  The  balance  due  was  paid  and  the  build- 
ing immediately  completed. 

The  second  jail  was  proposed  ten  years  later,  1828,  and  in  May  of  that 
year  proposals  were  called  for  to  build  a  jail  in  Bedford  and  in  July  the  con- 
tract was  let  to  Samuel  D.  Bishop  for  six  hundred  dollars.  This  house  was 
of  logs,  and  was  paid  for  in  installments  of  two  hundred  dollars,  and  finished 
late  in  1829.  It  was  used  for  many  years  and  had  it  been  gifted  with  the 
power  of  speech  what  a  tale  it  could  have  told  of  life  among  the  lowly  and 

The  third  jail  of  this  county  was  the  one  known  as  the  "1858  Jail.''  In 
December,  1857,  the  work  of  building  a  new  jail  and  jailor's  residence  was 
commenced.  Specifications  were  made  calling  for  a  brick  jailor's  house  and  a 
stone  jail  to  be  built  together,  and  proposals  were  called  for.  During  that 
winter  the  contract  was  awarded  to  John  X.  Miller  at  nine  thousand  nine 
hundred  dollars,  and  early  spring  found  the  work  being  pushed  forward.  It 
became  necessary  to  issue  county  bonds  to  the  amount  of  four  thousand  three 
hundred  dollars.  The  building  was  completed  in  September,  1859.  This  served 
the  needs  of  the  county  until  1904,  when  jail  bonds  were  floated  to  the 
amount  of  thirty-three  thousand  dollars,  with  which  the  present  massive 
stone  jail  and  sheriff's  house  were  built.  It  is  but  a  few  blocks  to  the  south- 
west of  the  public  square. 


"The  poor  ye  always  have  with  you."  is  as  true  today  as  when  spoken 
by  the  Master  nearlv  two  thousand  vears  ago.     The  care  given  the  unfortun- 
(6)  '  ' 


ate  poor  in  any  communit)'  bespeaks  the  true  character  of  the  people  of  such 
community.  Here  in  Lawrence  county  the  records  show  that  a  year  after 
the  organization  of  the  county.  1819,  there  ^yas  an  order  issued  by  the  au- 
thorities to  pay  to  James  H.  Johnson,  of  Bono  township,  who  furnished  the 
first  relief  to  the  poor  of  this  county.  The  order  called  for  thirty  dollars. 
The  pauper  was  Matthew  Rose,  who  continued  upon  the  county  for  several 
years.  The  same  year  Air.  Johnson  received  twenty-nine  dollars  more  for 
such  relief  and  Dr.  Winthrop  Foote  received  five  dollars  for  medical  attend- 
ance upon  this  poor  person.  .Soon  afterwards  each  township  had  a  person 
appointed  and  known  as  the  overseer  of  the  poor.  He  hunted  out  the  poor 
persons  within  his  township  and  farmed  them  out  to  the  lowest  responsible 
bidders,  received  and  audited  the  expense  accounts  of  the  keeper,  and  sent 
the  bills  to  the  county  board  for  final  allowance.  In  1820  there  was  spent 
for  paupers  $73.20,  and  in  1822,  $103.  In  1825  the  amount  was  $122; 
1827,  $130;  1830,- $157:  1833,  $187.  and  in  1835,  $467.  By  this  time  the 
poor  had  come  to  be  a  burden  to  the  taxpayers  of  the  young  county.  Dr. 
John  C.  Cavins  was  appointed  county  physician  at  about  this  date. 

The  first  poor  asylum  was  provided  for  in  June.  1842,  when  William 
Newland  was  appointed  agent  to  purchase  a  site  fur  a  poor  asylum,  in 
amount  not  to  exceed  a  quarter  section  of  land,  nor  not  less  than  eighty 
acres,  and  to  be  within  eight  miles  of  Bedford.  By  the  fall  of  that  year  he 
had  purchased  a  hundred-and-sixty-acre  tract  of  Greenbury  Owens,  for 
eight  hundred  dollars.  There  was  on  this  fami  an  ordinary  dwelling,  which 
was  at  once  refitted  and  new  floors  provided  for  the  rooms,  and  Mr.  Owens 
appointed  superintendent  of  the  poor,  he  being  provided  with  all  needful 
articles  by  the  county  board.  Dr.  Winthrop  Foote  was  engaged  as  county 
physician  at  one  dollar  per  visit,  medicines  to  be  paid  for  extra.  In  March. 
1843,  tliere  were  seven  inmates  in  this  institution  for  the  keeping  of  the 
county's  poor.  Owens  filed  his  bills,  which  were  paid  by  the  board,  the  bill 
of  March,  1S43,  being  ninety-seven  dollars  and  thirty-five  cents  for  the 
quarter  for  pork,  lard,  corn,  coflfee,  sugar,  dressed  deer-skins,  etc.  One  cold 
night,  James  Bird,  an  inmate,  AAandered  away  from  the  asylum  and  was 
found  frozen  to  death  later.  In  1846  new  and  improved  arrangements  were 
enacted  for  the  caring  for  the  paupers  at  this  place.  In  1845-46  the  expense 
was  greatly  reduced  and  only  amounted  to  about  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
five  dollars.  Messrs.  Fredman,  Malott  and  Owens  were  then  superintend- 
ents. In  1847  ^1"^  apple  and  peach  orchard,  also  cherry  trees,  were  planted 
out  on  tlie  poor  farm.  There  were  only  seven  inmates  in  the  asylum  in  1847. 
In  1849  ^  iiew  roof  was  put  on  the  poor  farm,  or  asylum  as  it  is  now  styled. 


In  1 85 1  there  was  a  new  building  erected  on  the  farm  by  Levi  Overman, 
costing  $790,  and  was  moved  into  in  November  of  that  year.  At  that  date  a 
visiting  committee  has  charge  of  the  asyhim  and  farm.  The  expense  of  the 
place  in  1855-56  was  $1,619.  Each  permanent  pauper  cost  the  county  $80 
per  year  in  those  times.  The  rules  of  maintaining  this  institution  remained 
the  same  from  1855  until  about  1869.  The  cost  of  keeping  the  poor  in 
1859-60  was  $2,132;  1862-63,  $1,941.  In  1867  the  farm  rent  was  free  to  the 
superintendent  and  he  was  allowed  $140  a  year  to  keep  each  permanent 
pauper.  In  1864-65  the  expense  had  grown  to  $4,412;  1868  it  was  $5,004. 
In  1873  there  were  eighteen  paupers  in  the  asylum.  Early  in  the  seventies 
Archibald  Anderson  was  paid  $1,700  to  erect  a  new  frame  poor  house.  It 
was  two  stories  high.     In  1S84  there  were  thirty  inmates  in  the  asylum. 

Among  the  superintendents  of  this  institution  may  be  recalled  the  fol- 
lowing: Greenbury  Owens,  1842  on  for  a  number  of  years;  James  W. 
Freeman.  John  Colwell  and  Owens  served  jointly  for  some  time.  In  1846 
M.  A.  Malott  was  superintendent.  In  1847  came  J.  T.  Woodward;  Jonathan 
Loveall  was  superintendent  three  years  in  the  forties.  In  1857-58  Daniel 
Baker  was  superintendent:  then  came  John  Henderson,  1859-60:  W.  C. 
Mitchell,  1861-70:  William  Day  from  1870  on  into  the  eighties. 

The  state  reports  show  that  in  191 1  the  poor  relief  fund  amounted  to 
$3,067.     The  receipts  from  the  farm  that  year  was  only  $249.50. 

The  present  superintendent  is  Clay  Tirey,  who  is  paid  a  salary  and  all 
supplies  purchased  for  the  asylum  are  by  bidders  among  the  merchants  in  the 
county.  The  same  old  asylum  buildings  that  were  named  above  are  still  in 
use  by  the  county. 


Like  individuals,  counties  are  known  by  their  financial  standing.  No 
record  of  the  finances  of  Lawrence  can  be  given  for  the  earlier  years,  as  the 
records  have  long  since  been  scattered.  For  the  year  1833  the  total  receipts 
of  the  county  was  v$3.i45  and  the  expenditures  for  that  year  were,  elections, 
$12.75;  wolf  scalps,  $3.00;  poor,  $187;  attorneys,  $40;  county  board,  $48; 
bailiffs,  $41.50;  third  payment  on  court  house.  $1,333:  jailors  fees,  $32.31; 
assessor's  fees,  $50:  fuel.  $19.50:  the  pay  of  road  viewers,  $3.00:  contested 
election,  $14:  road  supervisors,  $102.25:  associate  judges.  $36.00:  grand 
jurors,  $67 ;  petit  jurors,  $88 :  delinquencies.  S246 :  treasurer's  fees,  $79 ; 
collector's  fees.  $161:  orders  redeemed,  $450:  cash  on  hand,  $123.27. 

At  the  end  of  1835  tlie  county  treasurer  had  on  hand  $271.65.  At  the 
close  of  1845  there  was  a  balance  on  hand  of  $1,415,  and  the  expenses  of  the 


county  .that  year  had  been  $3,541.  In  1850  the  county's  expense  was  $2,730 
and  the  year  closed  with  a  balance  on  hand  of  $1,352;  in  1853  t^''^  balance 
on  hand  was  $809;  in  1856  the  county  expended  for  all  purposes,  $5,170, 
and  had  on  hand  at  the  close  of  the  year  $1,669;  in  i860  the  cash  left  on 
hand,  after  spending  $13,203,  was  $4,836;  in  1863  there  was  on  hand,  after 
paying  out  $7,821,  the  sum  of  $6,679;  i"  1868,  after  paying  out  expenses, 
$36,988,  the  sum  of  $8,998;  in  1870  there  was  on  hand  $4,098,  after  paying 
the  running  expenses  of  $26,987;  in  1873  there  was  on  hand  $11,932, 
after  paying  out  $36,141.  In  1875-76  there  was  on  hand  $22,140;  in  1877-78 
there  were  receipts  amounting  to  bridge  bond  sales,  $19,800;  county  revenue, 
$49,701  ;  bridges,  $23,402;  county  officers,  $3,983;  balance  on  hand,  $1,454. 
In  1884  the  county  indebtedness  amounted  to  $68,248.00,  according  to  the 
account  kept  by  Auditor  Isaac  H.  Crim. 

With  the  passing  of  years  and  the  growth  of  the  county  the  expenses 
have  necessarily  grown  higher.  The  matter  of  providing  modern  roads, 
bridges,  schools  and  many  other  internal  improvements  have  all  added  to 
the  expenses  and  made  the  amounts  collected  much  greater. 

For  example,  as  early  as  18 19  a  bridge  two  hundred  and  eighty  feet 
long  and  sixteen  feet  wide  was  built  over  Guthrie  creek  on  the  Palestine  and 
Bono  road,  at  a  cost  of  over  $2,000.  The  next  bridge  of  importance  was  over 
Salt  creek,  built  in  1832-33,  at  a  cost  of  $1,258;  various  other  bridge  struc- 
tures prior  to  1870  cost  the  county  $25,000.  From  that  date  up  to  1884  the 
main  bridges  of  Lawrence  county  were  the  Salt  Creek,  in  1870,  $2,400; 
White  River,  at  Davis  Ferry,  $27,000;  \Vhite  River,  at  Tunnelton,  $27,000; 
White  River,  at  Dawson's  Ferry.  $25,000:  White  River,  at  Williams'  Ferry, 
$19,000.  These  bridges  were  all  built  nearly  thirty  years  ago.  and  many  if 
not  all  have  now  been  replaced  by  better  structures  and  have  cost  vast  sums 
of  money.  Then  the  improvement  of  the  roads  of  the  county  has  called  for 
an  endless  number  of  bridges,  large  and  small,  which  have  to  be  kept  in  good 
repair  by  the  taxpayers  of  the  county. 

The  financial  statement  of  the  county  officers  for  191 1  gives  this  exhibit: 
Total  receipts  of  treasurer,  $136,511.91;  total  expenditures.  $96,532.02.  The 
county's  debt  in  1911  was,  for  county  bonds,  $83,000:  the  amount  on  hand 
was  $35,801.  and  the  net  debt  amounted  to  $47,198.00. 

In  Januan-.  19 12.  there  were  gravel  roads  in  Lawrence  county  to  the 
amount  of  three  hundred  and  sixtj^-five  miles.  The  cost  of  repairs  on  these 
roads  at  that  time  was  about  $36,722  per  year.  The  total  outstanding  road 
bonds  December  31,  191T,  was  $354,805.00. 



The  assessed  valuations  of  property  in  Lawrence  county,  by  townships, 
in  1912,  less  exemptions,  was  as  follows:  Bono  township,  $406,910;  Flinn 
township,  $290,000;  Guthrie  township,  $889,185;  Indian  Creek  township, 
$945,075;  Marion  township,  $1,662,915;  Marshall  township,  $1,112,195; 
Perry  township,  $409,845 ;  Pleasant  Run  township.  $689,820 ;  Shawswick 
township,  $1,796,435 ;  Spice  Valley  township,  $692,635. 



While  it  is  not  the  aim  of  the  writer  to  go  in  detail  into  the  political 
conditions  that  have  obtained  in  Lawrence  county  during  its  history,  yet  it 
will  be  well  to  note  the  men  who  have  held  local  and  higher  offices  from  this 
county,  with  a  few  facts  concerning  the  political  campaigns,  especially  the 
results  in  presidential  elections,  etc. 

During  the  early  days  in  this  county  the  vote  was  usually  Democratic, 
and  generally  by  large  majorities.  The  returns  for  many  years  were  not 
preserved,  hence  it  is  impossible  to  note  them  in  this  chapter.  However,  the 
votes  cast  in  the  fifties,  as  shown  below,  will  give  the  reader  of  today  an 
understanding  of  the  complexion  of  politics  at  that  period  of  the  county's 
history.  When  very  popular,  a  Whig  candidate  sometimes  slipped  into  office, 
but  generally  it  was  Democrats  who  held  the  offices  from  this  portion  of 
Indiana.  The  Free  Soil  movement,  of  the  forties,  had  but  little  following 
here.  From  1858  to  i860  the  county  gradually  went  toward  the  Republican 
side  in  politics,  and  so  remained  for  many  years.  The  Greenback  and  other 
independent  parties  have  also  had  a  respectable  following  among  the  voters 
of  Lawrence  county. 


Commencing  with  1852,  the  results  at  presidential  contests  have  been  as 
follows:  In  1852,  the  standard  bearers  of  the  Democratic  party  were  Pierce 
and  King,  who  polled,  in  this  county,  a  total  vote  of  1,113,  ^-S  against  the 
Whig  candidates,  Winfield  Scott  and  Graham,  who  had  1,054  votes  in  the 

In  1856  there  were  three  Presidential  candidates  in  the  field.  Democratic, 
Republican  and  American  parties.  The  total  vote  for  the  first  named  party, 
with  Buchanan  and  Breckenridge  as  candidates,  was  1,126;  Fremont  and 
Dayton,  Republican,  had  480  votes,  and  Fillmore  and  Donelson,  of  the  Ameri- 
can party  (the  "Know  Nothings"),  polled  660  votes. 

In  i860  four  tickets  were  in  the  field.  Republican,  Democratic,  Southern 


Democrats,  and  Union  party.     By  townships  the  vote  of  that  eventful  cam- 
paign was  as  follows : 

Lincoln,  Douglas,  Breckenridge,  Bell, 

Townships.               Republican.  Democratic.  Southern  Dem.  Union. 

Shawswick    317  130  216  61 

Bono   80  87  45 

Marion 217  167  t,^  79 

Spice   Valley    132  91  8  41             ' 

Indian   Creek 96  ^6  50  5 

Perry 141  41  23  — 

Marshall 79  18  28  12 

Pleasant  Run 55  96  31  i 

Flinn    41  loi  128  4 

Total   T.I 58  787  525  208 

In  1864  the  result  was :  Total  in  county,  for  Lincoln  and  Johnson,  Rep., 
1,423;  for  McClellan  and  Pendleton,  Dem.,  1,087. 

In  1868,  the  total  vote  for  Grant  and  Colfax,  Rep.,  was  1,781  :  for  Sey- 
mour and  Blair,  Dem.,  1,468. 

In  1872,  Grant  and  Wilson,  Rep.,  had  1,833.  ^"^1  Greeley  and  Brown, 
Liberal  Democrat,  1,503. 

In  1876,  Hayes  and  Wheeler,  Rep.,  had  1,941,  as  against  Tilden  and 
Hendricks.  Dem.,  1,669;  Cooper  and  Cary,  Ind.,  90. 

1880,  the  three  tickets  were  the  Republican,  Democratic  and  Indepen- 
dent. The  votes  cast  stood  as  follows:  Garfield  and  Arthur,  Rep.,  2,057; 
Hancock  and  English,  Dem.,  1,701 ;  Weaver  and  Chambers,  Ind..  146. 

1884,  Blaine  and  Logan,  Rep.,  2,336:  Cleveland  and  Hendricks,  Dem., 

1888,  Harrison  and  Morton,  Rep.,  2,256;  Cle^■eland  and  Thurman,  Dem., 

1892,  Harrison  and  Reed.  Rep.,  2,529:  Cleveland  and  SteA'enson,  Dem., 
2.134;  Bidwell,  Proh..  34;  Weaver,  Nat.  Dem.,  157. 

1896,  McKinley  and  Hobart,  Rep.,  3,103;  Bryan  and  Sewall,  Dem., 
2,421;  Levering,  Proh.,  29;  Palmer,  Nat.  Dem.,  13. 

1900,  McKinley  and  Roosevelt,  Rep.,  3,535  ;  Bryan  and  Stevenson,  Dem., 

1904,  Roosevelt  and  Fairbanks.  Rep..  3,924;  Parker  and  Davis.  Dem.. 


2,672:  Swallow.  Proh.,  97;  Thomas  E.  Watson,  Peoples,  11;  Socialist,  58; 
Socialist  Labor,  12. 

1908,  Taft  and  Sherman,  Rep.,  3,834:  Bryan  and  Kern,  Dem.,  3,118; 
Chafin,  Proh.,  93;  Socialist,  T19:  Social  Labor,  4;  Independent,  3. 

191 2,  Taft  and  Sherman,  Rep.,  1,631  :  Wilson  and  Marshall,  Dem., 
2,579;  Roosevelt  and  Johnson,  Prog.,  2,106;  Proh.,  91  ;  Socialist,  308;  Social 
Labor,  33. 


John  DePauw,  1S18;  James  Gregory,  1821 ;  Samuel  Chambers,  1822; 
John  Milroy,  1826;  John  G.  Clendenin,  1829:  Samuel  Chambers,  1832;  Rich- 
ard W.  Thompson,  1836:  Gustavus  Clark,  1838;  George  W.  Carr.  1841 ;  Hugh 
Hamer,  1844;  M.  A.  Malott,  1847:  George  G.  Dunn.  1850:  *  *  * ;  A.  J. 
Hostetler,  1855;  Thomas  R.  Cobb  (Lawrence  and  Martin  counties).  i858'; 
Aaron  Houghton  (Martin  and  Lawrence),  1867:  James  Hughes  (Lawrence 
and  Monroe),  1869;  George  W.  Friedley  (Lawrence  and  Monroe),  1872; 
W.  B.  F.  Treat  (Lawrence  and  Monroe),  1877;  William  Taylor  (Lawrence, 
Monroe  and  Dubois),  1881  ;  James  H.  Willard  (Lawrence,  Martin  and  Du- 
bois), 1883. 

The  recent  state  senators  have  been  :  \A^illiam  N.  McDonald,  1890;  Louis 
Schneck,  1894;  T.  J.  Brooks.  1898;  William  N.  Matthews,  1902;  Henry  P. 
Pearson,    1906:   Oscar  Ratts.    1910. 


Samuel  Chambers  (Orange  county),  181 8;  Joseph  Glover,  1822;  Vinson 
Williams,  1823;  William  Erwin,  1824;  Lewis  Roberts,  1826;  Vinson  Will- 
iams, 1828:  Pleasant  Parks.  1829;  Hugh  L.  Livingston  and  William  B. 
Slaughter,  1832;  John  Brown  and  Absalom  Fields,  1833;  Pleasant  Parks  and 
Richard  W.  Thompson,  1834;  R.  W.  Thompson,  Noah  Boone,  1835;  Vinson 
Williams  and  Noah  Boone,  1836  ;  Vinson  Williams  and  Melcher  Helmer,  1837  ; 
M.  Hehiier  and  George  W.  Carr,  1838;  Hugh  Hamer  and  Robert  M.  Carlton, 
1839:  H.  Hamer  and  G.  W.  Carr,  1840;  Ralph  G.  Norvell  and  John  J.  Bar- 
nett,  1 841  ;  same  1842;  R.  G.  Norvell  and  William  Burton,  1843;  W.  Burton 
and  Lucian  O.  Hoggatt,  1844;  G.  W.  Carr  and  John  Edwards,  1845;  same 
1846;  Samuel  W.  Short,  1847;  G.  W.  Carr.  1848  (speaker  of  the  House)  ;  G. 
W.  Carr,  1849;  George  Lsom,  1850;  Melcher  Helmer,  1851  ;  David  S.  Lewis, 
T852:  *  -  *:  D.  S.  Lewis,  1854;  *  *  *;  Robert  Boyd,  1856; 
Nathaniel  \\'illiams,  1861  ;  Robert  Boyd,  1864;  Moses  F.  Dunn,  1866;  Will- 
iam H.  Edwards.  1872;  A.  J.  Williams,  1874;  Alfred  Guthrie,  1876;  Lycurgus 


Dalton,  1878:  Joseph  Gardner,  1880;  James  McClelland,  18S2:  J.  H.  Willard. 
1888:  E.  A.  Gleazen,  1890;  Stewart,  1894:  Porter,  1894;  T.  J.  Brooks.  1896; 
R.  B.  Scott,  1898;  S.  Adamson,  1900;  John  H.  Edwards,  1902:  Edwards. 
1904;  Edwards,  1906;  Calvin  Paris,  1910:  William  E.  Patton,  1912. 


John  Anderson.  March,  1818;  Samuel  W.  Biggs.  1819;  William  Kelsey. 
1819;  Rollin  C.  Dewe}',  1822;  Ezekiel  Blackwell,  1823;  Rollin  C.  Dewey, 
1824;  John  Brown.  1828;  R.  C.  Dewey,  1829;  Francis  F.  Williams,  1831 ; 
Edward  C.  Moberly,  1832:  William  Templeton,  1834;  A.  H.  Dunihue,  1835; 
Joseph  Rawlins,  1836;  Winthrop  Foote,  1839;  John  W.  Thompson,  1841 ; 
Henry  Davis,  1853;  George  Sheeks,  1856;  Dean  Barnes,  1858;  Thomas  H. 
Malott,  1862:  Hugh  Erwin,  1864:  John  B.  Glover,  1868:  Robert  Kelly.  1872; 
E.  C.  Newland,  1874:  F.  A.  Sears,  1877^  J.  D.  Moore,  1880;  Robert  Kelly, 
1882.     Robert  Kelly,  1884;  J.  McClelland,  1888;  J.  N.  Daggy,  1890;  J.  N. 

Daggy,  1892;  J.  N.  Daggy,  1894;  J.  N.  Daggy,  1896: Brown,  1898; 

William  H.  West,  1900:  William  H.  West,  1902;  Curtis  E.  Ray,  1904;  Curtis 
E.  Ray,  1906;  B.  Frank  Pitman,  1908;  B.  Frank  Pitman.  19T0:  Lincoln  Bur- 
ton, 1912. 


Robert  C.  Stotts,  March  2,  1818:  John  Lowrey,  1819;  John  Brown,  1829; 
John  Vestal,  1831;  John  Lowrey,  1845:  Andrew  Gelwick,  1852;  Charles  G. 
Berry,  i860:  W.  A.  Mathes.  1864:  John  F.  Richards,  1868;  William  Erwin. 
Jr.,  1875;  William  En\nn,  1880;  James  H.  McPheeters.  1884:  James  H.  Mc- 

Pheeters,  1888:  Frank  B.  Hitchcock,  1892;  Keithley,  1896:  Charles 

H.  Allen,  1904;  Charles  H.  Allen,  1908;  Thomas  N.  Chapman,  1912. 


John  Lowrey,  1818:  John  Brown,  1829;  Robert  Mitchell,  1832:  Gustavus 
Clark,  1845;  George  A.  Thornton,  1852;  David  Harrison,  i860:  John  Riley, 
1864:  John  M.  Stalker,  1872:  Roljert  H.  Carlton,  1880;  Thomas  V.  Thornton, 
1884 ;  Thomas  V.  Thornton,  1888 :  Isaac  H.  Crim,  1892  ;  Isaac  H.  Crim,  1896 ; 
Boone  Leonard,  1900;  Boone  Leonard,  1904;  Elbert  J.  Stalker,  1908:  Fred 
E.  Jackson,  191 2.  .         ■ 



Before  1841,  the  clerk  was  ex-officio  auditor.  John  Peters,  1841 ;  James 
A.  Pender,  1855;  John  M.  Harson,  1859;  Andrew  Gelwick,  1863;  Charles  T. 
Woolfolk,  1867:  J.  E.  Dean,  1874;  Isaac  H.  Crim,  1878;  Isaac  H.  Crim,  1882; 
J.  R.  Overman,  1886;  J.  B.  Mallott,  1890;  J.  B.  Mallott,  1894;  John  M. 
Gainey,  1898;  Walter  G.  Owens,  1902;  Walter  G.  Owens.  1906;  Ezra  W. 
Edwards,  19 10. 


Joseph  Glover,  1818;  Moses  Fell,  1882;  Joseph  Glover,  1826;  Robert 
Mitchell,  1828:  Joseph  Glover,  1831  ;  Isaac  Fish,  1835;  Lucian  O.  Hoggatt, 

1841;   Felix  L.   Raymond,    1843;   Andrew   Gelwick,    1847;   Jesse   K , 

1851 ;  William  W.  Cook,  1852;  Thomas  S.  Enochs,  1852;  Dixon  Cobb,  1855; 
E.  S.  Thompson,  1856;  J.  R.  Glover,  1858;  Joseph  Tincher,  1862;  William 
Daggy,  1864;  V.  V.  Williams.  1868;  Isaac  Newkirk,  1872;  M.  A.  Burton, 
1876;  F.  T.  Dunihue,  1878;  J.  M.  McDowell,  1882;  William  Day,  1886;  Will- 
iam Day,  1888;  R.  W.  Day,  1890;  George  W.  Holmes,  1892;  George  W. 
Holmes,  1894;  E.  R.  Dobbins.  1896;  E.  R.  Dobbins,  1898;  James  F.  Smith, 
1900;  James  F.  Smith,  1902;  Thomas  W.  Box,  1904;  Thomas  W.  Box,  1906; 
James  L.  Gyger,  1908;  William  H.  Sitler.  1910;  WiUiam  H.  Sitler,  1912. 


Robert  Mitchell,  1818;  William  Duncan,  1828;  Boliver  Duncan,  1852; 
Lycurgus  Duncan,  1858;  Dodridge  Short,  1870;  John  B.  Mallott,  1872;  John 
Mallott,  1874;  J.  B.  Mallott.  1876;  John  B.  Mallott,  1878;  John  Mallott, 
1880;  John  B.  Mallott,  1880;  John  B.  Mallott,  1884:  L.  Duncan,  1886;  L. 
Duncan,  1888;  L.  Duncan,  1890;  Heniy  Mclntire,  1892;  Henry  Mclntire, 
1894;  L.  Duncan,  1896;  Quincy  Short,  1898;  Noble  McPheeters,  1902; 
Ernest  Hunter,  1902;  William  M.  James,  1906;  William  M.  James,  1908; 
William  H.  Field,  1910;  HeniT-  Kindred,  1912. 


Benjamin  Blackwell.  1824;  William  Erwin,  1829;  Rollin  C.  Dewey, 
1832;  Asher  Wilcox,  1833;  William  Duncan,  1836;  Isaac  N.  Senter,  1844; 
William  Newland,  1846. 



John  Milroy  and  William  Erwin.  1818;  William  Field,  1890,  vice 
Milroy;  Joseph  Athon,  1831  ;  Pleasant  Padget,  1831  ;  Elzy  Woodward,  1835; 
John  Whitted,  1838;  Joseph  Hostetler,  1841;  Alexander  Butler,  1845;  .lohn 
Whitted,  1849;  Zachariah  Whitted,  185 1. 


Judges  court  common  pleas:  Jeremiah  Bundy,  i860;  William  Herod, 
1868;  Archibald  C.  Voris  (circuit  court),  1870;  E.  D.  Pearson  (circuit 
court),  1878;  E.  D.  Pearson,  1884;  H.  C.  Duncan,  1890;  W.  H.  Martin, 
1896;  James  Benjamin  Wilson,  1902;  James  B.  Wilson,  1908;  Joseph  Shea, 
1910;  Oren  O.  Swails,  1912. 


Ambrose  B.  Carlton,  i860;  Archibald  C.  Voris,  1868;  Joseph  Throop 
(circuit  court),  1870;  Wilson  Swingle  (circuit  court),  1870;  George  G. 
Dunn,  1876;  W.  H.  Edwards,  1878;  L.  Duncan,  1880;  J.  E.  Henley,  1882; 
J.  E.  Henley,  1884;  Simpson  Lowe,  1886;  S.  B.  Lowe,  1890;  Edmondson, 
1892;  Edmondson,  1894;  J.  A.  Zaring,  1896;  J.  A.  Zaring,  1898;  Robert  G. 
Miller.  1900;  Robert  G.  Miller,  1902;  Fred  N.  Fletcher,  1904;  Fred  N. 
Fletcher,  1906;  John  H.  Underwood.  1908;  William  M.  Louden,  1910;  John 
H.  Underwood. 


Wiley  Dixon,  Newton  F.  Malott  and  James  T.  Shields,  1858;  Newton 
F.  Malott,  Eli  Baldwin  and  Wiley  Dixon,  1859;  A.  C.  Vorhis,  John  L. 
Stewart  and  Dodridge  Short,  i860;  W.  N.  Bullett,  A.  C.  Vorhis  and  Dod- 
ridge  Short,  1861  ;  George  Sheeks,  June,  1861,  under  new  law  for  three 
years  alone.  A.  D.  Lemon,  September,  1861,  vice  Sheeks,  gone  to  the  war; 
J.  M.  Stalker,  1866;  William  M.  May,  1867;  James  B.  Crowe.  1868;  William 
B.  Chrisler,  1872;  James  P.  Funk,  1873;  first  superintendent,  William  B. 
Chrisler.  1874;  e/ B.  Thornton,  1879;  W.  B.  Chrisler,  1881  ;  W.  D. 
Ellison,  1883;  G.  M.  Morman,  W.  E.  Stipp,  R.  W.  Tirey,  L.  B.  Sanders. 


Thomas  Henton,  i8r8;  Peter  Hannason,  1819;  Joseph  RawHns,  1820; 
Samuel  F.  Irwin.  1824:  T.  H.  Briggs,  1826;  Elbert  Jeter,  1828;  Russell 
Mitchell,  1832:  E.  P.  Kennedy,  1833;  Lewis  Younger,  1837;  E.  P.  Kennedy, 
1841  ;  James  W.  Freeman.  1843;  Henry  Anderson,  1847;  L.  W.  Thompson, 
1850;  Henry  C.  Hardy.  1852;  Christian  Seibert,  1854;  Henry  Anderson, 
1856;  William  A.  Cook.  1857:  J.  P.  Potter,  i860:  H.  C.  Hardy.  1861 ;  John 
Reath.  1863;  A.  G.  Young,  1864:  Charles  Cramer,  1865:  W.  C.  Carson, 
1867;  Lewis  Younger,  1870:  Joseph  Stinehazen.  1872;  Ezekiel  Stout,  1874; 
Joseph  Stinehazen.  1876;  Alfred  C.  Harrison,  1877;  Alfred  Hamm,  1878; 
A.  C.  Hamm.  1880:  A.  C.  Hamm.  1882:  Hamilton  Stilson.  1884;  Julian 
Calonge,  1886:  J.  C.  Pearson,  1888;  J.  C.  Pearson.  1890;  James  Pearson, 
1892;  Dr.  Rariden,  1894:  Harvey  Voyles,  1896;  Harvey  Voyles,  1898; 
Perry  Woolery.  1890;  Richard  E.  Plummer,  1902:  Richard  E.  Plummer, 
1904:  Harvey  Voyles,  1906;  Harvey  Voyles,  1908:  George  L.  Gibbons, 
1910;  Thomas  L.  Harris,  1912. 


Ambrose  Carlton.  Thomas  Beazley  and  James  Stotts.  March.  1818; 
James  Fulton.  1819.  vice  Carlton:  Richard  Williams,  1819.  vice  Fulton; 
James  Wagoner,  1820,  vice  Stotts:  James  S.  Mitchell,  1820.  vice  Wagoner; 
Benjamin  Blackwell,  1821,  vice  Beazley;  Winthrop  Foote.  1821.  vice  Black- 
well;  William  McLain.  1821.  vice  Williams:  Moses  Lee.  1822.  vice  McLain ; 
John  R.  Crooke.  1823.  vice  Mitchell:  John  D.  Laughlin.  1823.  vice  Foote; 
John  Brown.  1824.  vice  Crooke:  Winthrop  Foote.  1824.  vice  Laughlin.  In 
September.  1824.  the  justices  of  the  peace  took  the  place  of  the  county  com- 
missioners in  the  transaction  of  county  business,  but  were  replaced  by  the 
following  commissioners  in  September.  1831  :  Samuel  F.  Irwin,  Absalom 
Fields,  John  Newland,  1831 ;  Hugh  Hamer,  1833,  vice  Fields;  Joseph  Raw- 
Hns, 1834,  vice  Irwin;  Vinson  Williams.  1835.  vice  Rawlins;  Thomas  Lemon 
and  William  Fish.  1836.  vice  Williams  and  Newland:  William  Johnson, 
1838.  vice  Lemon;  Felix  G.  Rawdins.  1839,  vice  Hamer;  Vinson  R.  Williams, 
1840,  vice  Fish;  Thomas  Dixon,  1841,  vice  Johnson;  Ephraim  Brock,  1842, 
vice  Rawlins;  Vinson  Williams,  1843:  Thomas  Dixon,  1844:  Ephraim  Brock, 
1845;  Vinson  Williams,  18^16;  Thomas  Dixon.  1847:  David  S.  Lewis,  1848, 
vice  Brock;  Abraham  Kern.  1849.  vice  Williams:  Thomas  Dixon,  1850; 
Tohn  Rains,   i8m.  vice  Lewis:  David  Mclntire.    i8;2.  vice  Kern:  Thomas 


Dixon,  1853;  Uriah  Dilley,  1854.  vice  Mclntire;  John  Rains,  1854;  Lewis 
J.  Baker,  1855,  vice  Rains;  Thomas  Dixon,  1856;  David  Mclntire,  1857, 
vice  Dilley;  James  W.  Prow,  1858.  vice  IMcIntire;  John  Rains.  1858,  vice 
Baker;  Robert  R.  Stewart,  1858,  vice  Prow:  Henry  C.  Huston.  1859;  J.  W. 
Prow,  i860;  Stewart;  Ambrose  Kern.  1861,  vice  Rains;  \\\  A.  Holland, 
1861,  vice  Huston;  Allen  C.  Burton,  1862,  vice  Huston;  ^^'illiam  H.  Ander- 
son, 1864,  vice  Kern;  H.  M.  Guthrie,  1865,  vice  Holland;  Allen  C.  Burton, 
1865;  Alfred  Guthrie,  1866,  vice  H.  M.  Guthrie;  Oliver  P.  Anderson.  1867, 
vice  W.  H.  Anderson;  Thomas  Reed,  1868.  vice  Guthrie;  Allen  C.  Burton, 
1868;  David  L.  Sheeks,  1870;  Ari  Armstrong,  1870;  ^^'illiam  A.  Holland, 
1871 ;  Wesley  Edwards,  1872,  vice  Sheeks;  Ari  Armstrong,  1873;  William 
Hunter,  1874,  vice  Holland;  Wesley  Edwards,  1875;  Alexander  C.  Glover, 
vice  Armstrong;  Cranston  T.  Dodd,  1877;  David  L.  Sheeks,  1878,  vice 
Edwards;  A.  C.  Glover.  1879;  \^■illiam  Stickles,  1880,  vice  Dodd;  Tilghman 
H.  Williams,  1881,  vice  .Sheeks;  A.  C.  Glover,  1882;  William  Stickles.  1883; 
John  M.  Sellers,  Aaron  Wright,  1884;  T.  S.  Stipe,  Wesley  Edwards,  1886; 

J.  W.  Cossner, Stipp,  1888;  J.  W.  Cossner,  W.  Edwards,  1890; 

Aylett  R.  Houston,  William  H.  Bryant,  1892;  J.  W.  Cossner,  M.  Robertson, 

1894; Sears,  Henry  C.  Trueblood,  1896;  Wesley  C.  Denniston, 

Henry  C.  Trueblood,  1898;  Amos  Scoggan,  George  B.  Ross,  1900;  Amos 
W.  Scoggan,  Anselm  Wood,  1902;  James  M.  Sowder,  Anselm  Wood,  1904; 
Preston  M.  Mavity,  Joel  L.  Hobbs.  1906;  Preston  M.  Mavity,  William  T. 
Embree,  1908;  Joel  L.  Hobbs.  David  S.  Cox.  1910;  Walter  A.  Jones,  1912. 



The  newspaper  has  always,  since  its  first  introduction  into  civiHzed  Hfe, 
been  a  potent  factor  toward  advancing  the  best  interests  of  the  community 
in  which  it  is  published.  It  is  true  that  sometimes  designing  men  get  control 
of  a  newspaper  and  through  its  columns  mislead  the  rank  and  file  of  the 
people,  but  this  only  lasts  a  short  time,  because  public  opinion,  as  a  general 
rule,  especially  under  a  democratic  form  of  government,  can  be  relied  upon 
as  standing  for  the  right.  So,  as  a  general  rule,  editors  are  in  harmony  with 
the  best  interests  of  a  community.  The  weekly  and  daily  press  has,  of  late 
years,  come  to  be  the  household  guide  and  these  publications  are  read  with 
interest  by  almost  all  thinking,  reasoning  men  and  women.  It  is  the  greatest 
medium  for  the  dissemination  of  truth  and  knowledge. 

The  first  paper  published  in  Lawrence  county  was  the  JFestern  Sun.  a 
small  five-column  folio,  subscription  rate  two  dollars  per  year,  and  its  politics 
was  Whig.  It  was  owned  by  a  stock  company  of  about  seven  leading  Whigs, 
who  bought  the  material  and  placed  it  in  charge  of  C.  H.  Allen,  as  publisher, 
and  whose  name  appeared  as  editor,  though  R.  W.  Thompson  was  in  fact 
the  editor  of  the  paper,  and  he  gave  full  tone  and  strength  to  the  publication. 
Allen  was  succeeded  by  several  others,  including  Marcus  L.  Deal.  For  five 
years  it  was  conducted  under  many  disheartening  circumstances,  and  was  at 
last  abandoned. 

In  1841  Isaac  Smith  founded  the  Bedford  Rez'iew  and  conducted  it  three 
years,  more  or  less.  He  had  W'illiam  Newland  associated  with  him  for  a 
short  time.  This  paper  also  had  the  Whig  banner  at  its  head.  In  1S45 
Comingore  and  Marts  commenced  the  publishing  of  a  paper  known  as  the 
Bedford  Sini.  a  Democratic  sheet,  edited  by  Judge  James  Hughes,  but  pub- 
lished by  Jacob  Marts.     It  was  discontinued  about  1848. 

In  the  spring  of  1848  James  V.  S.  Maxwell  began  the  publication  of  the 
Bedford  Herald,  and  continued  for  about  two  years,  and  it  is  believed  that  it 
was  succeeded  by  the  People's  Adz'ocatc.  conducted  for  a  short  time  early  in 
the  fifties  by  James  C.  Carlton.  In  September.  1849.  the  White  River  Stand- 
ard made  its  appearance  with  Leonard  Green  as  its  editor  and  proprietor. 
Green  was  an  able  man,  far  above  the  average,  and  his  was  the  best  paper 


published  in  Lawrence  county  up  to  that  date.  It  was  a  strong  Whig  organ. 
In  November,  1852,  it  passed  to  Judge  E.  D.  Pearson,  who  ran  it  until  1855, 
when  it  was  sold  to  Mathis  &  Berry,  who,  after  a  few  issues,  on  January  24, 
1856,  changed  the  name  to  the  Bedford  Independent.  In  May,  1856.  C.  G. 
Berry  was  alone  in  its  management,  and  later  his  son  was  associated  with 
him,  as  well  as  others.  Still  later  a  religious  journal  was  issued  here  by  S. 
H.  H.  Mathis.  Just  how  long  Beny  conducted  the  Independent  is  not  now 
known.  It  is  certain  that  in  the  year  1863  it  was  in  the  possession  of  Eli 
Dale,  who  had  changed  its  name  to  the  Bedford  Press.  October  6,  1863, 
number  7,  volume  XIV,  was  being  issued.  Early  in  1864  it  passed  into  the 
hands  of  William  A.  Gable,  who  changed  the  name  after  a  few  issues  back 
to  the  Independent.  Later  in  1864  and  early  part  of  1865  S.  H.  H.  Mathis 
was  again  at  the  head  of  this  paper,  but  was  later  succeeded  by  Gable,  who 
continued  until  May,  1867,  when  the  property  passed  into  the  hands  of  W. 
S.  Benhani.  At  this  time  the  paper  was  a  seven-column  folio  and  was  an 
excellent  newspaper.  In  April,  1868.  I.  H.  Thomas  took  the  property  over 
as  his  own  and  l>ecame  its  editor,  conducting  it  until  1874,  having  for  his 
associate,  for  some  time,  A.  B.  Cole. 

The  Laivrence  Democrat  was  established  in  1856  in  the  month  of  June, 
by  Messrs.  W.  R.  Johns  and  X.  F.  Malott.  It  was  from  the  outset  a  bright, 
sparkling  local  sheet,  and,  as  its  name  signifies,  the  organ  of  undefiled  Democ- 
racy. It  went  through  several  changes  and  after  three  years  was  discontin- 
ued. Its  successor  appeared  in  Februar}',  i860,  under  the  management  of 
George  Sheeks  and  A.  D.  Lemon,  and  it  was  called  the  Bedford  Enterprise, 
a  Democratic  paper,  carrying  Davie  Crockett's  famous  saying.  "Be  sure 
you  are  right,  then  go  ahead."  It  only  lasted  one  year  and  a  few  days.  In 
September,  1863,  Henry  M.  Beadle  commenced  the  publication  of  a  paper 
called  the  Bedford  Appeal,  a  seven-column  folio,  strong  in  the  Democratic 
faith,  politically.     It  was  issued  about  a  year  and  a  half. 

The  Bedford  Weekly  Nezvs  was  established  in  Jannaiy.  1870,  l)y  Yockey 
&  Conlev.     This  was  an  eight-column  folio.     X^othing  much  is  known  of  it. 

The  Bedford  Leader,  a  seven-column  folio,  was  founded  by  James  Glover 
about  June,  1872.  In  1876  the  True  Republican  was  established  by  G.  A.  J. 
Thomas.  In  May,  1879,  appeared  the  first  issue  of  the  Bedford  Republican, 
under  the  editorial  management  of  R.  A.  Connor  and  W.  S.  English.  John 
V.  Smith,  a  veteran  newspaper  man,  purchased  the  two  named  offices  and 
united  them  and  commenced  the  publication  of  the  Bedford  Journal,  which 
publication  lasted,  with  success,  until  August,  1884,  when  he  sold  to  F.  B. 
Hitchcock.     August  2d  that  year  Mr.  Smith  commenced  the  publication  of 


a  small  daily  paper  to  be  conducted  during  the  campaign  of  1884, — the  Blaine- 
Cleveland  campaign, — but  after  fourteen  issues,  owing  to  the  sale  of  the 
office  to  Hitchcock,  abandoned  the  enterprise. 

In  Februar>-,  1873,  M.  A,  Gelwick  commenced  the  issue  of  the  Law- 
rence Gazette,  which  was  continued  some  time  with  much  success.  In  1876 
H.  H.  Friedley  was  the  editor  of  this  journal. 

The  Democratic  Banner  was  launched  by  Yockey  &  Conley,  editors  and 
managers,  about  1868-69.  The  material  was  largely  furnished  by  the  leading 
Democrats  of  the  \icinity.  Tlu's  paper  soon  had  great  influence  in  this 
county,  among  the  Democratic  portion  of  the  county,  and  in  fact  continued 
so  many  years.  It  was  sold,  however,  in  1871,  or  possibly  a  year  later,  to 
Tames  Carlton,  but  soon  went  back  to  Mr.  Yockey,  who  later  sold  an  in- 
terest to  A.  J.  Hostetler,  who  worked  up  a  large  circulation  and  did  an  exten- 
sive job  business  and  had  his  columns  full  of  paying  advertising  matter. 

The  Bedford  Star,  a  Democratic  organ,  was  established  in  1875  by  John 
Johnson,  Jr.  It  was  started  as  a  four-column  folio,  then  enlarged  to  a  five 
and  still  later  to  a  six-column  paper. 

James  Glover  established  the  News  about  1875,  but  in  two  months'  time 
it  was  counted  among  the  defunct  papers  of  Lawrence  county. 

A  paper  known  as  the  Morning  Call  was  issued  for  a  time  by  Mr.  Vestal. 
The  Bedford  Magnet,  a  Republican  paper,  was  founded  in  1879  by  Henry 
S.  Osborne,  first  as  a  daily,  then  a  tri-weekly,  then  as  a  bi-weekly.  In 
August,  1884,  it  was  consolidated  with  the  Bedford  Journal,  just  purchased 
by  Frank  B.  Hitchcock,  of  Flora,  Illinois.  This  new  paper  was  first  called 
the  Lazvrence  Mail,  but  the  name  was  afterward  changed  to  the  Bedford 
Mail  Osborne  &  Hitchcock  were  the  proprietors  and  editors.  In  1889, 
nearly  two  years  after  the  death  of  Mr.  Osborne,  Fred  B.  Otis  bought  his 
half  interest,  the  firm  becoming  Hitchcock  &  Otis.  In  1892  the  daily  edition 
of  the  Mail  was  started.  In  1896,  soon  after  the  death  of  Mr.  Hitchcock, 
Thomas  J.  Brooks  bought  the  Hitchcock  half  interest,  and  the  fimi  became 
Otis  &  Brooks,  with  Messrs.  Brooks  and  Otis  as  editors  and  proprietors.  In 
19 1 2  the  Mail,  having  outgrown  the  building  on  the  south  side  of  Sixteenth 
street,  half  a  block  east  of  the  public  square,  which  it  had  occupied  for 
twenty-three  years,  the  firm  exchanged  its  old  building  and  lot  for  a  larger 
lot  directly  across  the  street,  and  erected  a  handsome  stone-front  brick 
building  forty  by  seventy-five,  and  installed  a  modem  plant,  with  a  No.  8 
linotype  and  Duplex  press. 

In  1885  John  Johnson,  Jr..  owner  of  the  Bedford  Star,  an  independent 
Saturday  paper,  bought  the  Bedford  Banner  of  A.  J.  Hostetler,  and  merged 


the  two  papers  under  the  name  of  the  Bedford  Democrat,  the  new  paper  be- 
coming the  Democratic  organ  of  the  county,  with  John  Johnson,  Jr.,  as  owner 
and  editor.  In  1892  the  daily  edition  was  started.  In  1903,  following  the 
death  of  Mr.  Johnson,  the  paper  was  bought  by  Charles  P.  Butler,  of  North 
Vernon,  Indiana,  who  established  the  plant  in  its  own  building,  erected  for 
the  purpose,  on  the  west  side  of  J  street,  one-half  block  north  of  the  public 
square,  put  in  a  new  cylinder  press  and  linotype. 

In  1895  Fred  Way,  a  job  printer,  started  a  little  paper  called  the 
X-Ray,  and  later,  taking  F.  A.  Likely  into  partnership,  changed  the  name  to 
the  Republican,  making  it  both  daily  and  weekly.  In  1900  D.  Y.  Johnson  and 
O.  H.  Griest  purchased  the  paper,  but  afterward  sold  it  to  Lee  Robinson.  The 
paper  did  not  prosper,  and  after  changing  hands,  at  short  intervals  for  a 
while,  finally  suspended  and  the  plant  was  "scrapped." 

Another  newspaper  was  established  in  1873,  called  the  Bedford  Mirror, 
but  it  was  not  long  lived, 


The  first  newspaper  to  lirighten  the  homes  (jf  the  town  of  Mitchell  was 
the  Republican,  which  paper  was  established  just  at  the  close  of  the  Civil 
war  period  by  J,  M,  Griffin,  who  brought  his  presses  from  Vincennes,  In- 
diana, in  the  summer  of  1865.  He  did  not  prove  to  be  the  right  man  in  the 
right  place,  so  after  a  few  issues  it  was  discontinued  and  the  press  was  sold 
to  parties  in  Paoli,  and  from  it  was  issued  the  Republican  of  that  place. 

In  February,  1866,  a  man  named  Rumrill,  of  Seymour,  associated  him- 
self with  Mr,  Woodward,  under  the  firm  name  of  Woodward  &  Rumrill,  and 
they  started  the  Mitchell  Conuucrcial.  The  ])aper  was  under  the  control  of 
Mr.  Wood-ward,  as  editor,  publisher  and  printer.  He  was  a  racy  writer  and 
made  an  interesting  ])aper  for  the  people  of  Mitchell,  but,  with  the  coming 
of  the  spring  sunshine,  he  sought  other  fields.  ^Ir.  Rumrill  then  sold  the 
office  fixtures  and  good  will  (what  there  might  have  been  of  it)  to  Messrs. 
Simpson  Burton  and  J.  K.  Howard,  who  were  at  that  date  joint  principals  of 
Mitchell  Seminary,  and  Frank  H.  King,  wlio  was  their  music  teacher,  took 
editorial  charge  of  the  paper.  His  time  being  demoted  tcj  nuisic  more  than  to 
his  editorial  duties,  the  paper  did  not  fill  a  great  and  "long-felt  want"  in  the 
town  and  community  'round  about.  King  also  issued  from  that  office  The 
Mimical  Monthly.  In  1867  Charles  G.  Berry  became  editor  and  publisher 
of  the  Commercial.  Berry  was  a  fine  scholar,  a  good  man  and  well  suited 
for  such  position.  He  was  also  a  practical  printer,  which  also  counted  for 


much  in  the  running'  of  a  paper.  For  a  time  his  son,  H.  L.  Berry,  was  asso- 
ciated with  him.  In  July,  1872,  Dr.  E.  S.  Mclntire  bought  the  office  and 
became  its  editor  and  pubHsher.  Under  his  administration  the  paper  was 
radically  Republican,  but  thoroughly  independent,  which,  of  course,  made 
him  many  warm  friends  and  also  not  a  few  bitter  enemies,  politically.  The 
circulation  was  extended  and  his  advertising  was  liberal.  In  the  autumn  of 
1 88 1  a  new  fast  press  was  added  to  the  office's  equipment,  and  the  old  Frank- 
lin hand-press,  then  supposed  to  be  the  oldest  in  southern  Indiana,  was  shipped 
to  the  foundry,  after  having  been  in  constant  use  since  1835.  The  good 
Doctor,  however,  tiring  of  this  sort  of  professional  career,  sold  the  office  to 
M.  N.  Moore  &  Son  in  May.  1883.  M.  T.  Moore,  the  son,  was  a  brilliant 
head-line  writer,  but  he,  too,  soon  tired  of  the  dingy  walls  of  a  country  print 
shop,  and  the  office  was  sold,  in  October  that  year,  to  George  Z.  Wood,  who, 
in  1884,  was  still  publishing  the  paper,  with  T.  J.  Tanksley  as  his  local  editor. 
At  that  date  the  Commercial  held  the  distinction  of  being  the  oldest  paper 
within  the  radius  of  forty  miles.  In  September,  1884,  it  was  sold  to  John  V. 
Smith,  late  of  the  Bedford  Journal.  Since  then  there  have  been  many  changes. 
Judge  W.  FI.  Edwards  was  in  charge  for  some  time,  then  E.  L.  Lee  and 
Hane  &  Thurston  and  they  followed  by  McShane  &  Thurston.  January  i, 
1897,  the  office  was  sold  to  Woolheather  &  Chitty,  who  came  here  from 
Kansas,  this  being  the  birthplace  of  Howard  Chitty,  the  junior  member  of 
the  firm,  and  for  three  years  they  worked  hard,  getting  out  two  pages  at 
home  and  two  "patent"  from  Cincinnati,  and  printing  one  seven-column  page 
at  a  time  on  a  large  job  press.  On  account  of  the  antiquated  condition  of  the 
material  in  the  office  and  the  limited  amount  of  business  in  sight  at  that  time, 
it  was  decided  there  was  not  profit  sufficient  to  support  two  heads  of  families, 
so,  on  January  i,  1900,  H.  E.  Woolheater  sold  his  interest  in  the  Coiiiiiercial 
to  Howard  Chitty,  who  is  yet  in  charge,  and  has  been  connected  with  the 
Commercial  for  sixteen  vears.  There  is  now  nothing  in  the  office  of  the 
original  purchase  excepting  two  solid  black  walnut  type  cabinets,  prized  for 
their  antiquity,  and  the  fact  that  type  cabinets  made  of  solid  black  walnut 
are  not  on  the  market,  and  not  to  be  had  at  any  price.  There  is  also  one 
small  jol)  press  that  was  ])ought  with  the  office.  The  equipment  now  consists 
of  a  rapid  two-revolution  news  press,  two  jobbers,  linotype  machine,  cabinets 
for  all  type,  instead  of  the  old  home-made  racks  of  yore,  and  the  Commercial 
issues  from  four  to  six  pages  each  week,  all  printed  at  home.  At  this  time 
four  people  are  employed  in  the  Commercial  office.  Howard  Chitty,  as  editor 
and  publisher;  Mrs.  William  Shanks,  city  editress:  Roy  Lanham,  of  Sey- 
mour, foreman,  and  Miss  Maude  Hamilton,  of  Shoals,  as  linotype  operator. 


The  Mitchell  Times  was  established  January.  1876.  Charles  L.  Yockey 
at  that  date  published  the  Bedford  Banner,  and  he  made  one  side  of  his  sheet 
the  Mitchell  Times,  and  the  joint  newspaper  was  issued  in  the  two  towns 
that  year.  The  local  editor  at  Mitchell  was  Dr.  John  T.  Briggs.  In  1877 
this  two-sided  paper  was  abandoned,  and  Dr.  Briggs  gave  the  Times  a  separ- 
ate existence  in  the  field  of  journalism.  He  made  it  a  Democratic  organ  for 
the  south  side  of  Lawrence  county.  It  was,  from  the  start,  a  bright,  newsy 
sheet,  intensely  partisan,  and  not  unfrequently  sparkled  with  genuine  wit. 
He  continued  as  its  editor  until  January  18,  1884,  when  he  sold  the  office  to 
Charles  L.  Yockey,  a  practical  printer,  and  a  man  of  many  years'  newspaper 
and  editorial  work. 

There  were  a  few  other  newspaper  ventures  in  Mitchell,  in  early  days, 
not  already  mentioned.  Init  all  were  short-lived  attempts.  One  Albert  Johns- 
ton, when  a  mere  boy,  published  an  amateur  sheet  called  the  Star.  The  En- 
terprise was  another  paper  started  by  Harry  Davis,  a  printer  of  the  Commer- 
cial office.  This  was  launched  in  1874,  but  it  was  soon  snuffed  out  of  exist- 

At  Leesville  a  miniature  newspaper  was  established  in  1877  by  Micajah 
Allen.  This  was  known  as  the  Sun,  but  later  called  the  Index.  These  were 
both  very  small  concerns.  The  Graphic  was  established  in  May,  1882,  by 
McHenry  Owen.  It  was  a  four-column  folio  sheet,  but  changed  later  to  a 
six-column  paper.    It  was  running  in  1884,  and  was  Democratic  in  its  poliitcs. 

At  Oolitic  the  Progress  was  launched  a  few  months  since,  but  no  history 
of  it  was  to  be  obtained  by  the  historian. 



In  the  march  of  civilization  the  common  school  has  been  a  potent  factor. 
Before  the  present  system  of  public  schools,  this  county  had  only  the  sub- 
scription and  private,  select  schools.  The  pioneer  band  who  invaded  the  wilds 
of  Lawrence  county  did  not  neglect  the  education  of  their  children,  but 
sought  out  every  then  known  means  of  providing  at  least  a  fair  schooling 
for  their  rising  sons  and  daughters.  Four  years  prior  to  the  county's  real 
organization,  or  in  1814.  the  first  school  was  taught  in  the  territory  now 
within  Lawrence  county.  This  school  was  taught  at  Leesville,  and  for  two, 
and  probably  three,  years  was  the  only  school  in  this  county.  It  was  taught 
by  an  Irish  monk  named  Langdon,  who  was  highly  educated.  He  continued 
hereabouts  until  181 7.  It  was  during  that  year  that  the  second  school  in  the 
county  was  opened  and  he  became  its  teacher.  This  term  was  taught  on  the 
farm  of  James  Conley.  in  what  is  now  Guthrie  township.  The  house  was 
located  three  hundred  yards  west  of  the  small  tunnel,  near  Lawrence- 
port.  Iliree  months  was  the  duration  of  this  second  school  in  Lawrence 
county.  The  building  in  which  it  was  held  was  built  for  the  purpose  by 
Mr.  Conley,  whose  children,  Charles,  Joshua,  Hugh.  Joseph,  Nancy,  Peggy 
and  Diana,  principally  composed  the  school.  After  this  term,  Langdon,  the 
Irishman,  went  down  the  ri\er  to  the  Johnston  settlement,  where  he  taught 
for  two  years.  Probably  the  third  school  in  what  is  now  Lawrence  county 
was  on  the  present  site  of  Lawrenceport  in  1818,  by  Thomas  Fulton.  The 
school  Imilding  stood  near  the  mouth  of  Fishing  creek,  and  among  the  schol- 
ars may  he  remembered  James  and  Elizabeth  Chess  and  a  Miss  McManis. 
In  1820  a  temi  was  taught  near  where  later  stood  the  Guthrie  bridge,  on 
land  subsequently  owned  by  George  Foster.  Later,  an  old  cotton-gin  house 
was  pressed  into  service  for  school  purposes.  About  that  date  numerous 
schools  were  being  held  in  log  cabins  here  and  there  over  the  settled  portion 
of  the  county. 

In  Indian  Creek  township  there  were  several  early-day  schools,  for 
there  were  many  settlers  in  that  part  of  the  county.  The  first  of  such  schools 
was  doul)t]ess  tlie  one  kept  a  few  hundred  yards  south  of  present  Fayette- 


ville.  This  has  been  graphically  described  as  "A  small  round  log  house,  with 
a  clapboard  roof,  a  'cat-clay'  chimney,  a  puncheon  floor  and  greased-paper 
windows."  The  furniture  was  of  the  roughest  type,  the  benches  having  been 
made  from  saplings  split  in  two,  with  legs  inserted  in  auger  holes  through 
them.  Writing  desks  were  made  by  hewing  out  a  slab  and  hanging  on  pegs 
on  the  side  of  the  walls,  where  the  light  was  the  best.  No  wonder  so  many 
of  the  earlier  generations  were  ])oor  writers,  or  could  not  write  their  own 
names  at  all.  The  school  children  of  the  present  age  do  not  begin  to  appre- 
ciate the  comforts  and  advantages  which  are  thrown  around  them  in  their 
school  life.  The  conditions  that  confronted  our  fathers  and  grandfathers 
were  entirely  different,  yet  those  days  really  produced  many  illustrious  men 
and  gifted,  accomplished  women.  The  first  to  teach  in  the  last  named  school 
was  a  Mr.  Ditto,  who  taught  but  one  term.  In  1822  a  new  school  house  was 
provided  for  this  settlement,  on  land  later  owned  by  Noah  Kern,  but  then 
by  Peter  Smith..  Here  John  R.  Cooke  was  first  to  serve  as  master,  as  school 
teachers  were  commonly  styled  then.  A  few  years  after  it  was  erected,  this 
school  house  was  destroyed  l)y  a  whirlwind,  and  a  child  of  Abraham  Martin 
was  killed  by  the  falling  of  a  beech  tree.  The  building  was  finally  repaired 
and  served  for  school  purposes  several  years  longer. 

In  Marion  tow  nship,  where  schools  early  took  front  rank,  the  first  school 
house  was  the  hewed-log  structure  built  in  1824,  and  was  the  first  one  of  its 
kind  in  Law  rence  county.  \\'iley  G.  Burton  later  owned  the  land  where  this 
building  stood.  Probably  John  McLean  was  first  to  teach  there,  and  follow^- 
ing  him  came  the  one-legged  teacher.  Samuel  Daltun.  Xext  to  teach  here 
was  Mr.  Evans,  who  lost  his  position  as  teacher  l)ecause  he  was  frequently 
caught  napping  during  school  hours.  He  was  succeeded  by  one  of  a  different 
temperament,  a  Mr.  Bethey,  who.  it  is  related,  cleared  off  ten  acres  of  land 
outside  of  his  regular  school  hours.  Daniel  Watkins  came  next.  He  was  a 
Welshman  and  remained  a  teacher  in  this  hewed-log  house  for  seven  years. 

Year  after  vear  educational  matters  in  this  state  took  on  better  phases, 
until  finally  the  common  free  school  system  was  established  in  the  thirties 
and  early  forties.  It  would  be  useless  to  attempt  to  trace  all  the  schools  in 
the  early  settlement,  for  it  is  impossil)le  to  do  so. 

Coming  down  to  1883.  thirtv  ^•ears  ago.  the  records  of  the  county  show 
that  the  various  townships  made  the  following  showing  in  way  of  schools 
carried  on  at  the  expense  of  the  taxpayers : 

The  total  numljer  of  persons  between  the  ages  of  six  and  twenty-one 
years  in  1883  was  6.658.     Of  these,  there  were,  of  white.  3.339  males  and 


3,125  females;  of  colored,  56  males  and  78  females.  The  school  reports  for 
1884  have  this  exhibit,  in  substance: 

Flinn  township,  290  pupils,  six  school  houses. 

Pleasant  Run  township,  619  pupils,  twelve  school  houses. 

Perry  township,  307  pupils,  five  school  houses. 

Indian  Creek  township,  601  pupils,  fourteen  school  houses. 

Spice  Valley  township,  722  pupils,  thirteen  school  houses. 

Marion  township,  665  pupils,  twelve  school  houses. 

Bono  township,  264  pupils,  seven  school  houses. 

Shawswick  tov/nship,  627  pupils,  fifteen  school  houses. 

Marshall  township,  437  pupils,  seven  school  houses. 

Guthrie  township,  362  pupils,  seven  school  houses. 

Mitchell,  Town  of — 755  pupils,  one  school  building. 

Bedford,  City  of — 956  pupils,  two  school  buildings. 

Total  number  of  pupils,  6,604;  number  of  houses,  loi. 

At  that  date  the  teachers'  wages  were:  Males  averaged  $1.58  per  day; 
females  averaged  $1.50  per  day.  The  total  numl:)er  of  teachers  in  the  county 
was  51  male  and  68  female. 


From  a  description  of  educational  facilities  written  about  a  third  of  a 
century  ago,  it  is  learned  that  Flinn  and  Pleasant  Run  townships  ranked 
alx)ve  the  average  in  the  country  districts  of  Lawrence  county.  Longer 
terms  were  then  taught  there  than  elsewhere  in  this  county;  however,  the 
school  buildings  were  not  in  as  good  repair  as  in  other  portions  of  the  county. 
The  one  in  the  township  styled  Jackson  was  nearly  new  and  was  provided 
with  patent  seats  and  other  modern  appliances  for  the  children's  comfort.  In 
1858  there  was  organized  at  Leesville  a  very  excellent  high  school.  This 
was  owned  and  established  by  a  joint  stock  company  organized  for  that  pur- 
pose. The  building  was  a  two-story  brick  structure,  with  two  study  rooms 
and  one  recitation  room.  Its  cost  was  not  far  from  five  thousand  dollars. 
After  1883  there  was  no  school  held  here,  however.  The  first  teacher  was  a 
Mr.  Maxwell,  who  was  followed  by  Messrs.   Boston,   Rev.   Stalker,   L.   W. 

Johnson, Hobbs,  R.  W.  May,  Albert  May,  W.  T.  Branaman  and 

D.  H.  Ellison,  who  became  the  superintendent  of  schools  for  Lawrence  county 
in  the  early  eighties. 

Next  after  Flinn  township  came  Pleasant  Run,  where  fully  one-third  of 
the  school  houses  were  frame,  nearly  new,  and  the  balance  in  good  condition. 


This  township  in  1884  had  the  only  log  school  house  in  use  in  Lawrence 
county.  One  of  the  best  school  houses  in  the  county  was  at  that  date  in 
Springville,  Perry  township.  It  was  a  two-story  building,  covered  by  a  slate 
roof.  In  Indian  Creek  township,  in  the  eighties,  the  school  buildings  were  in 
the  poorest  condition  of  any  in  this  county.  In  Spice  Valley  the  houses  were 
but  little  better,  although  there  were  some  almost  new^  ones,  which  were  soon 
followed  by  others.  In  Marion  township  at  that  date  there  were  some  of  the 
best  buildings  in  the  county.  The  furniture  and  fixtures  were  modern  for 
that  time,  but  the  terms  of  school  \vere  the  shortest  of  almost  any  within  the 
county.  The  best  school  in  Bono  towmship  was  then  kept  at  Lawrenceport, 
yet  there  were  sevei-al  others  nearly  as  good.  In  Shawswick  township  the 
schools  were  far  more  numerous  than  in  any  other  section  of  Lawrence 
county  in  the  early  eighties,  in  fact  in  some  parts  they  were  said  to  have  been 
too  numerous,  exhausting  the  resources  of  the  township  without  doing  the 
general  good  they  might  have  done  if  there  had  not  been  so  many  to  main- 
tain. The  only  brick  school  building  in  the  county  in  1884,  aside  from  the 
one  at  Bedford,  was  the  one  located  at  the  town  of  Mitchell.  That  was 
well  equipped  with  everything  up-to-date,  and  no  school  in  any  township  of 
the  county  was  doing  better  w^ork,  week  in  and  week  out,  than  this  one.  A 
house  was  erected  at  Guthrie  in  t88i  at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  five  hundred 
dollars.  One  of  the  best  township  schools  in  the  county  was  at  Tunnelton, 
in  Guthrie  township. 

At  Mitchell  there  was  erected  in  1856  a  small  brick  school  house.  The 
first  term  of  school  there  was  taught  in  the  wnnter  of  1856-57  by  E.  M. 
Baldwin.  All  the  terms  of  school  taught  in  that  liuilding  were  on  the  old- 
fashioned  subscription  plan.  The  school  of  1859-60,  which  used  the  public 
money,  supplemented  this,  and  the  building  later  was  used  for  the  colored 
people  of  the  town  for  meeting  house  purposes. 


This  educational  institution  was  established  in  1869,  and  it  was  one  of 
the  first  in  southern  Indiana.  The  first  high  school  building  was  constructed 
at  an  expense  of  three  thousand  dollars;  it  was  a  two-story  frame,  and  was 
utilized  until  the  erection  of  the  1879  school  house.  The  last  mentioned  was 
a  brick  building  costing  ten  thousand  dollars.  In  1882  the  prospectus  of  this 
school  stated  "forty-five  teachers  have  gone  out  from  Mitchell  graded  school, 
six  physicians,  six  attorneys  and  two  ministers." 

i04  lawrence  and  monroe  counties,  indiana. 

Bedford's  first  school. 

The  pioneer  school  of  Bedford  was  taught  by  Captain  Hill  during  the 
winter  of  1826-27,  in  the  old  court  house,  and  it  was  attended  by  thirty- 
six  pupils.  This  was  in  the  days  of  "select  schools,"'  maintained  by  subscrip- 
tions. The  pupil  was  required  to  pay  in  advance  two  dollars  each  quarter, 
and  instructions  were  given  in  grammar,  algebra,  rhetoric,  higher  arithmetic 
and  lower  branches.  This  was  continued  until  the  change  of  policy  and  the 
establishment  of  the  County  Seminary,  through  the  act  of  Legislature  dated 
January,  193 1.  Indeed,  the  contrast  between  those  years  and  the  first  decade 
of  the  twentieth  century  is  very  striking.  Now  the  schools  are  first  class ; 
the  buildings  are  first  class ;  the  fixtures  and  apparatus  are  excellent  and  the 
instructors  none  but  the  highest  type  of  scholars.  But,  to  go  back  a  step  in 
the  school  history  of  the  county  seat  town,  it  should  be  stated  that  in  1869 
an  attempt  was  made  to  establisli  a  graded  school  for  the  ])enefit  of  the  entire 
civil  township,  and  the  enterprise  had  proceeded  so  far  as  that  a  foundation 
was  laid  for  such  a  building.  The  movement  caused  much  trouble  in  the 
community,  between  those  within  and  those  living  outside  the  town  plat  of 
Bedford.  This  really  resulted  in  the  incorporation  of  Bedford  as  an  inde- 
pendent school  district.  This  resulted  further  in  the  completion  of  the  al- 
ready commenced  building  in  town  by  the  town  people,  which  was  accom- 
plished in  1871.  It  was  a  six-room  structure  and  seated  three  hundred  pupils. 
Its  cost  was  not  far  from  twenty-seven  thousand  dollars.  School  opened  in 
it  September  1.  1871,  and  in  November,  the  same  year,  it  was  destroyed  by 
fire,  from  some  unknown  cause.  There  was  no  insurance  on  the  property, 
hence  it  was  a  total  loss.  The  day  of  this  fire  the  citizens  ordered  the  trustees 
to  go  ahead  and  build  a  larger,  better  building  over  the  ashes  of  the  one 
just  consumed  by  the  angry  flames.  Rooms  were  temporarily  leased  through- 
out the  town,  in  which  the  schools  were  kept  running  until  the  completion 
of  the  new  building  in  1873.  This  house  had  nine  rooms,  and  seated  five 
hundred  scholars.  It  was  constructed  from  brick,  was  two  stories  high,  and 
cost  twenty-seven  thousand  dollars.  In  1S72  a  separate  school  was  opened  in 
Bedford  for  the  colored  children  of  the  town.  From  that  time  on  the  school 
history  here  is  kno\\  n  well  to  the  older  readers  of  this  work,  and  the  late  re- 
ports of  tlie  schools  will  appear  elsewhere  in  this  work. 

other  educational  IN.STITUTIONS  OF  THE  COUNTY. 

In  this  connection  will  be  mentioned  the  Southern  Indiana  Nonmal  Col- 
lege, the  Lawrence  County  Seminary  and  the  select  schools. 


The  last  named  was  the  outgrowth  of  the  going  down  of  the  County 
Seminary,  by  the  repeal  of  the  law  l)y  which  it  was  created.  In  the  autumn 
of  1854  Rev.  J.  M.  .Stalker  opened  an  academy  in  the  basement  of  the  Presby- 
terian church  at  Bedford.  In  1856  Professor  Conley  began  the  Lawrence 
high  school.  In  this  J.  M.  Stalker  and  others  taught  until  about  1869,  when 
this  school  was  merged  into  the  Bedford  Male  and  Female  College.  This 
institution  was  incorporated  by  Messrs.  Stever  Younger,  J.  M.  Mathes,  Joseph 
Stilson,  A.  J.  Hotetler,  David  G.  Gray,  John  M.  Daggy.  George  VV.  Adams, 
J.  N.  Hostetler  and  William  B.  Chrisler.  The  corporation  articles  stated, 
among  other  things,  "establish  and  perpetuate  in  the  town  of  Bedford,  Law- 
rence county,  Indiana,  an  institution  of  learning  of  the  highest  grade,  for  the 
education  of  males  and  females :  to  promote  the  arts  and  sciences  and  incul- 
cate the  evidences  and  morality  of  the  sacred  Scriptures."  This  school  was 
held  in  the  basement  of  the  Christian  church,  and  it  continued  until  1880,  and 
then  went  down. 

What  was  known  as  the  Lawrence  County  Seminary  was  just  such  a 
school  as  was  provided  for  all  over  Indiana  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature. 
For  a  time  (until  the  free  school  system  came  into  existence)  these  schools 
bid  fair  to  be  of  great  value  to  the  people.  A  good  brick  building  was  built. 
The  attendance  was  large,  pupils  coming  in  from  all  sections  of  the  county. 
The  first  to  instruct  here  was  Professor  Lynn,  who  did  not  remain  very 
long  and  was  succeeded  by  others  better  known.  In  1832-33  the  institution 
was  headed  by  that  well-known  man.  Hon.  Richard  W.  Thompson.  His 
successor  was  Hon.  George  W.  Dunn,  after  whom  came  Joseph  Stilson,  who 
was  long  one  of  Bedford's  best  physicians.  The  school  was  managed  by  a 
board  of  trustees  appointed  by  the  district  court.  In  March.  1838,  the  trus- 
tees reported  to  the  county  conimissioners  as  follows :  "Upon  examination 
they  found  the  seminary  building  considerably  out  of  repair,  and  in  a  con- 
dition subjecting  it  to  rapid  decay,  destitute  of  a  teacher,  under  the  control 
and  supervision  of  the  trustees,  the  institution  in  (lel)t  and  without  a  very 
exalted  reputation  as  a  high  school.  The  board  caused  tlie  necessary  repairs 
to  be  made  to  the  building  without  delay  and  have  it  now  in  good  order  for 
the  comfort  and  accommodation  of  two  teachers  and  at  least  a  hundred  pupils. 
All  debts  except  some  trifling  amounts  against  the  institution  have  been  paid 
off  and  there  is  yet  remaining  in  the  treasury  the  sum  of  $93-59'  which,  to- 
gether with  such  sums  as  may  be  constantly  coming  in  from  fines  assessed 
before  the  justices  of  the  peace  and  in  the  circuit  court  of  said  county,  will 
be  amply  sufficient  to  keep  up  repairs,  make  all  necessary  improvements  and 
in  a  short  time  we  trust  to  purchase  a  suitable  librar}-  for  such  institution.     A 


female  school,  by  Miss  Lovey  Kittredge,  has  been  taught  in  one  room  of  the 
building  under  the  inspection  of  the  board,  and  by  the  reports  of  the  exam- 
ining committees  of  the  schools  it  appears  that  the  conditions  of  that  depart- 
ment of  the  school  are  highly  creditable  to  Miss  Kittridge  and  beneficial  to 
those  tinder  her  care.  The  best  of  order  is  observed  in  her  school,  although 
large;  entire  harmony  and  good  feeling  exists  in  her  school  between  the  pupils 
themselves  and  between  them  and  the  teacher,  and  the  scholars  are  making 
rapid  improvement  in  all  the  useful  branches  of  female  education.  The  other 
room  is  occupied  by  Mr.  Minard  Sturgis,  a  young  gentleman  of  superior 
acquirements,  amiable  disposition,  gentle  manners,  industrious  habits  and 
strict  morality.  These  qualities  render  him  a  valuable  acquisition  to  the  sem- 
inary, as  he  proposes  taking  it  permanently  under  his  charge.  The  present 
condition  of  his  department  is  prosperous  and  interesting  in  every  respect, 
we  believe  meeting  the  entire  approbation  of  the  public.  The  following  are 
the  rates  of  tuition:  Reading,  writing  and  arithmetic,  three  dollars  per 
quarter;  English  grammar,  bookkeeping,  geography,  composition  and  decla- 
mation, three  dollars  and  fifty  cents  per  quarter;  the  classics  and  other  higher 
branches,  six  dollars  per  quarter,  to  which  is  added  upon  each  pupil  the  sum 
of  twenty-five  cents  per  quarter  as  a  contingent  fund,  out  of  which  are  de- 
frayed all  expenses  necessary  for  the  comfort  and  convenience  of  the  pupils 
and  teachers  connected  with  the  seminary.  The  board  thought  it  necessary 
to  fix  the  rates  thus  high  in  order  to  secure  competent  teachers  and  guard 
the  institution  from  degenerating  into  a  mere  town  school,  benefiting  only  a 
few  individuals,  instead  of  being,  as  it  was  intended,  the  resort  of  all  who 
desire  to  procure  the  advantages  of  a  liberal  education." 

This  report  was  signed  by  G.  R.  Dimihue  and  George  D.  Dunn,  as  com- 
mittee and  gives  a  good  idea  of  the  school  at  that  time.  In  May,  1841,  an- 
other board  was  appointed  and  of  this  Gustavus  Clark  was  president,  John 
Vespal,  treasurer,  and  Alichael  A.  Malott,  secretary.  In  September,  1842,  the 
report  was  made  by  the  secretary  and  from  that  it  is  learned  that  John  Dale 
had  for  some  time  before  then  been  in  charge  of  the  school  as  teacher  and 
part  of  the  time  employed  an  assistant.  The  institutions  lingered  along  under 
various  instructors  until  the  Legislature,  in  1852,  provided  for  the  sale  of 
county  seminaries  and  applying  the  proceeds  to  the  common  school  fund. 
This  was  sold  at  public  sale  to  R.  M.  Parks,  who  had  formerly  been  one  of  its 
teachers,  for  one  thousand  fifty  dollars,  and  thus  died  the  Lawrence  County 



This  was  one  of  the  most  prosperous  and  popular  educational  institutions 
in  the  state.  It  was  located  at  Mitchell,  this  county,  April  6,  1880,  and  re- 
ceived its  articles  of  incorporation  June  7th,  that  year.  Many  prominent 
men  in  southern  Indiana  felt  the  need  of  a  training  school  where  teachers 
could  be  instructed  for  the  profession  of  teaching.  Mitchell  was  chosen  the 
place  for  this  school,  because  of  the  enterprising,  untiring  zeal  her  people 
took  in  the  matter.  Among  those  who  aided  in  securing  this  school  may  be 
recalled  Prof.  J.  N.  Selby,  Prof.  \V.  F.  Harper.  Dr.  H.  L.  Kimberlin.  M.  N. 
Moore,  Dr.  J.  L.  W.  Yost,  J.  Y.  Bates,  John  Dodson,  Alfred  Guthrie,  Dr. 
W.  A.  Burton.  Allen  C.  Burton.  Anselm  Wood,  M.  A.  Burton,  Isom  Burton, 
Dr.  G.  W.'  Burton,  E.  P.  Eversole,  James  D.  Moore,  Dr.  E.  S.  Mclntire  and 
many  more. 

About  the  beginning  of  1880  active  steps  were  taken  in  securing  a 
faculty  and  advertising  the  opening  of  this  normal  school  or  college.  Prof. 
W.  F.  Harper  was  selected  as  president,  and  Prof.  J.  N.  Selby,  business 
manager.  A  very  acceptable  corps  of  instructors  headed  each  department. 
April  6th,' the  morning  on  which  the  school  was  to  open,  orders  had  gone 
forth  that  all  bells  in  Mitchell  should  be  rung  for  a  full  half  hour.  The  stores 
were  closed,  and  merchants  and  their  families  all  repaired  to  the  Baptist 
church  to  witness  the  organization.  In  July  of  the  first  year,  a  class  of  six 
were  graduated,  the  number  in  attendance  being  in  all  departments  about  one 
hundred  and  fifty.  This  was  a  good  start  for  the  first  year's  work.  On  ac- 
count of  overwork.  Professor  Harper  was  forced  to  resign  in  1882.  and  was 
succeeded  by  one  of  his  professors,  W.  E.  Lungenbeel,  who  built  the  school 
up  wonderfully  in  a  short  time.  In  1883  a  small-pox  epidemic  (mostly  a 
scare)  injured  the  school  for  a  year,  but  its  president  went  forth  and  suc- 
ceeded better  than  ever  before,  so  that  in  1884  he  had  enrolled  over  five  hun- 
dred teachers  and  those  seeking  training  for  this  profession.  The  fame  of 
the  school  spread  throughout  the  entire  Union  and  men  of  prominence  every- 
where backed  it  and  talked  for  its  policy.  This  school  certainly  did  revolu- 
tionize the  common  schools  in  southern  Indiana.  A  similar  school  was  estab- 
lished at  Milan.  Tennessee,  September,  1884,  the  same  being  promulgated  by 
this  Mitchell  College,  and  its  teachers  were  all  of  the  Mitchell  College  alumni. 
The  Tennessee  college  had  two  hundred  and  fifty  pupils  on  hand  at  its  first 
day  of  opening.  With  the  passing  of  years  these  institutions  have  been 
superseded  by  those  of  better  value. 



Today  educational  advantages  are  to  be  found  in  every  township  in  the 
county,  where  good  buildings  obtain,  where  thorough  teachers  are  employed, 
and  where  general  interest  is  taken.  The  summing  up  of  the  schools  of 
Lawrence  county,  with  the  buildings,  teachers  and  enrollments,  may  be  found 
by  reading  the  following  digest  from  the  annual  report  of  the  county  school 
superintendent,  issued  for  the  last  year : 

Average  High  School 

Township  or  Town.     Attendance.  Schools.  Teachers.  Houses. 

Bono    219  096 

Guthrie 329                  i  15  10 

Indian  Creek 492                  2  22  14 

Marion 437                  o  19  16 

Marshall 471                  i  19  13 

Perry 115                   i  8  5 

Pleasant  Run  1 372                  i  16  12 

Shawswick 657                  i  29  17 

Spice  Valley 501                  2  17  12 

Total    3,503  9  154  105 

Towns  and  Cities. 

Bedford 1.606  —  55  5 

Mitchell 625  —  20  3 

Total    2,331  —  75  8 

Grand  total 5,734  —  229  113 

Of  the  one  hundred  and  thirteen  school  houses  in  Lawrence  county, 
seven  are  brick  and  one  hundred  and  six  are  frame. 



While  the  greatest  industry  of  Lawrence  county  is  that  of  the  Bedford 
stone  quarries  and  the  shipment  of  this  wonderful  material  to  all  sections  of 
the  country,  it  may  be  stated  that  long  before  this  valuable  mineral  product 
was  discovered  and  developed  to  any  great  extent,  the  lands  of  this  portion  of 
Indiana  had  attracted  many  settlers.  While  there  are  much  more  fertile  soils, 
there  are  many  more  sterile.  The  forests  of  excellent  timber,  the  running 
streams  and  numerous  never- failing  springs,  found  bubbling  up  from  the 
earth,  all  had  their  value  and  charm  for  the  hardy  pioneer  who  first  looked 
upon  this  county.  The  soil  is  well  adapted  to  raising  blue  grass  and  it  has 
been  produced  in  large  amounts  from  the  earliest  settlement.  It  was  first 
sown  in  Indian  Creek  tow  nship  by  Alirahani  Kern  and  Stever  Younger  dur- 
ing the  winter  of  1819-20  on  sections  13  and  24  in  township  5,  range  2  west, 
and  from  that  small  beginning  has  grown  to  be  a  leading  crop  and  has  had 
much  to  do  with  the  raising  of  live  stock  throughout  this  county.  The  early 
settlers  were  well  satisfied  that  the  richest  portion  of  the  county  was  in  the 
fertile  bottom  lands,  and  there  they  naturally  located  and  built  homes  for 
themselves.  While  Indian  township  was  at  first  considered  the  choicest  in 
the  county,  as  years  went  by  other  sections  were  found  equally  productive, 
and  soils  that  were  once  thought  almost  valueless  for  the  production  of  crops 
have  come  to  be  known  as  excellent  farming  sections. 

This  county  is  fast  becoming  famous  as  a  fruit  region.  Joel  A.  Burton's 
great  orchards,  lying  near  the  southern  boundary  line  of  the  county,  where 
many  fine  bearing  trees  are  now  growing,  is  a  rare  sight  to  behold.  Many 
smaller  orchards  are  found  around  Mitchell. 

The  dairying  business  is  also  coming  into  prominence,  on  account  of  the 
greater  growth  of  Lawrence  county's  famous  blue  grass,  which  produces  an 
excellent  grade  of  butter. 

The  state  agricultural  reports  for  1911  show  these  figures:  .-Veres  of 
wheat,  11,247;  average  yield,  thirteen  bushels.  Corn,  33.812  acres,  with  a 
million  bushels,  averaging  twenty-eight  bushels  per  acre.  Oats,  7,112  acres, 
less   than  twelve  bushels  per  acre.      Rye,   614   acres.      Barley,   seven   acres. 


Buckwheat,  tliirteen  acres.  Irish  potatoes,  334  acres,  13,622  bushels.  To- 
bacco, three  acres,  producing  2,000  pounds.  Tomatoes,  126  acres,  producing 
421  tons.  Timothy  hay,  10,000  tons.  Alfalfa.  170  tons.  Prairie  hay,  1,017 
acres,  producing  1.224  tons.  Clover,  4.324  acres,  made  3,838  tons.  Horses 
and  colts  on  hand  January,  1912.  4.792.  Mules.  1.485.  Average  of  cows 
milked.  4.008.  Butter  made,  472.000  pounds.  Cattle  on  hand.  9,416;  cattle 
sold,  5,590.  Hogs  sold,  12.964;  hogs  died.  1.250.  Sheep  on  hand.  4.722; 
sold,  2.763.  Wool  sold.  20,452  pounds.  Poultry  sold.  5.867  dozen;  average 
number  of  hens,  6.500.     Dozen  eggs  produced,  617.000. 


The  first  attempt  at  organizing  a  county  agricultural  society  in  Lawrence 
county  was  at  a  preliminary  meeting  held  at  Bedford  on  the  Fourth  of  July. 
185 1,  when  a  committee  was  appointed,  of  which  William  Duncan  was  chair- 
man, to  prepare  a  constitution  and  by-laws  of  the  proposed  agricultural  so- 
ciety. The  same  season,  on  August  9th,  a  large  mass  meeting  was  held  at 
the  Bedford  court  house  to  effect  the  organization.  John  McCrea  was  made 
chairman  and  Leonard  Green,  secretary.  Then  the  constitution  and  by-laws 
were  adopted  and  inany  signers  were  placed  on  the  file  as  members  of  the 
County  Agricultural  Society.  No  fair  was  held  that  year,  but  full  plans  were 
efifected  for  holding  one  in  1852.  It  was  determined  to  make  this  first  fair 
largely  a  stock  show.  It  was  to  be  held  just  to  the  southwest  of  Bedford,  on 
land  of  Jesse  A.  Mitchell,  and  the  date  was  fixed  upon  as  November  9th.  The 
officers  for  1852  were:  Pleasant  Parks,  president;  John  Whitted,  vice-presi- 
dent; Isaac  Rector,  treasurer;  R.  R.  Bryant,  secretary.  There  was  quite  a 
respectable  number  of  Lawrence  county's  citizens — farmers,  stockraisers  and 
townspeople — in  attendance.  Premiums  were  awarded  on  cattle  to  G.  M. 
Brown,  Lewis  Rout,  Isaac  Rector,  Jesse  Johnson,  William  Stipp  and  G.  B. 
Owens;  on  sheep  to  Enoch  Faubion  and  Jesse  Johnson;  on  horses  to  Fred 
Stipp,  William  Fisher,  John  Rogers,  William  Duncan,  G.  M.  Brown,  Ben 
Newland  and  David  Ikerd;  on  jacks  to  William  Duncan  and  Daniel  and 
Peter  Mvers ;  on  poultry  to  R.  R.  Bryant ;  on  manufactured  articles  to  Enoch 
Faubion;  best  beet  was  exhibited  by  John  B.  Buskirk.  and  it  weighed  eight 
and  three-fourths  pounds.  Judge  Duncan  read  an  essay  on  tlie  management 
of  stock,  and  R.  R.  Bi-)'ant  one  on  fowls. 

In  1853  there  was  no  regular  fair,  but  rather  a  stock  sale  took  its  place. 
This  was  an  interesting  gathering  and  was  well  attended  by  many  farmers 
and  stockmen.     In  1854  a  strong  effort  was  made  to  merge  the  Lawrence 


county  society  with  those  of  Orange  and  Washington  counties,  but  the  ma- 
jority ruled  against  this  plan.  So  far  there  had  been  no  gate  fees  charged  to 
the  county  fairs  here.  In  1851  the  membership  fee  was  eighteen  dollars;  in 
1852  it  was  placed  at  fourteen  and  in  1853  ^t  thirteen  dollars. 

In  the  spring  of  1854  arrangements  were  made  to  purchase  fair  grounds 
by  means  of  a  stock  subscription.  Before  that  grounds  had  always  been 
leased.  Nothing,  however,  was  accomplished  along  this  line  until  April, 
1856,  when  a  committee  was  appointed  to  purchase  grounds,  and  they  re- 
ported in  June,  that  year,  that  they  had  bought  a  tract  of  land  just  west  of  and 
adjoining  the  town,  thirty  by  forty  rods,  or  equal  to  about  eight  acres,  of 
Jesse  A.  Mitchell.  But  for  some  unknown  reason  no  fair  was  held  there,  and 
in  1857  the  grounds  were  sold,  and  a  more  suitable  tract  bought  northwest 
of  town,  consisting  of  ten  acres,  which  was  purchased  from  William  Fisher 
for  one  thousand  dollars.  Tlie  original  subscription  stock  was  fifty  dollars 
per  share,  and  the  total  amount  subscribed  was  two  thousand  three  hundred 
dollars,  a  portion  of  which,  however,  was  never  raised. 


Lawrence  county's  first  real  agricultural  fair  was  held  in  1857,  and  was 
a  veiy  successful  affair.  The  total  receipts  from  all  sources  were  $2,369.15, 
mostly  raised  by  the  payment  of  stock  subscriptions.  The  value  of  the  real 
estate  and  improvements  was  ^2,090.  The  liabilities  of  the  society  were 
$1,941.  The  ten  acres  of  ground  were  surrounded  by  a  tight  board  fence, 
seven  or  eight  feet  high,  and  there  were  a  hundred  and  fifty  stalls  for  stock, 
and  also  a  trotting  track  and  an  ampitheater  capable  of  holding  two  thousand 
people,  besides  smaller  buildings  for  floral  and  domestic  displays. 

The  second  fair  was  held  in  1858,  and  this  was  also  highly  creditable  to 
the  people  of  Lawrence  count}'.  The  total  receipts  were  one  thousand  two 
hundred  dollars,  while  the  premiums  amounted  to  four  hundred  and  seventy 
dollars.  There  were  five  hundred  and  twenty  entries  and  one  hundred  and 
seventy  premiums  awarded.  In  1857  the  president  had  been  Robert  Boyd; 
in  1858,  Isaac  Denson.  By  the  last  date  the  fair  grounds  were  covered  by  a 
mortgage.  There  were  then  two  hundred  and  twenty-eight  stockholders,  and 
so  large  was  the  debt  that  all  hopes  of  holding  a  fair  in  1859  faded  and  the 
cloud  had  not  been  cleared  away  by  i860.  In  the  month  of  November,  i860, 
however,  a  joint-stock  company  was  formed  to  pay  off  the  delDt  then  due  the 
estate  of  George  G.  Dunn.  Matters  were  getting  in  fair  shape  when  the  Civil 
war  cloud  of  1861  made  its  appearance  and  all  local  and  home  interests  were 


forgotten  when  the  Hag  of  the  Union  was  assailed  by  traitors  on  the  Southern 

Nothing  further  was  attempted  at  holding  an  agricultural  exhibit  in  this 
county  until  1869.  On  October  8th,  that  year,  a  meeting  was  held  to  reor- 
ganize the  old  society,  Henry  Davis  being  chairman,  with  Isaac  Rector  as 
secretary.  Committees  were  selected  to  form  a  new  constitution  and  to  circu- 
late a  subscription  list  with  which  to  procure  funds,  on  the  stock-membership 
plan.  Later  a  constitution  was  adopted  and  officers  as  follows  were  elected : 
Jesse  A.  Mitchell,  president;  Henry  Davis,  vice-president;  C.  T.  Woolfolk, 
secretary;  W.  C  Wintstandley,  treasurer.  William  Daggy  was  made  super- 
intendent. Several  meetings  were  subsequently  held  and  the  one  which  con- 
vened October  30th  appointed  a  committee  to  purchase  grounds,  and  then  the 
shares  of  stock  were  fixed  at  twenty-five  dollars  each.  July  14,  1870,  the 
committee  reported  that  they  had  purchased  of  Thomas  A.  Whitted  land  de- 
scribed as  follows:  The  south  part  of  the  west  half  of  the  southwest  quarter 
of  section  11,  township  5,  range  i  west,  in  all  13.75  acres;  also  two  and  a 
half  acres  of  the  same  tract  of  Stever  Younger.  These  grounds  were  then 
ordered  improved,  and  a  fair  seems  to  have  been  held  in  1869,  the  gross 
receipts  of  which  were  $1,304.  Thus  well  begun,  the  fairs  continued  in  their 
annual  order.  In  1870  the  fair  continued  for  four  days,  and  gave  gross  re- 
ceipts amounting  to  $1,189.50,  all  of  which  was  awarded  in  premiums,  as 
follows:  $774  on  horses;  $25  on  mules;  $141  on  cattle;  $46  on  swine;  $30 
on  sheep;  $3.00  on  poultry;  $74  on  farm  implements;  $19  on  domestic  manu- 
factures; $16.50  on  equestrianism,  etc.  The  treasurer  reported  that  year 
$2,377.75  spent  on  the  grounds,  and  that  the  fair  had  cost  incidentally, 
$278.70.  In  August,  1871,  ten  acres  of  adjoining  timber  land  was  bought  of 
Mrs.  George  A.  Thornton  for  $200.  Extensive  plans  were  effected  for  the 
fair  of  1871,  and  the  awards  that  season  amounted  to  $1,128  in  premiums  on 
470  entries,  and  in  special  premiums  the  awards  were  increased  to  $1,443.90. 

In  1872  there  were  one  hundred  and  twenty  stockholders  and  the  debt  of 
the  society  was  about  $313. 

The  figures  for  several  years  were  as  follows:  1873-,  $1,763,  expenses, 
$1,698.  1874,  receipts,  $847;  expenses.  767.  In  1875,  receipts,  $321;  ex- 
penses, $285.  In  1877,  receipts,  $1,120;  expenses,  $1,030.  In  1878,  re- 
ceipts, $1,596;  expenses,  $1,427.    In  1880,  receipts,  $1,056;  expenses,  $1,033. 

The  fairs  were  held  until  about  a  dozen  years  ago,  but  finally  the  society 
went  down  for  lack  of  agricultural  interest. 

CHAPTER  X.     • 


Law  is  a  necessity  in  an_y  civilized  community.  The  opinions  of  men 
differ  on  many  questions  of  right  and  wrong,  and  honestly,  too.  Then  there 
are  always  law-breakers  in  every  section  of  the  world,  men  who  have  no  just 
regard  for  the  rights  of  their  fellow  men.  It  is  the  lawyer  who  comes  in  to 
adjust  and  try  to  make  right  these  matters.  While  the  lawyer  follows  his 
profession  primarily  for  the  pecuniary  remuneration  it  affords,  yet  he  is  a 
man  of  great  value  in  his  community  and  no  profession  can  boast  of  men 
who  have  been  of  more  service  to  the  world  than  the  attorney  at  the  bar.  He 
it  is  who  most  frequently  becomes  a  law-maker  himself.  Look  over  the  list  of 
illustrious  statesmen  in  this  and  foreign  lands,  and  in  a  majority  of  cases  the 
men  who  have  had  to  do  with  the  making  and  enforcing  laws  have  come  from 
this  profession.  It  is  generally  looked  upon  as  among  the  most  honorable  of 
all  professions.  The  standard  of  legal  ethics  has  advanced  some  with  the 
passing  years,  but  even  way  back  hundreds  of  years  ago,  the  lawyer  was  noted 
for  his  honor  and  integrity,  and  among  themseh'es  and  in  court  their  word 
was  as  good  as  a  1x)nd.  The  profession  has  as  few  bad  men.  in  proportion  to 
the  number  who  engage  in  the  legal  ])ractice,  as  any  other  profession.  In 
this  country  one  has  but  to  point  with  pride  to  Webster,  Choate,  Everett. 
Marshall,  Lincoln,  Douglas,  and  those  of  more  recent  years,  to  note  that  they 
were  all  men  of  great  learning  and  prominent  factors  in  the  placing  of  im- 
portant legal  enactments  upon  the  statute  books  of  many  commonwealths. 

The  pioneer  lawyers  had  not  the  advantages  of  those  of  today,  but  man)-" 
of  them  were  legal  giants.  In  this  chapter  will  be  recited  some  things  con- 
cerning the  early  courts  and  members  of  the  bench  and  bar  in  I^wrence 

At  the  house  of  James  Gregory,  in  Lawrence  county,  on  June  4.  1818, 
the  first  circuit  court  of  the  county  was  held.  Those  present  were  Thomas 
H.  Blake,  John  Milroy  and  William  Erwin.  The  home  of  James  Gregory 
was  located  in  Leatherwood.  east  of  the  site  of  the  present  Bedford,  on  the 
David  Ikerd  farm,  afterwards  belonging  to  Capt.  Isaac  Newkirk.  James 
Gregory  was  a  native  of  North  Carolina,  and  came  to  Indiana  in  181 3.     In 



the  war  of  1814  he  was  a  Ranger.  In  1818  he  located  in  Lawrence  county, 
and  in  1820  was  a  representative  in  the  Legislature.  His  death  occurred  in 
Yucatan,  whither  he  had  gone  on  a  trading  expedition  in  1842.  He  was  the 
father  of  R.  C.  Gregory,  later  one  of  the  judges  of  the  Indiana  supreme 

Among  the  first  circuit  court  judges  were  Thomas  H.  Blake,  John  Mil- 
roy  and  William  Erwin.  Jonathan  Jennings,  as  governor,  signed  their  com- 
missions, and  each  was  sworn  to  support  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States.  Blake  was  later,  in  1839,  a  candidate  for  the  United  States  Senate, 
but  was  defeated.  John  Lowrey  became  clerk,  and  also  at  this  term  of  court 
John  F.  Ross,  of  Charlestown,  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  The  first  grand  jury 
was  composed  of  the  following  men:  Jeremiah  Rankin,  foreman:  John 
Horton,  James  Fulkerson,  Samuel  G.  Hoskins,  William  Leaky.  Reuben  Kil- 
gore.  Robert  Brooks,  Isaac  Anderson,  James  Mundle,  Thomas  Henton. 
William  Tulley,  David  Cummings,  Isaac  Mitchell,  Daniel  Piles,  Dixon  Brown, 
Joel  Vanderveer,  Beverly  Gregory  and  John  Ikerd.  The  sheriff,  in  all  proba- 
bility, was  Joseph  Glover. 

Ebenezer  McDonald,  George  R.  C.  Sullivan  and  John  Law  were  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar  at  this  term  of  court.  The  early  cases  included  an  assault 
and  battery,  in  whicli  Eli  Powell  was  the  complainant  and  Thomas  House 
the  defendant:  another,  of  Joseph  Thompson  vs.  Richard  Evans,  and  another 
of  similar  nature. 

The  court  met  again  in  September,  1818,  and  Jeremiah  Rowland,  Isaac 
Naylor,  William  Hoggett  and  Henry  Stephen  were  admitted  to  the  bar.  The 
circuit  court  at  this  time  included  several  counties.  The  case  of  Thomas 
House  came  up  again,  and  he  was  fined  ten  dollars  by  the  judge.  The 
Thompson-Evans  case  also  was  argued,  and  tlie  judge  imposed  a  fine  of  one 
dollar  each  on  the  men.  The  jury  in  these  cases  was  composed  of  the  follow- 
ing men:  John  Leaky,  Robert  Mitchell,  Joseph  Rawlins,  James  Cully,  Al- 
bert Howard.  William  Elrod,  George  McNight,  John  Gardner,  Robert  Hun- 
ter, William  Dougherty,  Joseph  Sullivan  and  James  Garten. 

The  first  civil  case  tried  in  the  county  was  that  of  Phillis,  the  slave,  and 
was  called  Susannah  \\'itcher  vs.  F'hillis  (a  woman  of  color),  recognizance. 
As  Phillis  was  a  negro,  she  could  not  testify  against  Su.sannah,  and  accord- 
ingly the  court  decided  that  she  was  the  legal  property  of  the  Witcher  woman. 
The  record  of  this  case  has  strangely  passed  from  memory  of  the  oldest 
inhabitant,  and  the  detail^^  have  been  forever  erased  from  the  legal  records 
of  the  county. 

The  judgment  taken  bv  James  Kitchell  against  John  Brown  for  seventy- 


three  dollars,  stayed  by  Patrick  Callan,  was  the  first.  At  this  term  of  the 
circuit  court  there  were  twelve  indictments  returned,  eleven  of  them  on  the 
charge  of  assault  and  batter}-,  a  notable  fact.  Four  of  these  vvcre  made 
against  one  man,  namely,  John  Andreson.  who  must  have  been  very  much  of 
the  nature  of  a  "bruiser."  James  Cusick.  John  Laughlin,  Francis  Williams 
and  Robert  Erwin  were  the  individuals  who  bore  the  brunt  of  his  pugnacity. 
For  his  clean-up,  Anderson  was  fined  a  paltry  fifteen  dollars. 

Gen.  W.  Johnson,  commissioned  by  the  governor  of  the  state,  took  his 
seat  as  judge  of  the  first  circuit  at  the  March  term,  1819.  Having  had  a 
brilliant  militaiy  record,  there  evidently  was  much  local  apprehension  as  to 
his  methods  of  settling  a  dispute,  and  accordingly  his  oath  of  office  contained 
words  that  he  had  neither  "directly  or  indirectly  given,  accepted  or  knowingly 
carried  a  challenge  to  any  person  or  i^ersons.  to  fight  a  single  combat,  or 
otherwise,  with  any  deadly  weapon,  either  in  or  out  of  this  state,  since  the 
29th  day  of  June,  1816:  and  that  I  will  not  directly  give,  accept  or  knowingly 
carry  a  challenge  to  any  person  or  persons,  to  fight  in  single  combat  or  other- 
wise, with  any  deadly  weapon  either  in  or  out  of  this  state,  during  my  con- 
tinuance in  office."  At  this  term  of  court,  Robert  Holly,  Jr.,  and  Winthrop 
Foote  were  admitted  to  the  l)ar.  At  this  term  Joseph  Benefield  was  allowed 
tw^o  dollars  for  the  use  of  a  house  for  a  court  house,  and  the  grand  jurors 
were  allowed  one  dollar  and  fifty  cents  each  for  the  term. 


On  the  banks  of  beautiful  White  ri\er  rested  the  little  town  of  Palestine, 
once  the  ])remier  village  of  the  county,  luit  long  since  relegated  to  become  a 
mere  hamlet.  The  first  term  of  the  court  was  held  at  this  town  in  June,  1819, 
at  the  court  house,  which  was  built  of  lirick.  I'ntil  1823,  Palestine  was  the 
location  of  the  seat  of  justice,  and  at  that  time  was  abandoned  owing  to  the 
fever  and  ague  developing  in  the  community.  At  the  first  term  of  court  held 
here,  Jonathan  Doty  was  the  judge,  and  James  R.  Higgins  and  Daniel  Shell 
were  admitted  to  the  legal  ])ractice.  The  first  divorce  in  Lawrence  county 
was  granted  at  this  session,  the  princi])als  being  Benjamin  and  Xancy  Dawson. 

In  October,  1819,  court  was  again  held  here.  John  Martin,  a  traverse 
juror,  was  fined  for  contempt  of  court.  Howe\er,  a  non-suit  was  ordered, 
a  juror  withdrawn,  the  rest  discharged,  and  thus  the  plaintiff  reserved  the 
right  to  bring  his  suit  again.  Winthrop  l''"oote  became  prosecutor  in  place 
of  John  Ross. 

In  the  March  term,  1820,  the  first  sentence  of  the  lash  was  executed  in 


the  county.  The  prisoner  was  John  Workman,  and  his  indictment  was  for 
larceny.  He  pleaded  not  guilty.  The  jury,  which  was  composed  of  John 
Short,  David  Green,  David  Love,  James  Fulkerson,  John  Grey,  Joseph 
Rawlins,  Robert  Hunter,  Samuel  Simons,  George  Sheeks,  John  Bates,  William 
Elrod  and  Samuel  McBride,  heard  the  evidence  in  the  case,  and  returned  the 
verdict  of  guilty,  and  assessed  "his  fine  at  one  dollar,  and  that  he  receive  five 
stripes."  Trouble  ensued  over  this  verdict,  and  unquestionably  justice  was 
given  a  twist  in  the  case.  There  was  a  damage  suit  brought  at  this  term  of 
court  by  the  commissioners  of  the  county  vs.  Robert  M.  Carlton,  Alexander 
Walker,  Reuben  Kilgore,  George  Sheeks,  Pleasant  Parks,  Edward  Johnson 
and  Joshua  Taylor.  However,  the  case  never  came  to  trial.  At  the  June 
term,  1820,  Charles  Dewey  and  Hugh  S.  Ross  were  admitted  to  the  bar. 
Twenty-one  indictments  were  returned  by  the  grand  jury,  fifteen  for  assault 
and  battery,  foiu-  for  affray,  one  for  counterfeiting,  and  one  for  attempting 
to  steal  a  hog. 


Rollin  C.  Dewey  and  James  Bramin  were  admitted  to  the  legal  practice 
during  theOctol)er  term,  1820.  and  the  former  became  the  first  resident  at- 
torney of  the  county.  Rollin  C.  Dewey  was  a  native  of  Massachusetts  and  a 
very  competent  lawyer,  although  in  many  ways  a  failure,  in  part,  due  to  lack 
of  direction.  He  was  afterwards  elected  justice  of  the  peace,  an  office  which 
he  filled  very  creditably.     His  death  occurred  in  1832,  of  the  cholera. 

At  this  October  term,  1820,  John  Bailey  was  fined  thirty-seven  and  one- 
half  cents  for  assaulting  Vv'inthrop  Foote,  the  prosecuting  attorney.  Also 
the  order  of  the  court  to  pay  Foote  seventy-five  dollars  for  service  during  the 
year  M'as  rejected  liy  the  altruistic  prosecutor.  John  Anderson,  mentioned 
before,  was  again  in  the  dock  for  his  characteristic  ferociousness,  and  was 
fined  the  startling  sum  of  six  dollars,  four  and  one-tenth  cents.  William 
Fields  gave  his  commission  of  associate  judge  for  seven  years,  and,  being 
qualified,  entered  the  position.  At  this  term,  the  name  of  the  sheriff  appeared, 
Joseph  Glover,  in  his  case  with  Robert  M.  Carlton. 

At  the  March  term,  1822,  William  ^^^  ^^'ick,  of  another  circuit,  was 
the  presiding  judge.  It  was  he  who  quit  after  three  years  service  because 
"it  was  starving  him  out."  Judge  Wick  also  presided  at  the  June  temi,  and 
then  the  following  were  admitted  to  the  bar:  Addison  Smith,  John  Kings- 
bury, Thomas  M.  Allen,  Henry  A.  Coward  and  James  Whitcomb.  This  was 
the  Whitcomb  A\ho  later  became  governor  of  Indiana.     At  that  time  he  was 


a  struggling  young  lawyer  in  fjloomington,   Monroe  county,   and  practiced 
at  this  bar  until  1836.     He  died  while  a  member  of  the  United  States  Senate. 


The  Hon.  Ben  Blackwell  took  the  office  of  presiding  judge  in  the  Septem- 
ber term,  1822,  and  in  this  session  came  the  first  slander  trial  of  the  county. 
The  case  was  James  L.  Mitchell  vs.  Thomas  McMannis.  The  plaintiff  re- 
ceived thirty-fi\e  dollars.  With  the  inception  of  this  slander  case,  they  became 
the  fad.  The  majority  of  trials  for  the  next  few  years  were  for  abusive 
words,  or  other  causes,  which  make  up  a  slander  charge.  At  one  time  there 
were  eleven  cases  on  the  docket.  The  Glover-Foote  case  was  perhaps  the 
most  notable  of  these  old  cases,  and  from  that  particular  one  many  others 
were  born,  and  assumed  equally  as  large  proportions. 

In  the  June  term,  1823,  Henry  P.  Thornton.  Edgar  C.  Wilson,  Thomas 
H.  Blake  and  James  Whitcomb  were  admitted  to  the  bar.  This  was  the  sec- 
ond time  for  Whitcomb,  and  it  probably  resulted  from  an  oversight.  Thorn- 
ton was  a  picturesque  example  of  the  old-time  attorney.  He  was  born  in 
North  Carolina,  educated  in  Kentucky,  and  trained  in  the  law  courts  of  south- 
ern Indiana.  His  legal  experience  had  included  clashes  with  such  men  as 
Amos  Lane,  James  Marshall.  Stevens,  Cai-penter,  Howk,  Harbin  H.  Moore 
and  others.  He  was  not  a  great  and  powerful  lawyer ;  he  was  too  lenient  with 
his  opponent  to  be  so,  but  he  was  a  conscientious,  faithful  and  exact  attorney, 
and  commanded  the  universal  esteem  and  respect  of  his  friends  and  clients. 

The  Indiana  Fanner,  published  at  Salem,  Avas  ordered  to  receive  and 
publish  record  of  the  John  Connelly-Susannah  Connelly  divorce  case,  and  in 
the  same  term  of  court  it  was  ordered  that  RoUin  C.  Dewey  be  appointed 
prosecuting  attorney,  in  place  of  Winthrop  Foote,  who  resigned.  Three 
indictments  were  returned  against  supervisors  of  highways,  namely :  Hiram 
Donica,  Elijah  Currj'  and  Bartholomew  Thatcher.  At  this  time  the  first  alien 
was  made  a  citizen  of  the  United  States  in  this  court.  Samuel  Wilson,  an 
Irishman,  so  declared  his  intention.  Samuel  Lockhart  also  renounced  the 
English  government,  and  was  made  an  American  citizen. 

In  the  April  term,  1824.  John  F.  Ross,  his  commission  duly  signed  by 
Governor  William  Hendricks,  took  his  seat  as  judge  of  the  second  circuit. 
John  H.  Sampson  was  the  only  gentleman  admitted  to  the  bar  during  this 
term.  An  application  was  made  at  this  time  by  John  A.  Smith  for  a  pension, 
in  return  for  his  services  during  the  Revolutionary  war.  After  this,  there 
were  many  such  cases  before  the  court. 



In  the  same  term,  .Vpril,  1824,  occurred  the  first  arson  case  of  Lawrence 
county.  It  was  listed  in  the  records  as  "The  State  vs.  James  Taylor,  Pleasant 
Taylor  and  William  Leaky."  James  Taylor  and  Leaky  were  exonerated, 
but  Pleasant  Taylor  was  not  so  fortunate.  He  was  given  a  year  in  the  state 
prison.  At  this  session  Daniel  Rogers  was  recommended  to  the  county  bar; 
Ebenezer  Post  applied  for  l>enefits  due  him  for  Revolutionary  service.  Rollin 
C.  Dewey  was  appointed  to  the  oflice  of  master  of  chancery. 

At  the  April  term,  1825.  William  Connelly  and  John  D.  Laughlin  were 
qualifiied  as  associate  justices.  John  Lowrey  was  continued  for  seven  years 
as  clerk  of  the  circuit  court,  he  having  already  served  seven  years.  William 
W.  Wick  (late  judge),  Reuben  W.  Nelson  and  Hugh  L.  Livingston  were 
admitted  to  practice.  Mr.  Li\'ingston,  a  native  of  South  Carolina,  was  an- 
other resident  attornev  of  Lawrence  countv  for  a  number  of  years,  sharing 
the  honor  with  Mr.  Dewey.  He  afterward  moved  to  Bloomfield  and  Sullivan, 
where  he  practiced.  In  the  August  term,  1825,  John  Kingsbury  was  selected 
as  state  prosecutor. 


On  Februarv  6.  1826,  the  first  term  of  the  circuit  court  was  held  in  the 
city  of  Bedford,  the  seat  of  justice  having  been  removed  from  Palestine.  On 
the  east  side  of  the  public  s([uare,  in  a  two-stoiy  log  house,  on  the  ground 
afterward  occupied  by  the  Gardner  Imilding.  this  court  was  held.  The  build- 
ing was  in  poor  condition,  the  cracks  between  the  logs  open,  the  house  without 
paint,  and  a  general  air.  of  destitution  about  the  place.  Often  the  juries 
reached  a  verdict  while  sitting  on  the  logs  back  of  the  building.  The  records 
kept  by  the  clerk  and  recorder  were  in  the  upper  story. 

Harbin  H.  Moore  and  Milton  Stapp  were  admitted  to  the  bar  in  the 
August  term,  1826,  and  in  the  April  term,  1827,  Heniy  Handy,  N.  G.  Howard. 
Isaac  Howk.  William  K.  Howard  and  Albert  S.  White  were  admitted.  Mr. 
Howk  was  the  father  of  Judge  Howk.  later  of  the  state  supreme  court.  Mr. 
White  was  in  after  years  a  member  of  Congress,  serving  two  temis.  In  the 
August,  1^27,  term.  John  Farnham  was  admitted.  Many  cases  were  tried 
during  this  term,  chief  among  them  being  the  application  of  Patrick  McManus 
for  a  pension ;  the  furnishing  of  a  guard  for  Jameson  Hamilton,  convicted 
of  assault  and  battery  with  intent  to  kill  George  Miller.  In  April,  1828, 
James  Collins  was  admitted  to  the  legal  bar. 



Perhaps  one  of  the  most  notable  cases  of  this  day  was  the  one  of  Ezekiel 
Blackwell  vs.  the  Board  of  Justices  of  Lawrenc-e  county.  Blackwell  had  re- 
fused to  take  lots  in  Bedford  corresponding  to  his  lots  in  Palestine,  and  he 
had  sued  the  county  for  the  value  of  his  lots  in  that  town  before  the  removal 
of  the  county  seat.  The  supreme  court  reversed  the  lower  court,  and  the 
case  went,  on  change  of  \enue,  to  Washington  county. 

The  April  term,  1829,  saw  the  admission  of  Enos  Fletcher  to  the  bar,  and 
the  trying  of  a  hog  marking  case,  by  a  jury  of  three,  namely,  Stever  Younger, 
Horatio  Jeter  and  Elbert  Jeter.  John  Lowrey,  clerk,  resigned,  and  John 
Brown  was  appointed  pro  tem.  Brown  was  regularly  commissioned  for 
seven  years  at  the  next  court.  Another  Bedford  lawyer  appears  on  the  rec- 
ords at  this  juncture,  \\'illiani  R.  Slaughter,  a  native  of  Virginia.  He  began 
the  practice  of  law  in  a  frame  shanty,  represented  the  county  in  the  Legisla- 
ture, and  was  afterwards  appointed  register  of  the  land  offices  in  Michigan. 

Other  distinguished  men  were  admitted  to  the  bar  soon  after  this,  among 
them  being  Tilghman  A.  Howard,  partner  of  James  Whitcomb  at  Blooming- 
ton.  He  was  elected  to  Congress,  and  came  near  being  both  senator  and 
governor.  He  held  the  office  of  charge  d'afTaires  to  Texas,  a  republic  then, 
in  1844,  and  in  that  southern  land  he  met  his  death.  Howard  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  March.  183 1.  In  March.  1832,  Pleasant  Pagett  and  Joseph 
Athon  were  made  associate  justices,  and  Robert  Mitchell,  clerk.  Richard  W. 
Thompson  was  admitted  in  September.  1833.  and  at  the  Septeml^er  term. 
1833,  Oliver  H.  Allen  and  Phrelan  G.  Paugh  were  admitted.  John  H. 
Thompson  presided  at  this  term,  and  was  later  succeeded  by  John  H.  Allen. 
In  September.  1835.  Elsy  Woodward  was  placed  as  associate  judge  in  place 
of  Joseph  Athon,  who  resigned. 


The  first  murder  indictment  returned  by  the  grand  jury  in  Lawrence 
county  was  in  May.  1843.  3-nd  against  Polly  Ann  Wymore.  The  jury  pro- 
nounced the  verdict  of  not  guilty. 


There  are  certain  names  linked  with  the  legal  history  of  Lawrence  county 
which  became  notable  in  the  annals  of  the  state  as  a  whole.  Some  of  them 
are  as  follows :  James  Hughes.  Jonathan  K.  Kinney,  George  H.  Monson, 
John  H.  Butler,  Cyrus  L.  Dunham.  John  J.  Cummiiis,  Daniel  Long.     William 


T.  Otto  took  the  place  of  David  McDonald  on  the  bench,  and  Alexander  Butler 
became  an  associate  judge.  William  W.  Williamson,  William  A.  Porter  and 
Frank  Emerson  were  also  admitted  to  the  bar.  In  the  November  term,  1846, 
McDonald  presided,  the  clerk  was  Gus  Clark,  and  the  sheriff,  Felix  Raymond. 
Andrew  J.  Simpson,  George  A.  Thornton,  Samuel  W.  Short,  John  A.  Miller, 
T.  R.  E.  Goodlet  and  Curtiss  Dunham  were  admitted  during  this  year  and  in 
1847.  In  1848,  Lovell  H.  Rousseau,  Jesse  Cox,  Jacob  B.  Low,  A.  B.  Carlton 
and  George  A.  Buskirk  were  added  to  the  list  of  attorneys.  In  1850  A<  G. 
Cavins,  Alexander  McCleland  and  E.  D.  Pearson  were  admitted. 


George  A.  Bicknell  took  his  .seat  as  sole  judge  in  March,  1853,  and  the 
reversion  to  the  one-judge  style  of  court  created  no  little  dissatisfaction  among 
the  legal  men  of  the  time.  The  associate  justices  became  a  thing  of  the  past. 
John  Edwards,  Morton  C.  Hunter,  Nathaniel  McDonald,  Horace  Heffron  and 
Newton  F.  Malott  were  admitted  during  the  term  this  change  was  made. 

Others  who  became  members  of  the  Lawrence  county  bar  in  the  years 
following  shortly  after  were :  John  D.  Ferguson,  Thomas  L.  Smith,  Jonathan 
Payne,  J.  S.  Buchanan,  Frank  Emerson,  Thomas  M.  Brown,  I.  N.  Stiles,  W. 
W.  Browning,  Samuel  P.  Crawford  (ex-governor  of  Kansas),  S.  H.  Bus- 
kirk, A.  C.  Voris,  William  Weir,  William  R.  Harrison,  Francis  L.  Neff, 
E.  E.  Rose,  *P.  A.  Parks,  C.  T.  Woolfolk,  William  Herod,  Oliver  T.  Baird, 
A.  D.  Lemon,  Newton  Crook,  William  Paugh,  Gideon  Putnam,  Theodore 
Gazley,  John  H.  Martin.  Thomas  L.  Smith,  Michael  C.  Kerr,  Fred  T.  Brown, 
R.  C.  McAfee,  Lycurgus  Irwin,  Madison  Evans.  Alfred  Ryers. 


In  the  September  term,  i860,  the  case  of  the  State  vs.  John  Hitchcock, 
murder  in  the  first  degree,  came  up  for  trial.  Hitchcock  shot  a  man  named 
Graham,  who  was  pursuing  him  for  stealing  a  horse.  The  court  sent  Hitch- 
cock to  prison  for  a  life  term,  but  he  afterward  escaped  and  was  never  heard 
from.  At  one  time  during  his  incarceration  he  begged  Governor  Morton  to 
be  allowed  to  enlist  in  the  army,  but  his  request  was  refused. 

In  September,  1862,  Jefferson  Brannan  was  indicted  for  the  murder 
of  Thomas  Peters.  After  nine  years  of  haggling,  the  case  finally  came  up 
for  trial,  in  September,  1871,  and  Brannan  was  given  a  prison  sentence,  dur- 
ing the  service  of  which  he  died. 


The  case  of  the  State  vs.  WiUiam  Sanders,  charged  with  a  triple  murder 
in  Orange  count)^  came  up  in  the  March  term,  1867,  and  the  defendant  had 
such  attorneys  as  Daniel  W.  Voorhees,  Thomas  B.  Buskirk  and  Putnam  and 
Friedley.  The  prosecutor  was  Robert  M.  Weir,  assisted  by  Francis  Wilson, 
of  Orange  county.  The  jury  failed  to  agree,  and  the  defendant  gave  bond 
for  eight  thousand  dollars  for  each  of  the  three  cases,  in  security  for  his 
appearance  next  term.  He  never  appeared,  and  nothing  was  ever  done  with 
the  bond. 

The  State  vs.  John  IT.  Morrow  and  Luzetta  V.  Christopher  was  one  of 
the  most  conspicuous  of  the  early  murder  trials.  Morrow  was  residing  at 
the  home  of  Mrs.  Christopher's  husband,  and  late  one  night  the  neighbors 
found  the  body  of  Christopher,  wounded  by  knife  cuts.  Morrow  himself, 
Mrs.  Christopher,  and  the  children  were  all  more  or  less  injured  by  knife 
wounds.  Morrow  and  Mrs.  Christopher  were  indicted  and  the  first  trial  re- 
sulted in  a  ''hung  jury."'  Afterwards,  however,  the  two  were  convicted  for 
a  term  of  years.    Mrs.  Christopher  died  in  the  woman's  prison  at  Indianapolis. 

In  February,  1874,  W,  T.  Walters,  W.  A.  Land  and  D.  O.  Spencer 
were  admitted,  and  in  May  Samuel  C.  Wilson,  William  Farrell  and  John  R. 
East.  In  1875.  M.  C.  Hunter,  Jr..  Albert  H.  Davis,  Allan  W.  Prather  and 
C.  W.  Thompson  were  admitted:  in  1876,  B.  E.  Rhoades,  C.  F.  McNutt 
and  Harry  Kelly;  in  1877,  James  McClelland,  Ben  Hagle,  H.  H.  Edwards, 
S.  B.  Voyles,  Frank  Branaman  and  Fred  T.  Rand;  in  1878,  John  Q.  Voyles, 
H.  H.  Friedley.  Thomas  G.  Mahan,  Gen.  W.  T.  Spicely,  C.  H.  Burton, 
Joseph  R.  Burton,  Aaron  Shaw,  John  T.  Dye  and  L.  C.  Weir;  in  1879, 
John  S.  Denny,  D.  H.  Ellison,  J.  H.  Willard,  Ferdinand  S.  Swift,  George 
A.  Thornton;  in  1881.  Simpson  B.  Lowe,  S.  S.  Mayfield  and  John  M. 
Stalker;  in  1882.  Harry  C.  Huffstetter.  and  in  1884.  Francis  B,  Hitchcock 
and  Eli  K.  Millen.  Oificial  records  show  that  the  resident  attorneys  of  Bed- 
ford at  this  time  were  E.  D.  Pearson,  George  W.  Friedley,  John  Riley, 
Newton  F.  Crooke,  George  O.  Iseminger,  James  H.  Willard.  Moses  F. 
Dunn.  George  G,  Dunn.  Robert  N.  Palmer.  W.  H.  Martin,  Samuel  D. 
Luckett,  Simpson  Lowe  and  F.  B.  Hitchcock. 

About  the  year  1882  the  narrow  gauge  railroad  case  was  the  main  inter- 
est of  the  county.  Subscriptions  had  been  made  to  the  road,  and  a  tax 
amounting  to  forty  thousand  dollars  voted  by  Shawswick  township.  Eflforts 
were  made  to  nullify  the  payment  of  this  tax,  but  was  unsuccessful  after 
going  through  many  courts  and  employing  the  efforts  of  the  ablest  lawyers 
of  the  day.  the  case  being  heard  in  the  Monroe.  Washington  and  Orange 
countv  courts  and  in  United  States  courts. 


The  court  of  common  pleas,  when  estabHshed,  was  very  Hmited,  but 
afterward  was  ,^■i^'en  more  scope.  It  did  all  probate  work,  with  limited 
criminal  and  civil  jurisdiction.  The  first  judge  was  J.  R.  E.  Goodlet,  and 
he  took  his  seat  in  January,  1853.  Others  who  occupied  the  position  were 
Col.  Frank  Emerson,  Ralph  Applewhite,  Beaty  McClelland  and  J.  D.  New. 


The  following  is  a  list  of  the  attorneys  practicing  at  the  Lawrence 
county  bar  in  1913  : 

At  Bedford — John  D.  Alexander,  James  E.  Borufif,  Ray  R.  Borufif, 
Thomas  J.  Brooks.  William  F.  Brooks,  Logan  R.  Brow^ning,  William  E. 
Clark,  Moses  F.  Dunn,  Fred  N.  Fletcher,  Albert  J.  Fields,  Charles  R. 
Gowen,  George  O.  Iseminger,  Joseph  S.  Ikerd,  Harold  Kelley,  Simpson  B. 
Lowe,  William  H.  Martin,  Walter  J.  Mosier,  William  R.  Martin,  Lee  E. 
Ragsdale,  Robert  L.  Mellen,  McHenry  Owen,  Henry  P.  Pearson,  Robert  N. 
Palmer,  Eli  B.  Stephenson,  John  L.  Smith,  John  H.  Underwood,  Thomas  C. 
Underwood,  F.  Marshall  Woolery,  James  A.  Zaring. 

At  Oolitic — H.  L.  Paxton. 

At  Mitchell — Samuel  S.  Doman,  John  H.  Edwards.  Calvin  Paris,  Joseph 



Perhaps  there  is  no  harder  topic  to  write  upon,  in  the  annals  of  any 
county,  than  that  of  the  medical  profession,  from  the  fact  that  physicians, 
either  through  lack  of  time  or  inclination,  seldom  keep  records  of  their  prac- 
tice and  of  the  various  meetings  of  medical  associations  that  in  almost  all 
counties  are  formed  from  time  to  time.  Yet,  the  family  physician  is  always 
on  hand  with  the  earliest  settlement  in  almost  every  community.  He  goes 
with  the  tread  of  pioneer  life  and  is  ever  watchful  after  the  health  and  life 
of  his  fellow  men.  He  has  ever  been  noted  for  his  daring  and  self-sacrificing 
life,  even  braving  the  severest  of  wintry  storms,  over  almost  impassable  roads, 
in  the  face  of  great  hardships,  frequently  at  the  jeopardy  of  his  own  life. 
He  was  in  an  early  day  read}'  to  leave  his  own  warm  bed  to  face  a  biting 
frost  to  gain  the  bedside  of  some  sick  man,  woman  or  infant,  without  regard 
to  the  financial  standing  of  his  patient.  The  books  of  early-day  doctors  were 
filled  with  accounts  for  services  for  which  not  a  farthing  was  ever  forth- 
coming. Unaided  by  the  modern  hospitals  and  surgical  appliances,  these 
old-time  doctors  used  to  manage  to  set  the  broken  or  dislocated  limbs  and 
care  for  the  ugly  wounds  of  tlieir  patients,  in  a  most  remarkable  manner, 
and  usually  with  great  success. 

With  the  march  of  years  and  decades,  the  science  of  medicine  has 
greatly  advanced,  until  today  the  cases  that  once  seemed  hopeless  are  treated 
with  ease  and  a  good  degree  of  certainty.  The  mode  of  administering  medi- 
cine has  also  materially  changed  in  the  last  fifty  years.  The  schools  of 
medicine,  whose  name  has  come  to  be  Tegion,  are  all  more  liberal  than  in 
former  davs,  and  the  day  has  forever  gone  when  a  "regular"  looks  down 
with  a  sneer  on  the  work  of  a  homeopath  or  even  an  osteopath  practitioner. 

It  will  be  impossible,  for  the  reasons  given,  to  give  much  concerning 
the  life  and  character  of  the  early  physicians  in  Lawrence  county,  Imt  some 
tribute  should  be  here  appended  to  their  memory. 


It  is  not  positively  asserted,  but  generally  believed,  that  the  first  doctor 
to  practice  medicine  in  Lawrence  county  was  Dr.  Winthrop  Foote,  who  was 


in  Bedford  when  the  town  was  laid  out  as  a  county  seat.  He  was  also  ad- 
mitted to  the  legal  profession  here  in  1819,  and  became  an  attorney  of  some 
note,  but  he  is  said  to  have  been  a  better  judge  of  medicine  than  of  law. 
He  was  a  native  of  Connecticut  and  had  superior  educational  advantages. 
He  was  a  man  of  eccentric  manners,  of  extended  information,  of  pungent 
wit  and  fine  conversational  powers.  He  was  universally  known  throughout 
this  county  in  the  early  days  of  its  settlement. 

Dr.  William  W.  Yandell,  a  native  of  Tennessee,  born  in  1828,  had  an 
exciting  youth  and  young  manhood.  He  was  one  of  a  number  who  caught 
the  1849  California  "gold  fever"  and  crossed  the  plains  in  that  eventful  year. 
He  also  \isited  tlie  Sandwich  islands,  as  well  as  the  uncivilized  man-eating 
Fijis.  He  carried  on  speculation  and  mined  much  until  1855,  when  he  came 
home  and  took  up  the  study  of  medicine.  He  attended  medical  schools  in 
Louisville.  Kentucky,  and  located  at  Bryantsville,  this  county,  in  1858,  re- 
maining until  1861,  when  he  became  a  private  soldier  in  Company  K,  Seven- 
teenth Indiana  Regiment.  He  served  until  honorably  discharged  in  1865. 
He  then  resumed  practice  at  Knoxville,  Indiana,  but  in  1874  removed  to 
Huron,  Lawrence  county,  where  he  continued  in  active  practice. 

Dr.  A.  W.  Bare,  born  in  Indiana  in  1826,  died  in  1910.  He  graduated 
at  Hanover  College,  Indiana,  in  1848,  read  medicine  and  entered  Louisville 
Medical  University,  practiced  medicine  at  Brownstown,  finally  locating  in 
Bryansville.  where  he  built  up  an  excellent  practice.  From  1864  to  1865 
he  was  assistant  surgeon,  located  most  of  the  time  at  Louisville. 

Dr.  William  H.  Smith,  born  in  Salem,  this  state,  in  1830,  died  in  Bed- 
ford in  i()i2.  He  entered  the  Corydon  Seminary,  and  later  the  college  at 
Bloomington.  and  studied  medicine  under  Dr.  Elijah  Newland,  of  Salem. 
He  attended  Louisville  Medical  College  and  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  Col- 
lege, New  York  City.  He  located  at  Leesville,  this  county,  in  1863,  prac- 
ticed medicine,  and  also  was  a  merchant  and  successful  farmer.  He  owned 
at  one  time  nine  hundred  acres  of  land  and  had  much  live  stock.  He  was  a 
Freemason  and  in  politics  was  a  Democrat. 

Dr.  Elihu  S.  Mclntire,  bom  in  Marietta,  Ohio,  in  1832,  was  reared  on 
his  parents"  farm  in  Spencer  county,  Indiana,  began  teaching  at  the  age  of 
nineteen  years,  and  soon  thereafter  took  up  the  study  of  medicine.  In  the 
autumn  of  1856  he  entered  the  medical  department  of  the  Iowa  University 
at  Keokuk,  graduating  in  the  spring  of  1858,  and  at  once  commenced  the 
practice  of  his  profession  at  Dallas  City,  Illinois,  but  in  1862  enlisted  and 
was  appointed  assistant  surgeon  of  the  Seventy-eighth  Illinois  Regiment. 
He  resigned  in  1863  and  went  to  practicing  in  Crawfordsville,  Indiana,  re- 


mained  there  until  1865,  then  came  to  Mitchell,  this  countv,  where  he  soon 
became  a  leading  doctor  of  his  community.  Subsequently,  the  Doctor  aban- 
doned his  profession  and  edited  the  Mitchell  Coimnercial  for  eleven  years. 
He  was  a  strong  anti-slavery  man;  in  church  connections  a  Methodist,  and 
was  a  member  of  the  Masonic  order.  As  both  a  physician  and  editor  he 
had  few  superiors  in  Lawrence  county. 

Dr.  John  B.  Larkin  was  born  in  Burlington.  VernKjnt.  in  1833.  of  Irish 
parentage.  He  followed  farm  life  with  his  father,  attending  the  common 
schools.  He  also  worked  in  cotton  and  woolen  mills  in  the  New  England 
states  and  at  Newburg,  New  York,  until  1852,  then  went  South,  visiting 
several  cities  by  flat-boat.  Tn  1854  he  went  to  Ripley  county,  Indiana,  taught 
school  and  went  to  Shelbyville.  Illinois,  where  he  attended  an  academy, 
taught  and  studied  medicine.  He  then  attended  medical  college  at  Ann  Arbor, 
Michigan,  and  commenced  the  practice  of  medicine  at  Huron,  this  county. 
In  August,  1862,  he  enlisted  and  was  made  an  assistant  surgeon,  later  sur- 
geon, serving  till  the  end  of  the  Civil  war,  then  located  in  Mitchell,  this  county, 
where  he  was  still  in  practice  in  the  eighties.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the 
Hospital  Medical  College  of  Louisville  and  won  class  honors  there.  He  was 
made  secretary  of  the  board  of  medical  examiners  for  pensions  at  Mitchell. 
He  was  an  Odd  Fellow,  and  in  his  church  relations  was  of  the  Methodist 

Dr.  William  T.  Ellison,  born  in  1849,  ''^  Lawrence  county.  Indiana,  re- 
mained at  home  until  his  father's  death  in  1867,  when  he  began  the  study  of 
medicine  with  Dr.  May,  with  whom  he  remained  some  time,  finally  graduating 
at  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  College.  He  commenced  practice  in  Illinois, 
but  two  years  later  located  at  Heltonville,  this  county,  where  he  soon  won  a 
fine  medical  practice.  He  was  a  consistent  member  of  the  Christian  church, 
and  in  politics  was  a  Democrat. 

Dr.  John  H.  Faucett  was  born  in  Orange  county,  Indiana,  in  1840.  In 
1 86 1  he  enlisted  in  Company  K,  Forty-ninth  Indiana  Regiment,  and  was  at 
the  famous  siege  of  Vicksburg,  where  he  was  severely  wounded.  Having 
been  honorably  discharged  in  1863,  he  came  home  and  in  1866  commenced 
the  study  of  medicine  at  Kecksville,  Indiana ;  graduated  in  1874  from  the 
Missouri  Medical  College,  St.  Louis,  having  practiced  some,  however,  prior 
to  that  time.  He  first  located  at  Trinity  Springs.  Indiana,  remained  until 
1876,  when  he  went  to  Fayetteville,  Lawrence  county,  wliere  he  was  last 
known  as  being  among  the  leading  doctors  of  that  section. 

Dr.  Harvey  Voyles,  born  in  Indiana  in  1840,  was  educated  at  the  public 
schools  and  worked  at  farm  labor.     He  attended  the   Salem  Academv  and 


also  Bloomington  ("olle.s^e  (Indiana  State  University).  In  1874  he  com- 
menced the  study  of  his  profession  in  the  offices  of  Dr.  James  B.  Wilson,  at 
Salem,  later  attending  the  medical  department  of  the  Louisville  University, 
from  which,  he  graduated  in  1877,  immediately  beginning  practice  at  South 
Boston,  Indiana,  remained  two  years,  then  located  at  Trinity  Springs.  After 
three  years  there  he  came  to  Fayetteville,  this  county,  where  he  remained  in 
practice  many  years.  He  was  a  Republican  and  cast  his  first  vote  for  Presi- 
dent U.  S.  Grant. 


At  Leesville,  prior  to  1880,  was  Dr.  John  C.  Gavins. 

At  Fayetteville  an  early-day  doctor  was  Dr.  Henry  Voyles. 

At  Silverville  were  Drs.  S.  D.  Honnocher  and  J.  S.  Blackburn. 

At  Mitchell  were  Drs.  A.  J.  McDonald,  J.  B.  Uarkin,  G.  W.  Burton,  E. 
S.  Mclntire,  J.  C.  Pearson.  A.  L.  Goodwin. 

At  Bono  were  Drs.  Walter  Kelso,  James  Montgomery,  George  L.  Dunn, 
Hicks.  Manuel,  Hugh  Montgomery,  Henry  Malott,  E.  P.  Gibson.  I.  J.  Hop- 

At  Lawrenceport  were  Drs.  Knight,  Charles  A.  Pearson,  Maybury, 
Price,  Newkirk,  William  A.  Sloss,  I.  D.  Kulkley,  Ebberley,  George  Hort- 
bin.  I.  N.  Plummer,  G.  W.  Durment.  A.  F.  Berry,  T.  W.  Bullitt  and  J.  A. 

At  Tunnelton  were  Drs.  Hugh  L.  Kimberlin,  William  Graves,  J.  L. 
Linder,  Davis,  L.  A.  Crim,  H.  C.  Dixon,  Samuel  B.  Howard. 

At  Huron  were  Drs.  McCullough.  David  Chase,  G.  W.  White,  Springer. 
Rodney  N.  Plummer.  Edward  Millis.  H.  Gather.  William  Yandell. 

At  Bryantsville  were  Drs.  James  Wilson.  I.  A.  Rariden.  A.  L.  Goodwin, 
A.  W.  Bare.  Laban  Palmer. 

At  Springville  were  Drs.  John  Lyon  (first),  Henry  Lingle  (1835),  P. 
G.  Paugh,  S.  Lamb,  R.  G.  Norvell,  L.  S.  Spore,  J.  Huntington,  F.  W.  Beard, 
Macey  SheUhm,  J.  T.  Woodward,  W.  B.  Woodward.  J.  G.  Gunn,  Milton 
Short.  James  Beatty. 

Dr.  Voyles  moved  to  Bedford  in  1890,  since  which  time  he  has  been  in 
active  practice,  being  the  present  health  officer  of  the  city. 

Dr.  Samuel  A.  Rariden,  who  was  born  July  i,  1814.  was  a  prominent 
physician  in  Bedford  from  the  early  fifties  till  his  death,  on  May  29,  1897. 
He  was  also  a  local  preacher  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church  many  years 
and  was  a  great  power  for  g<ind.  leading  many  a  man  toward  a  higher  and 
better  life. 


Dr.  Samuel  Denson  was  born  on  August  8,  1802,  and  died  September 
18,  1888.  He  attended  the  Indiana  University,  but  on  account  of  the  cholera 
scare  he  left  that  institution  and  finished  at  Jefferson  Medical  College.  Phila- 

Dr.  John  Wesley  Newland  was  born  in  this  county  in  1827,  died  in 
October,  1909.  He  studied  with  his  cousin.  Dr.  Benjamin  Newland,  of 
Bedford,  graduated  at  the  University  of  Louisville,  came  to  Bedford  in  1857, 
was  two  years  at  Leesville  and  was  in  active  practice  in  Bedford  till  he  re- 
tired in  1900.  He  was  very  successful  in  a  business  way.  He  was  a  popular 
preacher  in  the  Christian  church  many  years  and  was  an  elder  in  the  First 
Christian  church  at  Bedford  over  fifty  years.  He  enjoyed  a  distinction  which 
rarely  comes  to  any  man,  having  ushered  one  baby  girl  into  the  world,  as 
attending  physician ;  officiated  as  minister  when  she  was  married ;  ushered 
her  eldest  daughter  into  the  world  and  performed  the  ceremony  when  she 
was  married.  His  death  was  touching,  in  that  immediately  after  he  offered  a 
fervent  prayer  in  the  First  Christian  church,  he  was  stricken  with  apoplexy 
and  died. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Xewland,  born  in  this  county  in  182 1.  the  son  of  William 
Newland,  was  for  many  years  one  of  the  most  prominent  physicians  in  all 
southern  Indiana,  being  in  1879  president  of  the  State  Medical  Society.  He 
died  April  5.  1889. 

Dr.  Joseph  Stillson,  a  native  of  the  East,  located  here  in  the  forties  and 
practiced  his  profession  probably  forty  years,  dying  about  1878. 


In  the  autumn  of  1913  the  following,  and  possibly  a  few  more,  were  in 
the  practice  of  medicine  in  Lawrence  county : 

At  Bedford— Drs.  H.  Voyles.  J.  T.  Freeland,  R.  B.  Short,  J.  H.  Hatta- 
ger,  J.  R.  Pearson,  N.  E.  Mattox.  O.  B.  Norman,  H.  K.  Corey,  M.  Simpson. 
C.  H.  Emery,  E.  L.  Perkins.  A.  J.  McDonald.  C.  E.  Rariden,  E.  E.  Mitchell, 
J.  B.  Duncan. 

At  Williams— Dr.  J.  T.  McFarlan. 

At  Mitchell — Drs.  J.  C.  Kelley,  J.  D.  Byrnes.  John  Gibbons.  George 
Gibbons,  W.  C.  Sherwood. 

At  Oolitic — Drs.  R.  B.  Short.  01i\'er  McLaughlin,  Claude  Dollins,  Ray. 

At  Leesville— Dr.  S.  W.  Smith. 

At  Lawrenceport — Dr.  J.  A.  Andrews  and  T.  N.  Bullitt. 

At  Tunnelton— Dr.  H .  I.  Matlock. 



Here,  as  in  nearly  every  county,  there  have  been  efforts  to  maintain 
medical  societies,  or  associations.  Some  have  succeeded  for  a  time  and  some 
have  "died  a  bornin'."  The  first  attempt  at  these  societies  was  in  1853, 
when  a  famous  mal-practice  suit  had  brought  a  large  number  of  physicians 
together,  and  a  meeting  was  held  and  a  partial  organization  was  effected,  a 
code  of  medical  ethics  and  a  fee  formulated.  This  was  short-lived, 
though  many  interesting  meetings  were  held  as  the  result.  In  1864  a  meet- 
ing was  held  at  Bedford  to  try  and  revive  the  society  whose  early  days  had 
been  so  checkered  in  its  career.  The  following  physicians  were  at  this  meet- 
ing, and  are  here  given,  as  they  will  show  who  were  among  the  physicians  of 
that  day :  Drs.  John  C.  Gavins,  W.  H.  Smith,  Ben  Newland,  S.  A.  Rariden, 
J.  W.  Newland,  Joseph  Stillson,  W.  Burton,  J.  B.  Larkin,  Isaac  Denson, 
John  A.  Blackwell,  G.  W.  Burton,  W.  B.  Woodward,  F.  W.  Beard,  John 
Burton,  James  Dodd,  P.  G.  Pugh,  A.  W.  Bare,  T.  P.  Conley,  H.  C.  Malott, 
H.  L.  Kimberlin,  J.  T.  Biggs,  J.  J.  Durand,  Hiram  Malott.  John  Gunn  and 
several  others. 

This  organization  seems  to  have  been  postponed  until  1866,  at  which 
time  it  was  really  effected,  and  was  then  conducted  for  several  years,  with 
much  profit  to  the  members  and  was  still  in  existence  in  the  eighties.  In 
1875  it  became  a  branch  of  the  State  Medical  Society.  In  1883  its  officers 
were:  Drs.  E.  D.  Laughlin,  president;  E.  S.  Mclntire,  vice-president;  G.  W. 
Burton,  secretary ;  S.  A.  Rariden,  treasurer ;  W.  H.  Smith.  A.  L.  Berry  and 
Hamilton  Stillson,  censors.  The  records  further  cannot  be  given,  as  they 
were  unfortunately  lost.  The  society  is  now  in  a  flourishing  condition  and 
meets  each  month  at  some  convenient  place  in  the  county.  It  has  about  thirty 
members  at  present,  September,  1913.  Its  officers  are;  President,  Dr.  Rich- 
ard B.  Short;  vice-president.  Dr.  John  A.  Gibbons;  secretary  and  treasurer, 
Dr.  F.  S.  Hunter;  censors.  Dr.  Claude  Dollins.  Dr.  J.  D.  Byrnes  and  Dr. 
Morrill  Simpson ;  delegate  to  state  society  meeting.  Dr.  J.  T.  McFarlin ;  alter- 
nate. Dr.  E.  E.  Mitchel. 



That  the  pioneer  band  who  first  settled  the  wilds  of  Lawrence  county 
were  of  a  religious  turn  of  mind  and  believed  in  rearing  their  sons  and 
daughters  in  the  way  of  religious  teachings,  is  made  clear  to  the  reader  of 
this  chapter,  for  it  will  here  be  seen  that  no  sooner  had  the  pioneer  set  his 
stakes  and  provided  a  shelter  for  his  little  flock,  than  he  set  about  supplying 
his  neighborhood  with  rude  churches  and  invited  the  itinerant  preachers  who 
chanced  along  this  way  to  preach  the  Word  to  them. 

Guthrie  township,  as  now  understood,  has  the  honor  of  being  the  first 
to  entertain  a  preacher  in  Lawrence  county.  Something  more  positive  than 
mere  tradition  says  that  early  in  1816  Armenius  Milligan,  a  Methodist 
preacher,  located  near  present  Tunnelton,  and  there  held  a  meeting  and  con- 
tinued to  do  so  at  his  and  neighboring  cabins.  These  were  no  doubt  the 
earliest  religious  services  held  within  Lawrence  county. 

Among  those  who  worshiped  with  him  were  the  Chitties,  Bakers,  Becks, 
Guthries,  Flinns,  Conleys.  Brittons  and  Barnhills.  Ambrose  Carlton  landed 
December  24th  on  Guthrie  creek  from  North  Carolina.  But  he  had  a  merry 
Christmas  with  his  neighbors  the  next  day,  and  talked  religion  from  the 
start.  His  little  log  house  used  to  stand  on  the  hill  by  Carlton's  graveyard, 
and  here  he  constituted  a  Baptist  church  in  the  first  year  of  his  sojourn. 
Soon  he  built  a  large  brick  residence,  in  which  was  a  very  large  room,  with 
unusual  high  ceilings,  and  the  young  people  of  modern  times  would  say, 
"What  a  glorious  place  to  dance."  But  this  place  was  known  as  the  Carlton 
home,  and  this  room  was  designed  for  religious  services,  once  each  month,  at 


Among  the  first,  if  indeed  not  the  first,  Methodist  societies  formed 
in  this  county  was  that  in  Indian  Creek  township,  before  the  first  Shiloh 
church  was  erected.  Several  families  by  the  name  of  Garten  had  immigrated 
from  Kentucky,  all  of  whom  were  of  this  religious  faith.  Richard  Browning 
was  a  Methodist  "circuit  rider"  in  old  Kentucky  and  became  a  local  preacher 


at  Shiloh.  In  1821  a  small  log  church  was  built  on  Mr.  Pitman's  place  and 
it  was  named  Shiloh  church.  It  was  three  miles  to  the  east  of  Fayetteville. 
Rev.  Browning  served  as  pastor  eight  years,  when  he  was  drowned.  At  one 
time  Bishop  Roberts  preached  on  this  charge.  In  1840  a  large  frame  church 
was  built  and  was  still  in  use.  The  Presbyterians  also  used  this  building  for 
services  some  years. 

The  Springville  Methodist  Episcopal  church  was  formed  about  1822  or 
1823.  It  was  at  the  old  pioneer  Athons  school  house,  where  meetings  were 
held ;  Josiah  Athons  gathered  a  small  company  and  held  services  there.  The 
first  preacher  was  John  May.  In  1838  a  new  church  was  provided  through 
the  efforts  of  the  minister,  James  Williams,  and  his  good  wife.  The  building 
stood  in  town  at  Springville,  and  it  was  a  neat,  solid  brick  building,  placed 
on  land  donated  by  Mr.  Athons.  It  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1868.  but  in  1874 
another  was  erected  and  in  1884  the  society  numbered  seventy. 

The  Bedford  Methodist  Episcopal  church  dates  back  to  1826,  when  a  band 
of  Methodist  people  organized  themselves  into  a  class.  Among  the  first 
members  were  such  honored  names  as  George  McKnight,  and  wife,  Mrs. 
Joseph  Rawlins,  Mrs.  Joseph  Glover,  Ellen  Peters,  Mrs.  Campbell  and  daugh- 
ters, Alexander  Butler  and  wife  and  Robert  Dougherty  and  wife,  with  a 
score  more  others.  The  first  minister,  Rev.  Edmond  Ray,  was  a  remarkable 
man.  Also  another  preacher  here  was  none  less  than  Bishop  Roberts,  so 
well  known  in  the  Indiana  conference.  The  first  presiding  elder  (district 
superintendent  now)  was  John  Armstrong.  In  September,  1835.  land  was 
bought  of  John  J.  Barnett,  on  which  a  large  building  was  erected.  Later  it 
was  used  bv  the  Roman  Catholic  denomination,  and  stood  on  the  corner  of 
High  and  Culbertson  streets.  It  served  the  Methodists  thirty-five  years.  Its 
bell  was  the  first  that  ever  sounded  out  to  churchgoers  in  Bedford.  About 
1870  the  society  purchased  the  Old-School  Presbyterian  church  building, 
which  was  used  until  1899,  when  the  present  church  was  erected.  In  1884  the 
church  had  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  and  was  out  of 
debt.  In  1899  the  present  magnificent  edifice  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  thirty- 
five  thousand  dollars.  In  a  few  years  the  parsonage  was  added  and  an  annex, 
connecting  all  three  buildings,  all  constructed  of  Bedford  stone.  The  entire 
property  was  valued  in  1913  at  fifty-six  thousand  dollars.  The  present 
membership  of  this  church  is  one  thousand  thirty-six. 

The  Methodist  church  at  Lawrenceport  originated  from  the  little  colony 
of  settlers  that  accompanied  Mr.  Lawrence  from  Maryland.  Among  these 
were  Alonzo  Taylor,  Stuart  Moore,  Joseph  Moore,  Dr.  Samuel  K.  Knight, 
Charles  and  Tohn  Reed.      Manv  returned  to  Maryland,  but  not  until  a  church 



had  been  planted.  Almost  the  first  buildings  erected  were  a  school  and 
church  house  in  1837.  To  them  came  Bishop  Roberts.  In  1885  this  society 
had  sixty  members,  but  no  regular  church  building. 

The  Pleasant  Hill  Methodist  Episcopal  church  was  formed  by  the 
Craigs.  Hacklers  and  others  about  1847.  ^^id  that  year  they  built  a  church. 
It  was,  of  course,  of  logs  and  was  situated  near  the  later  Hackley  residence, 
and  it  had  open  windows  for  lack  of  glass.  The  first  preacher  in  charge  was 
Rev.  James  McCann.  The  church  served  ten  years  and  was  then  burned, 
but  was  rebuilt  in  1865  ;  however,  being  too  small,  a  larger  house  was  erected 
two  years  later.  Bishop  Simpson  dedicated  this  church.  Thirty  constituted 
its  membership  in  1885. 

From  an  accurate  account  of  the  ^Methodist  Episcopal  church  at  Mitchell, 
published  in  the  Couuncrciol  in  1874,  the  following  is  learned  : 

In  a  grove  near  where  the  church  later  stood,  the  first  class  was  formed 
in  the  somber  days  of  the  autumn  of  1856.  Thirteen  united  in  this  effort, 
and  a  few  weeks  later  regular  services  were  had.  The  first  appointed  minister 
there  was  Rev.  F.  Walker,  he  having  been  sent  there  by  the  1858  Indiana 
conference.  At  the  close  of  his  third  year  he  reported  twenty-eight  mem- 
bers, and  a  Sabbath  school  of  thirty  members.  In  i860  a  frame  building  was 
erected.  In  1884  this  church  enjoyed  prosperity,  with  a  membership  of  about 
two  hundred.  A  new  church  was  built  in  1874,  at  a  cost  of  eight  thousand 
dollars,  including  the  lot.  One  member,  Jacob  Finger,  contributed  two 
thousand  dollars  towards  this  fine  church  edifice.  With  slight  changes,  this 
building  is  still  serving  the  congregation.  In  iqii  a  parsonage  was  com- 
menced, which,  with  other  improvements,  amounted  to  an  outlay  of  three 
thousand  dollars.  The  present  membership  of  this  church  is  three  hundred 
and  seventy-five. 

There  is  an  account  of  where  there  were  Methodist  meetings  held  at 
private  homes  as  early  as  1840,  a  mile  and  one-half  from  Mitchell. 

Other  churches  of  this  denomination  in  the  county  are:  The  church  at 
Heltonville,  with  a  membership  of  three  hundred  and  seventy-four,  in  1912; 
the  church  at  Mitchell,  with  two  hundred  and  fourteen;  the  church  at  Oolitic 
and  Springville.  with  a  membership  of  five  hundred  and  twelve,  in  1912;  one 
at  Tunnelton.  with  a  membership  of  three  hundred  and  fifty-three,  in  1912. 
and  the  Bedford  circuit. 


This  society  was  organized  first  as  a  Presbyterian  society,  whose  build- 
ing stood  where  later  stood  Thomas  Whitted's  mill.    The  first  and  only  pastor 


this  society  ever  had  was  Rev.  Koph,  who,  in  1864,  organized  a  church,  but 
he  was  not  acceptable  to  his  flock,  and  when,  in  1866,  Frederick  Ruff,  a 
Methodist  minister  from  New  Albany,  preached  in  Bedford,  he  won  most  of 
the  members  to  his  faith.  In  1871  Philip  Duher  preached  for  these  people 
regularly.  In  1872  a  small  frame  school  house  was  purchased  on  Eastern 
avenue,  between  IMitchell  and  Culbertson  streets,  which  they  converted  into  a 
church.     In  the  early  eighties  the  membership  numbered  fifty-three. 


The  followers  of  Alexander  Campbell,  now  styled  "Christians,"  have 
always  been  a  strong,  denomination  in  Lawrence  county.  Thirty  years  ago 
they  had  twenty  churches,  but  the  following  are  all  for  which  statistics 
can  now  be  given:  Bartlettsville,  125  members;  Bedford.  400;  Bryantsville, 
52;  Christian  Union,  60;  Indian  Creek,  32;  Leatherwood,  300;  Leesville,  13; 
Mount  Pleasant,  60;  Port  William,  67;  Popcorn,  25;  Springville,  100. 

Indian  Creek  Christian  church  was  at  first  a  Baptist  society.  In  1818 
a  small  company  of  believers  of  this  faith  met  at  the  house  of  Wesley  Short 
and  there  an  organization  of  a  church  took  place.  To  Wesley  Short  and 
Jonathan  Jones  must  be  ascribed  the  honor  of  founding  this  church,  the  first 
in  the  township.  In  1821  a  building  was  erected  ;  it  was  small  and  constructed 
of  poles  and  had  open  windows.  There  was  a  large  double  chimney  in  the 
center,  with  a  double  fire-place  fronting  each  end  of  the  room.  So  much 
wood  was  consumed  there  that  it  was  no  uncommon  sight  to  see  some  good 
brother  deacon  coming  to  church  with  his  Bible  under  one  arm  and  a  sharp 
axe  under  the  other.  This  building  served  until  1827,  when  the  membership 
had  grown  to  be  one  hundred  and  twenty-seven.  This  was  all  under  the  care 
of  Wesley  Short.  It  was  in  1827  that  the  Old-School.  Regular  Calvinistic. 
Iron-side,  Hardshell  Baptists,  all  of  which  names  were  applied  to  them, 
withdrew  and  formed  the  Indian  Creek  Christian  church.  The  chief  leaders 
were  the  Shorts,  Mayfields  and  Armstrongs.  A  new  church  w^as  built  that 
year,  on  Indian  creek.  It  was  made  of  logs,  cut  near  by,  and  this  served  for 
fifteen  years,  and  some  say  twenty  years.  In  1846  John  Short  and  wife  deeded 
land  near  Indian  Creek  bridge,  upon  which  to  erect  a  neat  frame  church.  It 
was  thirty-five  feet  square  and  cost  one  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  From 
that  date  on  the  society  was  prosperous  many  years. 

Leatherwood  Christian  church  was  first  of  that  denominaiton  ever  estab- 
lished in  Lawrence  county.  This  was  effected  in  1830,  at  the  house  of  Robert 
Woodv.  five  miles  east  of  Bedford.     The  first  members  were  inclusive  of 


these :  William  and  Susan  Newland,  Robert  and  Norman  Woody,  Peter  and 
Margaret  Smith,  Martin  Smith,  Benjamin  Hensley  and  Katy  Peed.  Martin 
Smith  was  chosen  evangelist.  At  the  first  meeting  Stever  Yoimger  donated 
one  acre  of  ground  on  which  to  build  a  church.  It  was  a  log  house,  twenty- 
five  by  thirty-five  feet  in  size,  furnished  with  slab  seats.  In  1840  a  better 
building  was  provided,  which  was  of  brick,  forty  by  sixty  feet,  costing  about 
two  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  Later  a  finer  edifice  was  erected.  In 
1850  the  membership  had  reached  four  hundred.  In  1884  it  was  the  second 
largest  church  of  the  denomination  in  this  county,  and  had  three  hundred 

Spring\'ille  Christian  church  was  established  really  through  the  breaking 
away  of  Wesley  Short  from  the  old  Baptist  church  in  1830  and  accepting  the 
teachings  of  Alexander  Campbell.  In  1848  Campbell  visited  Mr.  Short.  In 
the  eighties,  a  grandson  of  Mr.  Short,  Ouincy  Short,  was  pastor  of  this 

The  Bedford  Christian  church  has  a  history  reaching  back  as  far  as 
1835,  although  its  written  history  only  goes  to  1846.  In  1835  Elder  J.  M. 
Mathes  was  induced  to  leave  an  appointment  and  preach  at  the  Bedford  court 
house.  For  the  next  eleven  years  many  of  this  faith  came  to  this  locality 
and  in  May,  1846,  Elders  O'Kane  and  Jameson  effected  a  permanent  organi- 
zation. For  a  few  years  they  met  at  the  school  house  and  at  the  Baptist 
church,  later  at  the  Presbyterian  church,  after  which  they  provided  them- 
selves with  a  church  building  of  their  own.  The  corner  stone  of  their  build- 
ing was  set  in  1854.  The  basement  was  partly  finished  and  occupied  in  the 
fall  of  1855.  In  1853  the  membership  was  fifty-one;  in  1856  it  was  seventy- 
six;  in  1858  it  was  one  hundred  and  eighteen ;  in  1864  it  was  two  hundred  and 
fifty-two;  in  1884  it  had  reached  four  hundred.  Its  [jresent  niemliership  is 
about  fourteen  hundred. 

The  present  magnificent  stone  edifice,  near  the  federal  building,  was 
erected  in  iQoo  at  a  cost  of  thirty-seven  thousand  dollars.  It  occupies  lots 
next  to  the  Methodist  church,  the  two  denominations  holding  the  whole  front 
of  the  block,  and  their  two  buildings  are  the  finest  and  largest  within  the 
entire  county. 

The  New  Union  Christian  church  was  the  result  of  a  division  in  the  old 
Shiloh  church.  In  a  protracted  meeting  held  by  the  Christians  in  1867,  Rev. 
J.  M.  Mathes  was  reminded  of  the  terms  under  which  the  society  used  the 
building,  that  no  sectarian  sermons  were  to  be  preached.  This  hint  was  taken 
and  the  Christian  people  went  to  a  school  house  near  by  and  conducted  the 
remainder  of  their  services,  and  manv  Methodists  united  with  them.  Ground 


for  church  and  cemetery  purposes  were  donated  by  WilHam  Tannehill  and  a 
large  church  was  buiU.  It  cost  one  thousand  dollars  and  was  situated  about 
three  miles  to  the  west  of  Bedford. 

The  First  Christian  church  of  Mitchell,  Indiana,  was  organized  on 
May  27,  1906.  Previous  to  this  formal  organization  much  thought  had  been 
given  to  the  work,  and  many  private  exchanges  of  opinion  had  been  made, 
when  a  few  would  meet  after  the  day's  business  had  closed.  On  September  3, 
1905,  a  very  important  meeting  was  held  in  the  Methodist  church,  at  which 
meeting  plans  \vere  agreed  upon  and  never  for  a  moment  were  these  plans 
altered  or  forgotten.  The  following  scripture  texts  were  read  at  that  meeting: 
"Go  ye  into  all  the  world  and  preach  the  gospel  to  every  creature" ;  "Neglect 
not  the  assembling  of  yourselves  together  as  the  manner  of  some  is";  "Ask 
and  ye  shall  receive,  seek  and  ye  shall  find,  knock  and  it  shall  be  opened  unto 
you."  Another  very  important  meeting  was  held  in  the  Baptist  church,  in 
February,  1906.  During  this  meeting  L.  H.  Stine,  then  of  Tipton,  Indiana, 
encouraged  the  people  to  a  more  determined  effort.  The  Ladies  Aid  Society 
was  organized  December  t8,  1905.  with  sixteen  members.  Mrs.  James  W. 
Batman  was  the  first  president,  and  Mrs.  Wayne  Gilly  has  the  same  position 
at  present.  This  organization  has  done  a  wonderful  work  for  the  advance- 
ment of  the  church,  having  earned  and  collected  several  thousand  dollars, 
which  has  been  spent  in  the  Lord's  work.  The  church  building  is  a  cement 
brick  veneer,  erected  by  Ball  Brothers,  of  Brownstown,  Indiana.  The  seating 
capacity  is  three  hundred  and  twenty-five.  The  corner  stone  was  laid  on 
Tune  8,  1907.  This  service  was  conducted  by  Brother  Harley  Jackson,  of 
Seymour,  Indiana.  The  building  was  dedicated  to  divine  worship  on  Septem- 
ber 8,  1907,  by  F.  M.  Rains,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  The  total  cost  of  building 
and  equipment  was  seven  thousand  dollars,  and  all  loans  have  been  paid. 
They  have  the  following  evangelists  and  ministers  to  conduct  special  meet- 
ings :  T.  J.  Legg  and  Mrs.  Lola  Calvert,  H.  H.  Clark,  Harley  Jackson,  Rufus 
Finnell  and  Miss  F.  Kimble,  R.  W.  Abberly  and  WilHam  Leigh.  Regular 
ministers  have  been  as  follows :  E.  S.  Lewis,  I.  Konkle,  H.  J.  Bennett  and 
H.  A.  Wingard.  Others  who  have  visited  and  encouraged  the  society  are  the 
following:  M.  C.  Hughes,  Dr.  J.  W.  Newland,  E.  Richard  Edwards,  Levi 
Batman,  John  Williams,  Ira  Batman,  Amzi  Atwater,  Quincy  Short  and  John 
W.  Marshall.  The  church  building  has  been  open,  and  the  Lord's  table 
spread  every  Lord's  day  since  the  building  was  dedicated  to  the  Lord's  work. 
Their  purpose  is  to  exalt  the  Christ,  and  bring  men  and  women  into  His  king- 
dom. The  church  was  organized  on  May  27,  1906.  by  W.  T.  McGowan,  of 
Indianapolis.  Indiana.     There  were  about  eighty  charter  members,  and  there 


has  been  a  steady  growth,  having  enrolled  five  hundred  and  fifty  names,  with  a 
president  resident  membership  of  three  hundred  and  twenty-five.  The  present 
(1913)  elders  are  J.  W.  Batman,  W.  S.  Burris  and  John  Cutsinger  (non- 
resident). The  deacons  are  J.  H.  Landreth,  Howard  Chitty.  Ambrose  Hos- 
tetler,  A.  O.  Hackney,  Marcus  Smith,  Harve  Porter,  Joseph  Duncan.  Trus- 
tees, J.  W.  Batman,  Columbus  Smith  and  Ambrose  Hostetler. 


In  the  autumn  of  1913  there  were  the  following  churches  of  this  faith 
within  the  county,  and  possibly  a  few  more  smaller  ones :  Bedford,  where 
there  is  a  membership  of  1,513  enrolled,  and  property  valued  at  $50,000.  A 
$37,000  church  was  erected  in  1900  and  in  1913  was  all  paid  for  and  the 
society  had  no  debts  hanging  over  its  head. 

At  Mitchell  the  church  had  a  membership  of  325  and  property  valued  at 

At  Guthrie,  50  members,  with  property  valued  at  $600. 

At  Popcorn,  a  membership  of  24  and  a  church  valued  at  $300. 

At  New  Union  the  value  of  the  church  is  only  $100,  and  the  member- 
ship is  55. 

At  Mount  Union  the  church  property  is  valued  at  S500,  and  the  member- 
ship is  80. 

The  Bridge  church,  near  S])ringvi]le,  is  valued  at  $500,  and  the  member- 
ship is  12. 

The  Mundell  church  is  valued  at  $800,  and  the  membership  is  ioi._ 

There  are  churches  at  Tunnelton,  Barlettsville,  the  Fishing  Creek  church 
at  Stonington,  a  work  at  Inhook,  Heltonville.  Mt.  Pleasant  and  Bugs  Chapel, 
near  Peerless.    Also  a  good  society  at  Leatherwood. 

Perhaps  the  present  property  of  this  denomination  in  the  county  is  valued 
at  about  $75,000. 


This  is  a  branch  of  the  original  Christian,  or  earlier  the  Campbellite 
church,  founded  by  Alexander  Campbell.  It  has  been  styled  the  "Anti  church" 
on  account  of  its  people  not  belie\'ing  in  the  numerous  modern  attachments  to 
church  society  life,  such  as  .Sunday  schools,  with  the  different  leagues  and 
young  people's  societies,  etc.  Also  they  are  opposed  to  the  use  of  instru- 
mental music  in  the  churches,  and  also  to  the  numerous  missionary  societies 
carried  on  in  most  of  the  e\angelical  churches  of  Christendom.     Among  the 


followers  in  this  county  of  this  particular  church  are  very  many  excellent 
men  and  women,  who  tie  their  faith,  as  they  see  it,  on  the  teachings  of  Christ. 

This  denomination  has  societies  at  Leesville,  Mitchell,  Bryantsville,  Fay- 
etteville,  Oolitic  and  Bedford.  Williams.  Port  William,  Mount  Olive,  Fair- 
view,  Pin  Hook.  Bartlettsville. 

The  Bedford  church  of  this  denomination  have  a  building  on  the  corner  of 
Twelfth  and  K  streets.  It  is  a  frame  structure,  erected  in  October.  1891,  on  a 
lot  donated  the  society  by  Thomas  A.  Whitted. 

The  church  society  was  organized  May,  1891,  with  about  twenty-five  men 
and  women  of  this  faith.  The  first  elders  were  William  B.  Church.  William 
Day,  William  H.  Boruff.  The  first  deacons  were  John  W.  May.  Elmer  U. 
Johnson,  Walter  Quackenbush.  Trustees  were  Thomas  A.  Whitted.  William 
Day,  William  H.  Boruff.  The  membership  in  the  auutmn  of  191 3  Avas  about 
three  hundred. 


The  Baptists  date  back  to  about  18 18  in  this  county.  The  church  in  this 
county,  known  as  Salt  Creek  Baptist  church,  was  one  of  the  first  to  be  formed 
here.  It  was  organized  in  October,  1821,  and  was  a  strong  society.  It  was 
really  constituted  in  18 19.  The  first  church,  which  stood  near  the  old  Major 
Williams  farm,  was  of  logs  and  stood  until  about  1874.  It  was  this  church 
that  split  on  the  question  of  sending  missionaries  abroad  and  denounced  the 
doctrines  of  Alexander  Campbell.  In  1835  the  church  had  difficulty  over 
doctrines  and  was  divided.  The  church  finally,  in  1842.  went  down  midst  the 
many  wrecks  of  dogmas  and  foolish  creeds. 

Spice  Valley  Baptist  church  was  formed  June  i.  1822,  with  Abram  Mit- 
chell as  first  pastor,  under  whose  ministry  the  first  log  church  was  built.  In 
1842  a  great  revival  occurred  and  many  were  added  to  the  church,  seventy- 
five  being  immersed  at  one  time.  The  first  church  was  made  from  round 
poles  and  it  had  a  stick-and-dirt  chimney  at  one  end.  It  was  built  in  1827 
and  was  very  low  to  the  ceiling.  A  stove  was  first  put  into  it  in  1832.  The 
house  was  burned  about  1835,  when  it  was  being  used  as  a  school  room.  In 
1837  a  brick  church  was  erected.     For  many  years  this  was  a  strong  society. 

The  Leesville  Baptist  church  had  its  inception  about  1837  three  miles 
southeast  of  Leesville  and  was  called  Brown's  meeting  house.  It  was  only 
four  logs  high,  but  so  large  were  these  logs  that  when  hewn  four  of  them  made 
the  walls  sufficient  in  height  for  a  church  building.  When  torn  down,  many 
years  later,  these  logs  were  taken  to  Leesville  and  there  used  for  "side- walks." 
In  1857  the  membership  was  removed  to  the  village  of  Leesville. 


Spring  Creek  Baptist  church  is  one  of  the  oldest  in  the  county.  It  com- 
menced its  history  at  Springville.  but  in  1850  a  division  arose,  causing  a  por- 
tion of  the  members  to  remove  to  Avoca.  Those  who  remained  built  a  neat 
frame  church  in  1878. 

Guthrie  Creek  Baptist  church  was  once  with  the  White  River  Associa- 
tion, and  in  Jackson  county  at  one  date.  It  was  three  miles  northeast  of  Lees- 
ville  and  was  established  in  1820  by  John  Kinkaid.  John  Woodmonson,  Joseph 
Hanna  and  Walter  Owens.  It  never  attained  any  considerable  strength  as  a 

The  Bedford  Baptist  church  was  the  outgrowth  of  a  two-weeks'  revival 
at  Bedford  in  1840  by  Thomas  Robertson,  in  the  old  court  house.  He  con- 
tinued in  the  Presbyterian  church  building  a  long  time,  and  with  success.  In 
June,  that  year,  or  possibly  the  next,  a  regular  organization  was  perfected 
and  the  membership  grew  rapidly.  In  May,  1843,  land  was  procured  by  Mr. 
Phelps  at  three  hundred  dollars  on  which  to  build.  This  was  carried  out  and 
the  old  brick  church  was  erected,  at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  five  hundred  dol- 
lars. The  first  called  pastor  was  Rev.  T.  N.  Robertson.  In  1850  the  en- 
rollment was  one  hundred  and  ten.  Today  (1913)  the  church  has  a  member- 
ship of  alx)ut  six  hundred.  It  has  a  beautiful  church  home  in  an  edifice  built 
of  stone  in  1899.  which,  with  their  parsonage,  is  valued  at  twenty-two  thousand 
dollars.     The  church  is  on  the  corner  of  Thirteenth  and  M  streets. 

The  Springville  Baptist  church,  not  now  in  the  field,  had  a  wonderful 
interesting  history.  It  was  constituted  in  1825,  chiefly  through  the  influence 
of  Samuel  Owens,  who  then  owned  much  of  the  present  site  of  Springville 
village.  He  was  one  of  the  first  ministers  and  members  of  the  society  whose 
historv  would  be  interesting,  if  it  could  be  collected.  Many  of  the  members 
finally  went  elsewhere. 

The  Baptist  church  of  Mitchell  was  organized  January  30,  1864,  with  the 
following  members :  Rev.  Simpson  Burton,  Carrie  Burton.  Allen  C.  Burton, 
Adeline  Burton,  John  Edwards,  Lucy  Edwards,  Rachel  Pless,  Mary  J.  Pless, 
Thomas  Giles,  Adeline  Giles,  Margaret  Giles,  Kate  Owens,  Mary  Montanya, 
Ann  Giles,  Matilda  Dodson,  Sarah  Blachwell,  Hugh  McNabb  and  Sarah  Mc- 
Nabb.  A  brick  building,  costing  some  three  thousand  dollars,  was  erected  in 
connection  with  the  Mitchell  Educational  Society.  In  this  building  was  con- 
ducted a  school  for  several  years,  known  as  the  Mitchell  Seminary.  The 
church  grew  in  influence  and  numbers.  On  the  15th  day  of  December,  1901, 
the  building  burned  and  on  the  8th  of  February,  1903,  a  ten-thousand-dollar 
building  was  dedicated.  The  church  Avas  organized  with  a  membership  of 
nineteen,  and  the  present  membership  is  three  hundred  forty-six.  The  first  pas- 


tor  was  Wright  Sanders,  followed  by  Revs.  Albert  Ogle,  1868;  A.  J.  Essex, 
1872;  Noah  Harper,  1876:  W.  L.  Greene,  1879;  G.  C.  Shirt,  1881  ;  B.  J. 
Davis,  1883;  A.  C.  Watkins,  1887;  C.  M.  Carter,  1888;  D.  M.  Christy,  1891 ; 
I.  A.  Hailey.  1892:  J-  B.  Thomas,  1894:  I.  M.  Kimbrough,  1898;  E.  R. 
Clevenger,  1901  ;  G.  O.  \A'ebseer,  1905;  C.  L.  Maryman,  1906;  C.  A.  Sigmon, 
1908;  W.  E.  Denham,  191 1  ;  Charles  Bebbs.  1912.  The  salaries  have  ranged 
from  five  hundred  to  one  thousand  dollars,  and  after  the  first  pastorate  the 
church  has  maintained  all-time  service. 

Pleasant  Grove  Baptist  churcli  was  formed  in  the  sixties,  when  Michael 
Waggoner  donated  land  upon  which  to  build  a  small  frame  meeting  house. 
J.  Greggory  was  an  early  preacher  and  a  faithful  one,  too.  In  1874  the 
building  had  to  be  enlarged.  At  many  of  the  revivals  there  fifty  and  seventy- 
five  were  brought  into  the  church. 

In  the  fifties  there  was  a  Missionary  Baptist  church  formed  at  Helton- 
ville.  A  frame  church  was  erected  and  good  work  continued  for  some  time, 
but  nothing  of  recent  years. 

The  churches  of  this  denomination  in  this  county  today  are  those  at 
Bedford,  Gullet  Creek,  Avoca,  Oolitic,  Mitchell.  Heltonville,  Fayetteville,  Sil- 
verville,  Springville,  White  River  church.  Huron,  Tunnelton.  These  are  all 
the  Missionary  Baptist  churches. 


The  history  of  this  denomination  dates  back,  in  this  county,  to  1819. 
Two  societies  commenced  work  in  Lawrence  county  during  that  year.  The 
one  at  Bedford  commenced  with  the  history  of  Palestine,  the  original  county 
seat  town.  In  18 19  Isaac  Reed,  who  was  a  missionary  from  some  one  of  the 
Eastern  states,  entered  Indiana  to  establish  Presbyterian  churches.  He  was  a 
genuine  Yankee  and  traveled  in  a  wagon,  encountering  many  hardships  and 
exposures,  which  experience  he  pre.served  in  a  book  of  his  own  writing.  He 
preached  in  the  temporary  court  house  at  old  Palestine  and  there  organized  a 
small  church  society,  of  which  Samuel  Henderson  and  Philip  Ikerd  were  eld- 
ers. The  first  members  were  S.  Henderson  and  family.  P.  Ikerd  and  family, 
William  Crawford  and  family  and  William  Barnhill.  Rev.  Reed  continued 
to  preach  there  until  1825,  when  the  county  seat  was  removed  to  Bedford. 
W.  W.  Martin,  father  of  C.  B.  H.  Martin,  D.  D.,  also  preached  and  was  the 
pastor  for  a  time.  The  church  at  Palestine,  however,  did  not  remove  its 
headquarters  until  183 1.  On  May  7th  of  that  year,  Isaac  Reed  called  the 
church  members  together,  and  it  appears  of  record  that  the  first  membership 


to  organize  at  Bedford  were  William  Crawford,  Samuel  Henderson  and 
Philip  Ikerd,  elders,  and  Lawrence  [kerd.  Christian  Ikerd,  Philip  and  Susana 
Ikerd,  Jonathan  Henderson,  Jane  Henderson,  Samuel  and  Rhoda  Henderson, 
William  and  Jane  Crawford,  Sarah  McClelland,  Sally  Ikerd,  James  and  Sarah 
Wilson,  Robert  and  Margaret  Robinson,  Alexander  and  Rebecca  McKinney, 
and  Henry  Lowrey.  The  majority  of  these  persons  resided  to  the  east  of 
Bedford.  Meetings  were  at  first  held  at  the  court  house  and  at  the  homes 
of  the  membership.  About  1840  a  peculiar  shaped  brick  house  was  erected 
where  later  the  Presbyterians  erected  their  permanent  church.  It  was  built 
by  Jonathan  Jones,  and  it  was  used  until  1868,  when  a  small  brick  church  was 
built.  The  last  named  was  erected  by  Thomas  Stephens,  at  a  cost  of  seven 
thousand  dollars,  and  was  considered  a  fine  building  at  that  date.  It  stood 
on  the  corner  of  Lincoln  and  Sycamore  streets.  In  1848  the  church  was 
divided  into  the  Old  and  New-School  factions.  The  Old  School,  being  in 
the  minority,  withdrew,  leaving  the  New  School  in  possession  of  the  church 
property.  For  their  use  the  Old  School,  in  1850,  built  a  large  brick  church 
where  later  the  Methodist  church  stood,  on  the  corner  of  Church  and  Locust 
streets.  It  \yas  arranged  for  both  school  and  church  purposes,  with  a  double 
flight  of  stairs  on  the  east  end,  outside.  The  lower  story  was  divided  into 
several  rooms  for  school  purposes.  When  the  Old  and  New  Schools  united 
in  1859,  the  first  building  was  the  one  occupied  by  the  church  thus  formed. 
The  Old  School  building  became  the  property  of  the  Independent  church,  but 
in  1866  it  was  purchased  by  the  Methodists  and  by  them  remodeled  for  their 
church  home,  and  was  in  use  in  the  eighties.  The  Presbyterian  church  had  a 
membership  in  1884  of  about  eighty. 

Today  it  has  a  membership  of  three  hundred.  The  church  edifice  was 
rebuilt  in  1901,  the  old  church  being  used  in  the  rebuilding.  This  society  is 
said  to  be  the  strongest  in  this  presbytery. 

Beno  Presbyterian  church  was  formed  in  1819  by  Isaac  Reed,  the  same 
minister  who  formed  the  church  at  Palestine.  The  first  elders  were  David 
and  William  Green.  Robert  Kelso,  Jonathan  Huston  and  John  Milroy.  When 
the  school  house  was  erected  at  Beno  in  1823,  it  was  also  used  for  church 
purposes,  but  early  in  the  thirties  a  church  house  was  built  near  the  farm  of 
David  Green.  Here  this  society  met  until  1845,  when,  moving  their  mem- 
bership to  Lawrenceport,  they  met  in  a  school  house  and  church  building  com- 
bined in  one.  In  1850  the  Lawrenceport  Presbyterian  church  was  erected,  and 
there  two  presbyteries  were  held,  1850  and  1852.  By  1880  the  membership 
was  scattered  and  the  Methodists  held  services  in  the  old  building. 

Bethlehem  Presbyterian  church  was  reall)-  a  branch  from  the  Bedford 


church,  and  it  was  located  in  the  Crawford  settlement  about  1840.  Three 
years  later  land  was  donated  by  William  Crawford  for  church  and  grave- 
yard purposes.     The  society  went  down  before  the  Civil  war  period. 

The  Mitchell  Presbyterian  church,  as  seen  by  a  descriptive  article  from 
the  pen  of  Thomas  A.  Steele,  began  with  the  organization  of  the  Presbyter- 
ian church  at  Woodville,  two  miles  north  of  Mitchell,  January  24,  1855.  First 
services  were  held  in  the  school  house  at  Woodville  and  continued  there  up 
to  i860.  At  this  date  the  society  was  moved  to  Mitchell,  where  a  small 
frame  church  was  erected  and  used  for  ten  years.  In  1870  it  was  moved  to 
another  part  of  town,  and  a  large  brick  edifice  erected,  largely  the  work  and 
influence  of  Silas  Moore  and  wife,  Mary  E.  Moore.  It  was  a  two-story  build- 
ing and  in  1875  a  high  steeple  was  added,  in  which  a  town  clock  was  placed. 
The  first  minister  was  Rev.  John  A.  Tiffany,  from  1855  to  1858.  The  same 
old  two-story  building  of  1870  is  still  in  use,  with  alterations  and  improve- 
ments. January  16,  1886,  the  auditorium  of  the  church  having  been  furnished, 
it  was  formally  dedicated  free  of  all  debt  and  has  served  as  a  place  of  worship 
ever  since. 

The  following  have  served  as  pastors,  beginning  with  1883:  Revs.  S.  J. 
McKee,  November,  1883,  to  November,  1884:  J.  H.  Reed,  May.  1885,  to 
April.  1887:  ^\^  B.  Harris,  October,  1887,  to  April,  1891:  H.  J.  Van  Dyne, 
October,  1891.  to  October,  1896:  W.  C.  Hall,  December,  1896,  to  May,  1898; 
George  \\'.  Applegate.  May,  1898,  to  May,  1900;  H.  C.  Johnson,  July.  1900, 
to  August,  1004:  E.  O.  Sutherland.  July,  1905.  to  July,  1907;  S.  M.  Morton, 
D.  D.,  October.  1907,  to  October,  1912:  A.  E.  Davis,  July  i,  1913,  and  is  the 
present  pastor. 

The  various  organizations  of  the  church  are  now  in  a  flourishing  condi- 
tion. The  Sunday  school  is  not  the  largest  in  town,  but  fully  as  vigorous  as 
any  in  Mitchell.  In  1906  this  school  established  a  rest  station  in  Korea,  for 
missionaries  in  the  field.  Woman's  Home  and  Eoreign  Missionary  societies 
are  well  cared  for  by  the  ladies  of  the  local  church.  The  present  officers  of 
this  church  are  :  Elders.  W.  M.  James.  W.  E.  Stipp,  W.  F.  Logle.  W.  G.  Old- 
ham; superintendent  of  Sunday  school.  W.  G.  Oldham.  The  faithful  deacons 
of  the  church  are  A.  C.  Ramage.  Calvin  Faris.  W.  H.  Weitknech,  Albert 
McBride.  George  James. 


The  second  church  in  Indian  Creek  township  was  known  as  White  River 
Union,  in  later  vears  as  the  "Old  Union  Church."     It  was  situated  a  mile 


south  of  the  village  of  Fayetteville.  The  leader  in  this  community  was 
Abraham  Kern,  an  earnest,  aggressive,  original,  ideal  church  worker.  To  the 
first  settlers  he  was  truly  an  "Abraham  of  old,"  teaching  what  he  believed  to 
be  only  God's  word  and  will,  and  really  he  walked  with  God !  He  taught  the 
Dunkard  faith.  In  September.  1821,  they  organized  a  regular  Dunkard 
church,  with  charter  members  as  follows :  Abraham  Kern  and  wife,  William 
Kern  and  wife,  David  Sears  and  wife,  David  Ribelin,  Jane  Anderson  and 
Daniel  Oaks.  Generally,  they  held  meetings  in  the  grove  near  their  homes. 
In  1823  a  small  log  church  was  built,  which  stood  near  where  later  they  built 
a  commodious  church  house.  In  1843  they  built  a  brick  church,  well  lighted 
and  ventilated,  at  a  cost  of  two  thousand  five  hundred  dollars. 


At  Bedford  the  work  of  the  Salvation  Army  was  commenced  in  October, 
1909.  The  work  was  opened  by  Captain  O.  A.  Schnarr  and  Ensign  Ira 
Muncelle.  In  September,  191 3,  the  company  had  a  membership  of  forty-four 
soldiers  and  the  original  captain  was  in  charge  of  the  work.  A  temporary 
barracks  was  leased  on  East  Sixteenth  street,  but  plans  are  being  matured  by 
which  a  building  will  be  erected  for  headquarters. 


This  religious  society  has  been  in  existence  in  Bedford  since  about  1893, 
and  has  had  a  church  building  since  1896,  at  No.  941  North  I  street.  Their 
membership  now  consists  of  about  thirty  faithful  men  and  women.  They  aim 
to  follow  Christ's  teachings  and  are  "antisecret  society"  in  their  belief  and 
creed.  At  one  time  they  held  meetings  in  tents  hereabouts.  For  eighteen 
years  they  have  held  street  meetings  near  the  public  square,  each  evening, 
when  the  elements  would  permit. 


Although  there  were  some  Catholics  in  Lawrence  county  as  early  as 
1835,  regular  mass  was  not  held  until  the  year  1850.  Through  the  efforts  of 
Dr.  Benjamin  Newland,  the  court  house  was  first  used  to  hold  the  celebration 
of  mass,  which  was  conducted  by  Rev.  Patrick  Murphy,  of  St.  Mary's,  Martin 
county,  in  June,  185 1.  He  visited  them  after  that  date  until  1859,  when  Rev. 
Louis  Nevron  also  visited  the  town.     From   i860  until    1864  Rev.   Joseph 


O'Reilly  took  charge,  and  during  that  time  mass  was  either  said  in  private 
homes  or  in  J.  Francis's  hall.  The  congregation  then  numbered  about  twenty- 
five  families. 

With  the  arri\al  of  Rev.  Philip  Doyle,  the  next  visiting  pastor,  came 
also  the  idea  of  building  a  new  church.  Every  preparation  was  made,  and 
work  started,  the  corner  stone  being  laid  in  1866.  A  Methodist  church  next 
door  was  the  cause  of  a  cessation  of  building,  but  in  the  midst  of  the  predica- 
ment Father  Doyle  departed,  and  Rev.  Charles  Mougin,  of  Crawfordsville, 
^Montgomery  county,  began  to  attend.  Under  him  the  trouble  was  settled  by 
the  Catholics  buying  the  old  Methodist  church,  and  converting  it  into  a  Catho- 
lic church.     Rev.  Mougin  left  in  1867. 

Re\'.  Julius  Clement,  of  Greencastle,  now  made  one  visit.  From  1868, 
when  Rev.  Henry  PI.  Kessing  became  pastor  at  Bloomington,  he  regularly 
attended  I'.edford  until  July,  1877.  \isiting  the  place  once  each  month.  His 
successor  at  Bloomington,  Rev.  Leopold  M.  Burkhardt,  from  July,  1877, 
until  March.  1879,  attended  twice  each  month.  After  March,  1879,  R^^'- 
John  B.  Unverzagt  had  charge,  and  visited  St.  Vincent's  church  on  alternate 
Sundays,  during  which  time  many  improvements  were  made  on  the  church 
property.  In  1879  Rt.  Rev.  Francis  S.  Chatard,  D.  D.,  visited  Bedford  and 
administered  confirmation.  Rev.  Unverzagt  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  T.  X. 

On  June  15,  1885,  Rev.  W.  Fl.  Bogemann,  of  Bloomington,  began  to  at- 
tend Bedford  on  alternate  Sundays,  and  he  continued  until  the  advent  of  Rev. 
Theodore  J.  Mattingly,  the  first  resident  pastor,  on  October  30,  1902.  During 
his  time  of  attendance.  Father  Bogemann  constructed  the  present  Catholic 
church,  a  magnificent  structure  of  Bedford  limestone,  and  costing  $21,191.60. 
The  church  was  built  in  the  year  1893.  and  was  dedicated  on  July  29,  1894, 
alti'  it  had  been  used  for  services  since  March  iith  of  that  year. 

During  his  residence  in  Bedford,  Father  Mattingly  succeeded  in  paying 
off  all  the  debts  incurred  by  the  church,  and  also  made  improvements  on  the 
old  rectory.  He  stayed  here  until  the  month  of  November.  1904.  From  this 
date  until  July,  1905,  Father  Bogemann  visited  again,  holding  services  each 
Sunday  in  both  Bedford  and  Bloomington. 

Rev.  G.  J.  Lannert  took  charge  of  Bedford  on  July  14,  1905,  and  since 
then  has  made  many  improvements. 

Rev.  Michael  T.  Shea  arrived  in  Bedford  in  August,  1913.  for  the  pur- 
pose of  caring  for  the  Italians  in  the  limestone  quarry  districts.  The  work 
in  these  localities  is  pioneer  effort,  the  benefits  having  to  be  built  from  the 
verv  beginning. 


At  Mitchell,  this  county,  a  Roman  Catholic  church  was  erected  in  1871, 
due  to  the  efforts  of  a  few  zealous  Catholics  who  had  previously  held  mass  at 
the  homes  of  the  faithful,  and  in  Johnson's  hall,  Main  street.  Being  solicitous 
for  the  welfare  of  their  children,  the  small  congregation,  fewer  than  a  dozen 
families,  set  to  work  to  raise  funds  for  a  church  building.  The  trustees  were 
John  C.  Donnell,  William  Boland,  M.  C.  Keane  and  \\'illiam  Gorman.  It 
seemed  a  great  task  for  so  few  members,  but  by  soliciting  funds  between 
Washington  and  Seymour,  Indiana,  also  by  contributions  from  people  of  all 
denominations  at  home,  they  were  able  to  erect  the  present  structure  at  a  cost 
of  three  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  The  lot  was  donated  by  Col.  John 
Sheeks,  a  Protestant.  Since  that  time  the  church  has  been  enlarged  and  other- 
wise improved,  and  a  substantial  rectory  has  been  erected  at  a  cost  of  four 
thousand  dollars.  The  present  priest  in  charge  is  Father  J.  L.  Bolin.  The 
church  property  is  now  worth  about  ten  thousand  dollars ;  the  congregation 
has  a  membership  of  two  hundred  souls,  and  the  society  is  in  a  flourishing 


Members  of  the  Episcopal  church  have  never  been  very  numerous  in 
Lawrence  county  until  in  recent  years,  since  which  time  a  number  have  settled 
in  and  near  Bedford,  being  drawn  hither  largely  by  the  stone  industry,  where 
many  English  and  Welsh  people  have  found  employment.  St.  John's  mission, 
at  Bedford,  now  in  charge  of  Rev.  William  Crossman  Otte,  has  come  to  be  a 
flourishing  parish.  In  many  ways  a  remarkable  growth  has  attended  the 
faithful  ministrations  of  this  most  excellent  rector,  whose  life  is  wrapped 
up  in  his  church  work  and  extension  policies.  In  the  late  sixties  Bishop 
Talbot  visited  Bedford,  then  a  small  town  of  little  importance.  During  one  of 
the  good  Bishop's  visits  here  he  baptized  two  children  and  confirmed  one 
adult.  In  1 87 1  Rev.  John  L.  Gay  visited  the  place  with  a  view  of  renewing 
the  work  and  hoped  to  establish  a  parish.  Services  were  occasionally  held  in 
halls  and  in  the  Presbyterian  church,  but  lack  of  encouragement  and  support 
caused  the  work  to  fall  again.  In  1894  the  Rev.  Lawrence  F.  Cole,  in  the 
course  of  his  missionary  wake,  paid,  as  an  archdeacon,  frequent  visits  to 
Bedford,  holding  services  at  private  houses,  and  in  February  baptized  two 
children.  There  were  not  to  exceed  six  communicants  in  the  town  at  that 
date.  Later,  the  Rev.  William  F.  Cook,  archdeacon,  resumed  services  in 
private  houses  and  in  May,  1900.  presented  the  Bishop  with  a  class  of  two  for 
confirmation.  This  gentleman  unfortunately  had  to  leave  the  field,  and  noth- 
ing more  was  done  until  the  Rev.  Gilbert  M.  Foxwell.  rector  of  the  Bloom- 


ington,  Indiana,  church,  took  up  the  work,  devoting  a  part  of  his  time  here  and 
a  part  at  Bloomington.  After  he  was  sent  elsewhere  the  work  lagged 
again.  The  next  move  was  when  Archdeacon  Walton  took  the  field  in  charge 
in  about  1902,  when  he  found  only  eight  communicants,  but,  full  of  true  zeal, 
he  steadily  pressed  his  claims  to  organization.  A  lot  was  donated  by  two 
ladies  and,  aided  by  a  few  worthy  men,  a  building  was  projected,  and  the 
corner  stone  of  the  present  handsome  chapel,  St.  James's  church,  was  laid 
November  12,  1905,  by  Bishop  Francis.  The  building  was  completed  in 
June,  1906.  In  May,  of  that  year,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  diocesan 
council,  the  Bedford  mission  was  received  and  recognized  as  St.  John's  church. 

In  August,  1905,  Rev.  William  Grossman  Otte  was  wisely  selected  to 
take  charge  of  this  mission.  LJnder  his  excellent  management  and  rare  leader- 
ship, appointed  services  have  been  maintained  ever  since.  A  Sunday  school 
was  organized,  and  St.  John's  Guild  is  another  active  organization  of 
faithful  women.  There  are  also  other  church  societies,  all  of  which  have  had 
their  useful  place  in  building  up  the  church. 

The  church  edifice,  which  is  only  one-third  builded,  but  complete  so  far 
as  it  has  gone,  will  be  cruciform  in  shape  and  one  hundred  and  six  feet  long 
when  completed.  Its  width  is  forty-three  feet  in  the  transept.  It  is  purely 
Gothic  in  style  of  architecture,  and  built  of  the  famous  Bedford  stone.  The 
membership  in  September,  1913,  was  one  hundred  and  fifty  communicants. 

In  addition  to  the  handsome  beginning  toward  a  fine  edifice,  the  society 
has  the  supreme  enjoyment  of  possessing  one  of  the  finest  Bedford  stone 
rectory  buildings  in  this  section  of  the  country.  It  was  erected  as  a  memorial 
to  Miss  Jane  Grossman  Otte,  deceased  daughter  of  the  pastor.  Rev.  William 
Grossman  Otte,  who  passed  to  the  better  world  on  August  18,  1908,  dearly 
beloved  by  all  who  knew  of  her  womanly  virtues  and  rare  goodness  in  every 
act  of  her  life — charitable  and  faithful  to  all  classes.  With  the  coming  and 
going  of  the  future  decades,  this  handsome  two-story  residence,  just  to  the 
north  of  the  church,  facing  M  street,  will  stand  as  a  lasting  monument  to  one 
whose  pure  life  and  noble  deeds  have  indeed  made  the  world  better  by  her 
having  lived  and  labored  for  the  uplift  of  her  race.  This  building  was  built 
by  both  church  members  of  all  denominations  and  the  outsiders,  all  taking 
pride  in  aiding  toward  its  construction.  It  was  dedicated  on  St.  Peter's  day, 



In  almost  every  locality  in  the  civilized  world  may  Ije  found  one  or  more 
subordinate  lodges  of  the  three  greatest  civic  fraternities — Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows  and  Knights  of  Pythias.  In 
many  communities  all  three  are  well  represented,  as  is  the  case  in  Lawrence 
county,  Indiana.  It  will  not  be  the  object  here  to  go  into  a  detailed  history 
of  such  lodges  in  this  connection,  but  to  give  a  general  description  of  where 
and  by  whom  these  societies  were  established. 

The  first  secret  organization  formed  in  Lawrence  county  was  the  Ma- 
sonic lodge  at  Bedford,  in  June,  185 1,  upon  petition  of  R.  R.  Bryant,  J.  B. 
Buskirk,  M.  \\'.  Houston.  John  Daggy.  W.  ^l.  Leach.  A.  X.  Wilder,  Benjamin 
Newland,  John  P.  Fisher,  James  W.  Pro,  James  M.  Warren,  S.  A.  Raridon 
and  William  Malott.  The  grand  lodge  of  the  state  granted  them  a  charter,  to 
work  as  a  Free  and  Accepted  Masonic  lodge,  known  as  Bedford  Lodge  No. 
14,  the  first  worshipful  master  being  J.  B.  Buskirk. 

Bedford  Lodge  No.  14  has  a  present  membership  of  three  hundred  and 
fifty.  The  officers  are  as  follows:  Louis  Roberts,  worshipful  master;  Wal- 
ter A.  Pitman,  senior  warden;  John  MacMillan,  junior  warden;  Herman  E. 
McCormick,  treasurer ;  McHenry  Owen,  secretary ;  Paul  S.  Higman,  senior 
deacon ;  John  Maddox,  junior  deacon ;  Claude  J.  Black,  stew^ard ;  Robert  G. 
McWhirter,  steward;  John  \^^  Findley.  chaplain;  William  B.  Reeve,  tyler; 
Allen  Conner.  L.  Berry  Emery  and  Sherman  L.  Reach,  trustees.  The  lodge 
meets  on  the  second  and  fourth  Saturdays  at  their  hall  at  No.  loii  Fifteenth 

Hacker  Chapter  Xo.  34.  Royal  .\rch  Masons,  has  a  membership  of  two 
hundred.  The  officers  are:  Charles  H.  Strupe.  high  priest;  Walter  J.  Bailey, 
king;  Raymond  H.  Williams,  scribe:  Joseph  R.  Voris,  treasurer;  McHenry 
Owen,  secretary;  Jasper  H.  Wyman,  captain  of  the  host;  Frederick  F.  Storer, 
principal  sojourner;  Fred  X.  Strout,  Royal  .\rch  captain:  Julian  Calonge, 
grand  master  of  the  third  veil :  John  ^MacMillan.  grand  master  of  the  second 
veil ;  Herman  E.  McCormick.  grand  master  of  the  iirst  veil :  James  B.  Wilder, 

Bedford  Council  Xo.  62,  Roval  and  Select  Masters,  was  organized  under 

(10)  '  f\ 


dispensation  of  date  of  July  16,  1891,  and  chartered  October  21,  1891.  Prior 
thereto  a  council  of  the  same  name,  but  No.  49,  was  granted  a  dispensation 
April  12,  1876.  and  chartered  October  18,  1879,  but  the  charter  was  arrested 
in  October,  1888.  The  present  council  has  about  one  hundred  and  forty- 
members,  and  the  officers  are:  L.  Berry  Emery,  thrice  illustrious  master; 
James  W.  Malott,  deputy  master ;  Charles  H.  Strupe,  principal  conductor  of 
the  work;  Joseph  R.  Voris,  treasurer;  McHenry  Owen,  recorder;  John  E. 
McCormick,  captain  of  the  guard ;  Jasper  H.  Wyman,  conductor  of  the  coun- 
cil ;  Julian  Calonge,  steward ;  James  B.  Wilder,  sentinel. 

Bedford  Commandery  No.  42,  Knights  Templar,  was  granted  dispensa- 
tion January  25,  1899,  and  was  chartered  as  Bedford  Commandery  No.  42,  on 
April  20,  1899.  The  old  Commander}^  No.  7,  surrendered  its  charter  in 
1864.  The  officers  at  present  are:  Walter  J.  Bailey,  eminent  commander; 
Fred  N.  Strout,  generalissimo ;  James  W.  Malott,  captain  general ;  James  A. 
Zaring,  senior  warden;  Ward  H.  McCormick,  junior  warden;  Charles  H. 
Strupe,  prelate ;  Joseph  R.  Voris,  treasurer;  McHenry  Owen,  recorder;  Wal- 
ter H.  Sherrill,  standard  bearer;  Morris  P.  Keith,  sword  bearer;  Walter  A. 
Pitman,  warder;  James  B.  Wilder,  sentinel;  William  R.  Grafton,  Andrew 
Duncan.  John  E.  McCormick,  guards ;  Morton  F.  Brooks,  Sherman  L.  Keach, 
L.  Berry  Emery,  trustees.  The  commandery  at  present  has  a  membership  of 
one  hundred  and  seventy-five. 

In  Bedford  there  are  twenty-eight  resident  members  of  the  Indianapolis 
Consistory.  Ancient  Accepted  .Scottish  Rite,  thirty-second  degree,  and  there 
are  fifty-six  resident  members  of  Murat  Temple,  Ancient  Arabic  Order  of 
Nobles  of  the  Mystic  Shrine. 

Another  Masonic  lodge  at  Bedford  is  Emmet  Lodge  No.  345,  organized 
under  dispensation  and  received  a  charter  May  29,  1867,  it  being  a  branch  of 
the  old  Bedford  lodge.  In  1884  it  had  a  membership  of  sixty-eight.  In  1888 
this  was  consolidated  with  the  parent  lodge. 

Mitchell  Lodge  No.  228,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  was  chartered  May 
25.  1858.  For  many  years  before  that  John  P.  Burton  was  the  only  Free 
Mason  residing  within  Marion  township,  and  later  this  lodge  at  Mitchell  was 
organized  and  has  been  sustained  all  these  years.  The  first  officers  were: 
William  V.  T.  Murphy,  worshipful  master;  William  Muir,  senior  warden; 
Edward  Antonieski,  junior  Warden;  J.  T.  Biggs,  secretary.  The  present  mem- 
bership of  this  lodge  is  eighty-nine,  and  its  elective  officers  are :  J.  D.  Byrns, 
worshipful  master;  Cealy  Braman,  senior  warden;  John  L.  Holmes,  junior 
warden:  John  A.  Rodarmel.  treasurer ;  ^^^  M.  James,  secretary;  Hugo  Siefker, 


senior  deacon;  Howard  Chitty,  junior  deacon;  W.  G.  Oldham,  senior  steward; 
John  A.  Gibbons,  junior  steward ;  B.  H.  Sherwood,  tyler. 

Mitchell  Chapter  No.  23,  Royal  Arch  Masons,  was  organized  and 
chartered  October  20,  1870. 

Mitchell  Council  No.  48.  Royal  and  Select  Masters,  was  chartered  Octo- 
ber, 1876. 

Lawrenceport  Lodge  No.  543,  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  was 
granted  a  charter  August  31,  1876,  with  the  following  officers  and  charter 
members:  A.  F.  Berry,  worshipful  master;  John  Mitchell,  senior  warden; 
and  Harrison  Field,  junior  warden.  The  other  members  were  W.  G.  Todd, 
G.  W.  Hamer,  H.  T.  Hamer  and  John  I^^swell.  The  lodge  worked  under  dis- 
pensation until  May  22,  1877,  when  a  charter  was  obtained.  From  its  organi- 
zation the  lodge  for  many  years  was  among  the  most  prosperous  in  the  county. 
It  owned  a  good  building  in  1883  and  had  money  in  its  treasury. 

At  Huron,  Masonic  Lodge  No.  381  was  organized  May  27.  1868.  with 
Thomas  J.  Cummings,  worshipful  master:  Joseph  Bosler,  senior  warden,  and 
Benjamin  F.  Prosser,  junior  warden.  It  was  never  very  prosperous  in  earlier 
days,  and  in  1884  had  a  membership  of  only  seventeen. 

At  Spring\'ille,  Lodge  No.  177  was  organized  in  1855,  by  the  following 
charter  members :  Jewett  L.  Messick,  W.  H.  Cornelius,  Dean  Barnes,  E.  M. 
Stanwood,  Thomas  Graves.  M.  B.  Garton,  and  a  few  others.  They  were  com- 
pelled to  surrender  their  charter  in  188 1. 

At  Heltonville,  Leatherwood  Lodge  No.  116  was  organized  in  the  early 
fifties.  The  first  worshipful  master  was  Major  Bemen.  The  lodge  went  down 
many  years  ago. 

Cedar  Lodge  No.  161  was  organized  at  Leesville.  The  first  officers 
were :  Thomas  J.  Reed,  worshipful  master ;  Robert  Henderson,  senior  war- 
den;  Jonathan  C.  Todd,  junior  warden.  In  1884  there  was  a  membership  of 
about  twenty. 


This  order,  one  of  the  greatest  on  earth  today,  has  a  splendid  following 
in  Lawrence  countv.  It  has  lodges  of  strength  and  usefulness  at  Rivervale, 
Bedford.  Oolitic,  Heltonville.  Fort  Ritner.  Williams.  Springville  and  Mitchell. 

Shawswick  Lodge  No.  177,  at  Bedford,  was  instituted  by  John  B.  An- 
derson, grand  master  of  Indiana,  May  21,  1856.  with  the  following  charter 
membership :  Francis  A.  Sears,  John  Baker,  W.  C.  R.  Kemp,  C.  S.  Kaufifman, 
Joseph  J.  Dean  and  W.  C.  Hopkins.  The  first  noble  grand  was  F.  A.  Francis. 
Up  to  1884  there  had  been  two  hundred  and  twelve  members  uniting  with 


the  lodge  and  only  ele\en  had  died,  the  membership  then  being  eighty-five. 
Its  present  membership  is  three  hundred  and  eighty-five,  and  its  present 
elective  ofiicers  are:  Walter  Chilton,  noble  grand;  Walter  Thomas,  vice 
grand;  Basil  Miller,  secretary;  Fred  I'itman,  financial  secretary;  J.  J.  Johnson, 
treasurer.  The  trustees  are  McHenry  Owens.  Read  Gathers  and  H.  L. 
McKnight.  The  lotlge  owns  a  hall,  the  ap])r()ximate  \'alue  of  which  is  twenty- 
two  thousand  dollars. 

Bedford  Encampment  No.  80,  of  the  Odd  Fellows  order,  was  instituted 
in  Bedford,  July  24,  1866. 

Mitchell  Lodge  No.  242,  Independent  Order  of  Odd  Fellows,  was  in- 
stituted September,  1865,  by  G.  \\'.  Webb  and  Major  David  Kelley.  Its  pres- 
ent membership  is  two  hundred  and  seventy-two.  The  first  noble  grand  was 
William  Wilson.  The  ])resent  officers  are  :  Jesse  F.  Ewing,  noble  grand ; 
R.  W.  Smith,  vice  grand;  G.  W.  Golman,  treasurer;  J.  Lee  Horton,  recording 
secretary ;  Will  D.  Ewing,  financial  secretary.  The  order  erected  a  hall  for 
lodge  room  purposes  in  1895,  at  a  cost  of  three  thousand  five  hundred  dollars. 

Lawrenceport  Lodge  No.  780,  at  Rivervale,  this  county,  was  instituted 
November  14,  1901,  and  now  has  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  two. 
They  own  their  own  hall  property,  which  is  the  second  story  of  a  business 
house ;  its  cost  was  eight  hundred  dollars.  The  present  officers  of  this  lodge 
are:  James  B.  Ewing,  nolile  grand;  \Villiam  Leatherman,  vice  grand;  Clyde 
Ouillen,  recording  secretary  ;  John  G.  Kane,  financial  secretary  ;  Albion  Bul- 
litt, treasurer. 

Springville  Lodge  No.  846  was  instituted  February  i,  1907.  The  pres- 
ent elective  officers  are:  Charles  Stevenson,  noble  grand;  Elbert  Adamson, 
vice  grand ;  F.  A.  Brinegar.  secretary.  The  hall  was  erected  in  July  and 
August,  1910,  at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  two  hundred  dollars.  The  lodge  has 
a  good-standing  membership  of  twenty-four. 


Palestine  Lodge  No.  137,  Knights  of  Pythias,  was  organized  in  the  city 
of  Bedford  many  years  since.  The  officers  serving  during  1913  are  as  fol- 
lows: H.  G.  Wilson,  chancellor  commander;  J.  G.  ^NIcKinney,  keeper  of  rec- 
ords and  seal ;  F.  W.  Kennedy,  master  of  finance ;  J.  V.  Strout,  master  of  ex- 
chequer;  T.  G.  Hassett,  prelate;  B.  E.  Hassett,  master  of  the  work;  Leonard 
Woody,  master  at  arms;  Owen  Rout,  D.  K.  Tlollowenn,  \\'illiam  Barr,  Mit- 
chell Guthrie  and  J.  G.  Hogan,  trustees. 

Oolitic  Lodge  No.   ^2t,,  at  Oolitic,  this  county,   was  organized   several 


years  ago.  Tt  owned  a  good  hall,  which  was  Inirned  July  8.  1913,  at  a  loss 
of  four  thousand  dollars.  The  i)resent  trustees  are  Ora  George.  Albert 
Bryant  and  Jackson  Temple.  Its  officers  are :  Elza  George,  chancellor  com- 
mander;  O.  L.  Brown,  vice  chancellor:  \Mlliam  Bruce,  master  at  arms:  Will- 
iam Hesler.  prelate :  Claude  Phillips,  inner  guard :  Howard  Blazew.  outer 
guard:  Charles  Nichols,  keeper  of  records  and  seal:  William  Alitchell.  keeper 
of  exchequer :  Charles  Gilbert,  collector. 

The  Knights  of  Pythias  Lodge  at  ^Mitchell  is  Xo.  130.  It  was  organized 
in  1887.  and  has  a  present  membership  of  one  hundred  and  fifty.  Its  offlcers 
are  :  ^^^alter  Pierce,  chancellor  commander  :  Victor  Prosser.  vice  commander ; 
Warren  Wright,  keeper  of  records  and  seal :  Lee  Horton.  master  of  finance ; 
Walter  Shanks,  master  of  exche(|uer:  A.  O.  True,  prelate:  James  Coppey, 
master  at  arms.  This  lodge  owns  its  own  castle,  erected  in  1905,  at  a  cost  of 
seven  thousand  dollars. 

There  are  lodges  of  this  order  at  Leesville  and  Tunnelton,  the  facts  about 
which  were  not  obtainable  by  the  writer.  The  Tunnelton  lodge  has  a  member- 
ship of  sixty. 



Tlie  New  Albany  &  Salem  railroad  was  the  first  steam  highway  to  cross 
Law  rence  county.  The  county  did  not  furnish  any  aid  in  way  of  appropria- 
tions, hut  the  road  was  materially  helped  by  various  individuals.  It  is  said 
that  in  each  and  every  instance  the  right-of-way  was  given  free  of  cost  to  the 
company.  Besides  this,  different  citizens  contributed  in  way  of  the  stock 
they  subscribed  for  and  the  labor  they  did,  in  all  amounting  to  more  than  one 
hundred  thousand  dollars.  Thus  the  pioneer  railroad  was  constructed  through 
this  county  in  1851-3. 

The  next  road  projected  was  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi  railroad,  that  crossed 
the  southern  portion  of  the  county  from  1855  to  1857.  It  was  aided  by  in- 
dividuals, same  as  the  road  above  mentioned,  and  to  about  the  same  extent  in 
the  total  amount  of  aid. 

In  1870  Marion  township  voted  two  hundred  and  sixty-four  for  and  one 
hundred  and  sixty-nine  against  a  two  per  cent,  tax  to  aid  the  Rockport  & 
.Northern  Central  railroad.  This  tax  was  levied,  but  never  collected,  as  the 
project  was  abandoned  by  the  promoters.  In  1872  the  question  again  came 
up,  the  township  voting  three  hundred  and  fifty-nine  for  and  two  hundred 
and  thirty-nine  against  a  two  per  cent,  tax,  which  was  levied,  but,  as  in  the 
former  case,  the  road  was  not  built.  Other  tax  aids  were  asked  at  different 
dates,  two  of  which  were  the  matter  of  assisting  the  Indianapolis  &  Evansville 
Mineral  railroad  and  the  Bedford.  Brownstown  &  Madison  railroad. 

The  Bedford  &  Bloomfield  narrow  gauge  railroad  was  built  under  the 
name  of  the  Bedford.  Springville.  Owensburg  &  Bloomfield  railroad.  The 
capital  was  fixed  at  one  million  dollars,  divided  into  twenty  thousand  shares  of 
fifty  dollars  each.  The  line  covered  a  distance  of  thirty-six  miles.  In  Novem- 
ber, 1874,  Clark.  Buel.  Donahey  &  Company  contracted  to  build  this  road  and 
secure  the  bonds  for  the  individual  stock  subscriptions.  This  was  to  include 
the  right-of-way  and  they  were  to  have  a  two  per  cent,  tax  from  the  territory 
through  which  the  line  was  to  run.  The  matter  of  voting  the  tax  in  Shaws- 
wick  township  was  seen  to  in  February.  1875.  resulting  in  402  in  favor  and 
160  against  the  tax.  Indian  Creek  voted  157  for  and  75  against.  The  tax  in 
Shawswick  township  amounted  to  $42,000;  in  Perry  it  was  $10,900;  in  Indian 


Creek,  $13,000.  In  June,  1875,  one  per  cent,  of  this  tax  was  ordered  levied. 
In  1875  Conley,  Mason  &  Company,  residents  of  Greene  county,  bought  the 
raih'oad  in  its  then  unfinished  condition,  but  soon  thereafter  went  into  bank- 
ruptcy, and  the  IndianapoHs  Rolling  Mill  Company,  as  assignees,  took  the  road 
in  July,  1876,  and  completed  it  by  October  that  year,  but  did  not  obtain  com- 
plete control  of  it  until  December,  1882.  This  company,  in  turn,  in  February, 
1883,  sold  all  the  stocks,  bonds  and  franchise  to  the  Bedford  &  Bloomington 
Railway  Company,  a  local  organization,  which  still  owned  the  property  in 
1885.  In  February,  1884,  the  company  bought  the  short  line  from  Bloomfield 
to  Swartz  City.  Among  the  principal  stockholders  were  A.  C.  Voris,  W.  P. 
Malott,  Frank  Landers,  W.  W.  Mason,  Acquilla  James  and  J.  W.  Kennedy. 


Of  the  railroads  in  this  county  operating  in  1913,  it  may  be  said  that  the 
old  New  Albany  &  Salem  line  is  now  known  as  the  "Monon,"  the  legal  title  of 
which  is  the  Chicago,  Indianapolis  &  Louisville  Railway  Company. 

The  Bedford,  Springville  &  Bloomfield  railroad  was  first  built  in  1876, 
having  been  completed  on  the  4th  of  July,  that  year.  A  great  amount  of 
trouble  was  experienced  in  the  construction  of  the  line,  and  consequent  finan- 
cial difficulty  compelled  the  abandoning  of  work.  However,  the  citizens  of 
Bedford  and  the  surrounding  country  came  to  the  relief,  and  by  subsidies  and 
subscriptions  money  was  secured  to  complete  the  road.  V.  V.  Williams  acted 
as  receiver,  and  managed  the  collection  of  the  funds.  The  line  is  now  owned 
by  the  Chicago,  Indianapolis  &  Louisville  road,  or  the  Monon. 

The  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Southwestern,  running  through  Mitchell,  was 
completed  through  the  county  in  1S55-56.  and  has  also  a  branch  from  Bedford 
to  Rivervale,  where  it  forms  junction  with  the  main  line. 

The  Terre  Haute  &  Southeastern  line  is  also  an  important  line  in  Law- 
rence county  today,  and  was  the  result  of  many  railroad  schemes,  but  is  now 
permanent  and  successful. 


The  following  was  written  concerning  this  railroad  in  1895,  and  will 
ever  remain  as  good  history  in  Lawrence  county  railroading : 

The  most  valuable  property  owned  by  the  Bedford  Quarries  Company  is 
the  Belt  railroad.  The  railroad,  which  is  twelve  miles  in  length,  with  the 
necessary  accessories  in  way  of  yards,  switching  tracks,  etc..  was  finished  in 
the  earlv  nineties  (about  1893),  and  while  it  affords  the  necessary  shipping 


facilities  from  the  several  quarries  of  the  company,  it  is  of  still  further  im- 
portance in  the  fact  that  it  has  become  an  indispensable  feature  of  the  entire 
stone  industry  in  and  around  Bedford.  Before  its  completion  each  quarry 
was  dependent  for  the  transportation  of  its  product  upon  the  one  railroad 
which  ran  near  its  property  or  that  could  be  induced  to  lay  a  switch  thereto 
The  consequence  was,  the  quarry  owners  were  practically  at  the  mercy,  so 
far  as  shipping  their  product  was  concerned,  upon  some  one  railroad  cor- 
poration. We  do  not  know  that  this  was  ever  taken  advantage  of  by  the 
railroad  companies,  but  that  it  could  have  been  done  if  desired  is  very  evident. 

When  the  subject  was  brought  up  of  building  a  railroad  owned  and  con- 
trolled bv  capital  most  interested  in  the  stone  industry,  which  road  should 
connect  each  quarry  with  e\er\-  railroad  system  entering  Bedford,  and  there- 
fore afford  to  all  an  e(|ual  opportunity  of  placing  their  product  on  the  market, 
it  was  the  source  of  much  encouragement  to  the  quarrymen.  Not  only  its  con- 
nection with  all  railroads  was  an  accommodation,  but  the  fact  that  the  new 
compan\-  pro]iosed  to  make  such  arrangements  as  would  give  them  a  sufificient 
number  of  cars  at  all  times  to  supply  all  demands  for  transportation  facilities, 
was  a  source  for  congratulation,  for  it  had  been  a  source  of  great  annoyance 
and  delay  that  the  railroad  companies  were  not  prompt  in  furnishing  cars  and 
manv  a  claim  for  damages  because  of  delay  in  receiving  stone  was  made  by 
contractors  against  c|uarr}'  owners,  who  were  unable  to  send  forward  stone  be- 
cause the  railroads  did  not  send  cars  when  needed.  This,  the  Belt  line  people 
promised  to  remedy,  and  did. 

But  the  construction  of  the  road  was  beset  by  many  difficulties  owing  to 
the  jieculiar  "lay  of  the  land"  around  and  among  the  quarries.  Hilly  to  a 
degree  a  little  short  of  mountainous,  the  problems  of  engineering  presented 
w  ere  numerous  and  varied.  Trestles,  bridges,  rock  cuts  and  grades,  and  very 
many  of  them  in  most  inaccessible  places,  were  but  a  part  of  the  difficulties  to 
be  overcome,  but  brains,  backed  by  capital,  overcame  the  obstacles  and  the 
road  was  completed  in  due  time,  but  at  a  cost  of  over  twenty-five  thousand  dol- 
lars per  mile,  because  of  the  unusual  character  of  the  country  through  which 
it  passed.  .\  ride  over  this  road  convinces  one  that  there  is  more  picturesque 
scenerv  crowded  into  that  twelve  miles  than  be  found  in  an  equal  distance  of 
anv  other  road.  But  it  is  for  utility  that  this  road  was  constructed  and  the 
many  train  loads  of  stone  constantly  passing  back  and  forth  over  the  line 
testifies  that  it  is  meeting  the  end  for  which  it  was  built. 

The  Bedford  Belt  railway  is  fully  equipped  for  doing  the  business  de- 
manded of  it.  The  company  owns  three  large  Mogul  engines  for  the  heavy 
hauling  over  the  line  and  one  of  lighter  build  wdiich  is  used  for  shipping  in 


the  yards  and  for  a  passenger  service  that  is  operated  between  the  stations  at 
Bedford  and  Limestone  and  from  quarry  to  quarry.  Altogether,  the  Bedford 
Quarries  Company  has  in  the  Bedford  Belt  railway  a  valuable  piece  of  prop- 
erty, valuable  to  themselves  and  valuable  also  to  every  person  identified  with 
the  quarrying  interests  in  and  around  Bedford. 



In  the  days  of  the  early  settlement  of  Lawrence  county  there  existed  a 
military  organization  of  similar  character  to  that  of  the  county  of  Monroe. 
This  somewhat  crude,  but  effective,  system. was  based  on  the  militia.  The 
organization  of  the  county  militia  was  impelled  by  government  orders,  and 
each  county  in  the  state  was  required  to  consolidate  bodies  of  men  into  com- 
panies, and  drill  them  in  the  art  of  military  tactics  at  certain  stated  periods. 
The  Indian  tribes  were  by  no  means  pacified  at  this  time,  and  they  resented 
every  inroad  the  white  men  made  into  their  hunting  grounds.  This  charac- 
teristic sullen  discontent  was  apt  to  break  into  a  bloody  onslaught  on  the 
whites  at  any  time,  and  consequently  the  militia  was  kept  in  formation  to 
combat  these  attacks  should  they  occur.  The  hostile  tribes  in  the  Hoosier 
state  were  not  troublesome  very  long,  however,  and  the  need  of  a  militia  to 
cope  with  them  ceased.  Nevertheless,  the  people  of  Lawrence  county  took  a 
great  pride  in  maintaining  these  organizations,  but  the  interest  was  not  suffi- 
cient to  justify  the  expenditure  of  much  money  on  equipment.  Each  man 
who  desired  to  be  a  soldier  furnished  his  own  arms,  and  if  they  did  not  have  a 
gun,  they  brought  broom  handles,  corn  stalks,  hoes,  sticks,  or  anything  with 
which  they  could  employ  in  going  through  the  manual  of  arms.  The  Law- 
rence county  citizens  dubbed  the  companies  the  "cornstalk  militia,"  which 
appellation  was  the  beginning  of  the  end.  As  occurred  in  Monroe  county,  the 
militia  soon  degenerated  into  an  absurd  farrago,  and  instead  of  orderly  drills 
and  serious  training,  the  meeting  days  became  festivities,  featured  by  all  sorts 
of  sports,  such  as  horse  racing,  gambling,  pugilistic  encounters,  and  contests 
of  markmanship.  There  were  many  early  settlers  prior  to  1815  who  joined 
companies  of  rangers,  raised  in  neighboring  portions  of  the  county;  these 
rangers  were  mounted  and  formed  a  very  efficient  body.  These  veterans  of 
the  war  of  1812  were  occasionally  called  out  for  the  pursuit  of  troublesome 
Indians,  but  otherwise  saw  no  active  service. 

The  year  1846  marked  the  next  step  of  any  consequence  in  the  military 
affairs  of  the  county.  Under  act  of  Congress,  approved  May  13,  1846,  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  James  Knox  Polk,  called  for  volunteers  to  go 
to  Mexico,  and  the  quota  for  Indiana  was  fixed  at  three  regiments.     Imme- 


diately  following  this  call  several  prominent  citizens  of  county,  including  Henry 
Davis,  G.  G.  Dunn,  L.  0.  Hoggatt,  Cyrus  Dunham,  George  Carr,  John  C. 
Gavins,  E.  W.  Rice  and  James  Carothers,  began  an  effort  to  raise  a  company 
at  Leesville,  war  meetings  being  held  in  that  town  and  at  Bedford,  Spring- 
ville  and  in  other  localities.  The  work  progressed  rapidly  and  within  a  week 
a  full  company  was  raised  and  their  service  offered  to  the  governor  of  the 
state.  The  personnel  and  organization  of  the  company  were  very  satisfactory, 
and  they  were  accepted  and  ordered  to  report  at  New  Albany  and  be  assigned 
to  the  Second  Regiment.  Henry  Davis  was  chosen  captain  of  the  company, 
L.  O.  Hoggatt.  first  lieutenant,  Josiah  S.  Foster,  second  lieutenant,  and  Ed- 
mund W.  Rice,  third  lieutenant.  The  old  court  house  was  used  for  a  time  as  a 
barracks,  while  the  formation  of  the  organization  was  completed. 

On  June  19,  1846,  the  company  was  drawn  up  on  the  public  square  to  say 
farewell  to  those  left  at  home,  and  preparatory  to  their  departure  for  New 
Albany  to  join  their  regiment.  The  time  was  in  the  early  morning,  to  avoid, 
as  history  records,  one  of  the  hottest  days  of  the  summer.  George  G.  Dunn 
spoke  the  farewell  for  the  townspeople,  and  at  the  conclusion  of  his  address 
each  man  in  the  company  was  presented  with  a  Testament.  The  sorrow  of  the 
leave-takings  was  somewhat  softened  by  the  cheers  and  strains  of  martial  music 
which  were  accorded  the  boys.  Upon  their  arrival  at  New  Albany  the  men 
were  assigned  to  the  Second  Regiment  as  Company  F,  and  later  became 
known  as  the  'T.awrence  Grays,"  and  bore  a  reputation  for  bravery  and  forti- 
tude unsurpassed  in  the  American  army. 

In  July.  1846.  the  Second  Regiment  was  taken  to  the  city  of  New 
Orleans,  and  thence  across  the  gulf  of  Mexico  to  the  mouth  of  the  Rio  Grande 
river.  In  this  position  the  regiment  remained  until  February,  1847,  '"  the 
meantime  losing  several  men  by  death,  and  growing  more  impatient  every 
day  for  a  movement  against  the  "greasers."  On  the  above  date,  they  were 
assigned  to  a  division  of  five  thousand  men  under  the  command  of  Gen. 
Zachary  Taylor,  and  placed  in  the  Buena  Vista  pass  to  await  the  advance  of 
the  Mexican  army  of  twenty  thousand  men  under  Santa  Anna.  Buena  Vista 
means  "beautiful  view."  and  indeed  the  spot  justified  the  description.  The 
pass  was  narrow  and  ridged  by  numerous  ravines  across  the  sides,  and  run- 
ning across  it  was  a  broad  plateau  about  two  hundred  feet  above  the  level. 
General  Taylor  threw  his  line  of  battle  across  this  plateau,  and  the  Second 
Regiment  was  designated  to  the  extreme  left  of  the  line,  near  the  side  of  the 
mountain.  The  Mexicans  soon  appeared  at  the  head  of  the  pass  in  solid 
column,  and  an  imposing  sight  it  was.  Their  flags  and  pennants  waved,  their 
carbines  and  accoutrements  glittered  in  the  bright  sun,  and  their  gaudy  uni- 


forms  made  bright  splotclies  of  color  against  the  horizon.  They  endeavored  to 
carry  the  pass  by  soHd  formation  at  first,  but  the  Washington  Battery,  on  an 
elevation  to  the  right,  threw  canister  and  shrapnel  into  the  thickly  crowded 
ranks  so  rapidly  that  they  were  compelled  to  fall  back  in  confusion,  strewing 
the  ground  with  their  dead.  Their  next  move  was  to  flank  the  American  forces 
on  the  left,  and  in  this  maneuver  they  were  successful.  The  Indiana  and  Ken- 
tucky regiments  received  the  weight  of  hundreds  of  mounted  and  foot  soldiers, 
and  the  Mexican  lancers,  on  ponies,  stormed  the  rear,  capturing  several  pieces 
of  ordnance  of  Bragg's  battery.  The  Second  Regiment  fired  twenty-one  rounds. 
and  then  the  bugle  sounded  the  retreat.  Unfortunately,  the  correct  tactics  of 
retreat  hafl  lieen  omitted  from  their  training,  and  when  they  made  the  effort 
their  flight  Ijccame  a  rout,  and  they  were  literally  crowded  down  off  the 
plateau.  In  the  fi)rk  made  l)y  tlie  convergence  of  two  ravines,  the  Americans 
halted,  and,  once  at  bay,  poured  a  terrific  storm  of  lead  into  the  oncoming 
Mexicans,  and  stopped  them  completely.  This  encouraged  the  Indiana  and 
Kentuck\-  men,  and  they  reformed  their  battle  line.  Until  night  the  Ameri- 
cans resisted  every  charge  oi  the  Mexican  infantry  and  cavalry,  and  stub- 
bornly contested  every  minute  of  the  time.  When  night  came  the  Mexicans 
drew  off.  and  thus  the  .\mericans  won  a  glorious  victory  from  defeat.  This 
was  practicalh-  all  of  tlie  fighting  for  the  Second  Regiment,  and,  after  serving 
in  various  way.  part  of  the  time  in  doing  guard  duty,  they  were  ordered  home, 
their  year  of  enlistment  having  expired. 

The  people  of  Lawrence  county  were  greatly  excited  when  the  news 
came  of  the  battle  of  Buena  Vista,  but  were  frightened  by  the  first  report  that 
the  Lawrence  county  boys  had  been  among  those  who  fled  before  the  Mexi- 
cans. All  refused  to  blame  the  fact  to  cowardice,  and  waited  anxiously  for 
further  details  of  the  battle.  These  were  brought  by  W.  A.  Gorman,  of 
Bloomington,  Monroe  county,  who  had  been  a  member  of  the  regiment,  but 
who  came  home  in  advance  of  the  others.  He  tarried  at  Bedford  and  delivered 
a  public  speech,  wherein  he  detailed  the  events  of  Buena  Vista;  how  the  boys, 
having  used  their  ammuniition,  were  ordered  three  times  by  their  command- 
ers to  retreat.  The  people  rested  easier  when  they  learned  that  their  men 
were  not  cowards. 

On  the  30th  of  June,  1847,  the  Bedford  troops  returned  home.  The 
citizens,  with  the  Bedford  band,  met  them  at  White  river,  and  escorted  them 
into  town.  On  account  of  the  brilliant  \^ictory  a  large  barbecue  was  held  on 
July  6th  in  Foote's  woods,  north  of  town,  and  it  was  estimated  that  fully  six 
thousand  people  were  present.  The  procession  formed  in  town  and  marched 
to  the  grounds,  where  a  large  ox  was  roasted  in  a  pit.     Dr.  Benedict  delivered 


the  principal  address  of  welcome,  and  Captain  Davis  and  Lieutenants  Hog- 
gatt  and  Lewis  made  the  responses.  The  soldiers  from  Leesville  were  also 
given  a  barbecue  similar  to  that  of  Bedford. 

The  brave  fellows  who  fought  for  the  States  during  the  war  w  ith  Mexico 
are  ofttimes  forgotten  in  the  blaze  of  glory  which  surrounds  the  later  heroes 
in  the  war  for  the  L'nion.  This  should  not  be  true.  Their  patriotism  was 
just  as  high,  their  courage  as  great,  and  their  willingness  to  sacrifice  life  and 
home  was  just  as  sincere.  The  graves  of  the  Civil  war  men  far  outnumber 
those  of  the  Mexican,  but  the  honors  to  be  accorded  the  honored  dead  should 
be  distributed  equally  among  the  silent  mounds,  whether  of  '46  or  '61. 

The  muster  roll  of  Company  F  included  the  officers  already  mentioned, 
and  the  following:  Isaac  Carothers,  Calvin  R.  Fox,  \\'illiam  F.  Dodds,  and 
Virgil  Vestal,  sergeants ;  John  Bishop,  Ambrose  B.  Carlton.  Eli  H.  Alexander 
and  Nathaniel  B.  Stearns,  corporals ;  Levi  Bailey,  Dillard  Bell,  Alexander 
Caldwell,  John  R.  Carmon,  Mathias  Clampitt,  William  Clampitt,  John  C. 
Crawford,  Lewis  Crawford,  Jabez  Cox,  Housan  Clifton,  William  Day,  J.  F. 
Deckert,  William  Dougherty,  L.  C  Fell,  John  Foote,  James  Franklin,  Caleb 
Fry,  Callahan  Fisher,  Thomas  (ioens,  Joseph  Gough,  Alexander  Hawkins, 
William  Hawkins,  Davis  Hart,  John  Helton,  David  P.  Houston,  Stephen 
Humphreys.  Philip  Huff,  Daniel  Jackson,  James  Kilgore,  Benjamin  McFar- 
land,  George  Miner,  E.  W.  Moberly.  James  Owen,  Daniel  A.  Peck.  Chalfant 
Purcell,  W.  H.  Pender,  John  W.  Pool,  Finley  Reynolds,  Charles  Ross,  Abra- 
ham K.  Smith,  Austin  G.  Shear,  John  Thomas,  John  Tressler,  Reuben  Pitcher, 
L  N.  Templeton,  Oscar  Foote.  William  Purcell,  John  McCoy,  George  Tyler, 
Robert  Brown,  William  McPike,  Elijah  C.  Litton,  Davis  Harrison,  Josephus 
Talbot,  John  ^^'oody,  James  H.  Boyd,  Charles  Myers,  Joseph  Dayton,  Henry 
N.  Brown,  and  the  two  musicians.  James  J.  Brown  and  James  Duncan. 

Two  boys  of  the  Winegar  family  were  called  by  death  by  disease,  and 
Harrison  Wilson,  X.  W.  Trwin  and  Harvey  Mathis  were  killed  at  Buena 
Vista,  on  Februarv  22,  1847.  The  following  men  were  discharged  during 
their  period  of  service  on  account  of  disability :  Oscar  Foote,  John  McCoy, 
William  Purcell,  George  Tyler,  H.  N.  Brown,  John  \\'oody,  Joseph  Dayton, 
Davis  Harrison.  J.  H.  Boyd.  Robert  Brown.  William  ^IcPike.  Josephus  Tal- 
bot. E.  C.  Lytton.  Charles  Myers  and  Oscar  Templeton. 

Robert  Mitchell  was  a  quartermaster  of  the  Second  Regiment,  and  he 
died  at  Matamoras,  Mexico.  The  Fourth  Indiana  Regiment  had  in  its  com- 
plement William  H.  Bivens  and  Benjamin  F.  Brinegar,  and  they  were  a  part 
of  the  company  under  command  of  Jesse  Alexander.  Fbenezer  S.  Thompson, 
Oscar  Foote.  James  C.  Carlton.  \\'illiam  Purcell.  Thomas  Purcell  and  James 


Purcell  were  members  of  Company  F,  Fifth  Regiment,  under  Capt.  John  S. 
McDougall ;  Jerry  E.  Dean,  afterwards  captain  in  Company  F,  Fifteenth  In- 
diana, Absalom  Veach,  James  Hughes,  Ralph  G.  Norvell,  Samuel  Reynolds, 
John  Wallace.  Phelps  Reed,  Charles  Burkley,  Seymour  Cobb  and  James  Rupert- 
were  members  of  Company  I,  Sixteenth  United  States  Regulars,  under  Capt. 
Thomas  F.  Bethel.  McHenry  Dozier.  former  deputy  clerk  under  Robert  Mit- 
chell, joined  the  company  of  Captain  Rousseau  at  Bloomfield,  and  was  killed  at 
the  battle  of  Buena  Vista.  His  death  is  described  as  brutal  murder  by 
Mexican  lancers,  while  he  was  lying,  wounded,  in  an  ambulance.  Samuel 
Mitchell  and  Rice  M.  Brown  were  both  in  the  service,  the  latter  in  the 
capacity  of  officers'  cook,  being  unfit  for  active  service  on  account  of  a  crippled 


After  the  Mexican  war  the  next  military  activity  was  in  1858.  when 
Brigham  Young  and  his  Mormons  were  creating  disturbance  in  the  state  of 
Utah.  Albert  Sydney  Johnston,  a  regular  armv  officer,  had  received  orders 
from  tlie  President  to  start  for  the  scene  and  subdue  the  bigamists.  On 
March  30.  1858.  the  young  men  of  Bedford  met  at  the  court  house,  to  make 
preparations  for  the  raising  of  a  company  of  volunteers  for  the  so-called 
"Utah  war."  Their  military  aspirations  were  short-lived,  however,  for  no 
sooner  had  they  organized  a  company  and  elected  officers  than  the  following 
notice  appeared  in  the  Laivrena'  Democrat:  /'Attention  Company!  The 
company  of  officers  latel\-  organized  in  this  place  for  the  Utah  war  are  hereby 
notified,  that  they  need  not  meet  again  until  President  Buchanan  is  heard 
from ;  there  is  some  doul)t  yet  whether  he  needs  them.  They  are  still  ex- 
pected, however,  to  keep  on  in  their  drilling  exercises  on  stove  boxes  and 
grindstones."     This  bit  of  sarcasm  ended  the  affair  in  Lawrence  county. 

THE  civil.  WAR. 

In  the  early  sixties  the  question  of  politics  was  largely  based  upon  the 
paramount  topic  of  states'  rights.  The  secession  of  South  Carolina  from  the 
Union  had  brought  matters  to  a  near  issue,  and  the  controversy  in  Lawrence 
county  was  as  hot  as  any  place  in  the  Hoosier  state.  The  truth  of  the  matter 
was  that  many  of  the  thinking  class  of  people  were  in  doubt  as  to  which  side 
of  the  question  they  really  did  favor.  Many  adopted  the  view  that  the 
confederation  of  states  was  at  the  beginning  a  voluntary  act  on  the  part  of 
each  individual  state,  and  that  anv  or  all  of  them  had  the  right  to  withdraw 


from  this  union  if  thereby  she  saw  the  opportunity  to  better  herself.  Not- 
withstanding, these  same  people  hated  to  see  the  prosperous  Union  broken, 
and  they  questioned  the  constitutional  legality  of  the  course.  Those  opposed 
to  coercive  measures  by  the  North,  saw  in  that  course  the  destruction  of  the 
institution  which  had  made  the  South  the  rich  country  it  was  at  the  time, 
namely,  slavery.  Without  that  class  of  people,  they  argued,  the  rich  sugar, 
rice,  cotton  and  tobacco  plantations  would  be  lost  to  the  country.  Then,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  people  in  favor  of  coercion  declared  that  the  existence  of  the 
Union  was  of  greater  advantage  to  the  country  than  a  few  plantations.  As  in 
Monroe  county,  these  two  factions  were  ever  at  sword's  points,  and  the  dis- 
cussion was  not  always  confined  to  words.  The  Southern  families  were  well 
represented  in  Lawrence  county,  as  in  the  adjacent  counties,  and  consequently 
they  hesitated  on  the  question  of  combative  measures.  President  Buchanan's 
dilatory  tactics  were  not  popular  with  the  majority  of  Lawrence  people,  and 
his  refusal  to  quell  the  secession  by  force  on  the  grounds  of  violating  the 
Constitution  was  not  favored  very  strongly  by  the  Union  adherents.  When 
Abraham  Lincoln  took  the  presidential  chair,  there  was  an  added  effort  to 
settle  the  state  difficulty  by  peaceful  methods,  and  there  was  a  subsequent 
feeling  of  despair  in  the  hearts  of  those  who  wanted  war.  The  outlook  was 
indeed  forbidding  and  doubtful,  when  instantly  the  solution  arrived.  Sumter 
was  bombarded  and  had  surrendered  to  the  Confederate  forces.  The  call  to 
arms  followed  immediately  from  Washington. 

Bedford  received  the  news  of  the  fall  of  Fort  Sumter  on  Monday  morn- 
ing, April  15,  1861.  and  great  excitement  and  anxiety  were  caused  in  the 
town.  The  people  of  the  county  gathered  in  the  streets  of  Bedford  and 
awaited  breathlessly  for  further  details.  The  ordinary  business  of  the  day 
was  forgotten  in  the  general  turmoil,  and  the  preparations  begun  for  the  rais- 
ing of  troops  to  fill  the  quota  of  the  county.  George  J.  Brown,  Robert  Mc- 
Afee and  Samuel  W.  Short  took  the  initiative  in  the  soliciting  of  names  pre- 
paratory to  enlistment,  and  in  a  verv  few  hours  a  full  company  was  on  hand. 
The  town  of  Mitchell  was  also  verv  successful  in  these  first  enlistments. 

The  first  call  for  men  from  Lincoln,  after  the  fall  of  Sumter,  was  for 
seventy-five  thousand  men.  Nearly  two  hundred  left  Lawrence  county  shortly 
afterward,  on  April  22d,  most  of  them  going  to  the  city  of  Indianapolis,  in 
hopes  of  getting  in  the  three-months  service.  In  this,  however,  they  were 
disappointed,  as  the  first  enlistments  had  been  so  heavy  that  the  quota  was 
more  than  filled.  They  remained  in  the  capital  city,  thinking  to  get  into  the 
one-year  service,  and  in  this  they  would  have  been  successful  had  it  not  been 
for  the  calls  in  July  and  .August  for  three-year  men,  the  total  asked  for  being 


close  to  five  hundred  thousand.  These  men,  now  reaching  a  total  of  about 
three  hundred,  accordingly  joined  this  longer  service.  The  Fifteenth  Regi- 
ment received  almost  a  full  company  from  this  number.  About  twenty-five 
men  from  Lawrence  county  were  in  the  regiment,  and  they  were  assigned 
the  letter  F,  with  the  following  officers :  Frank  White,  Greencastle,  captain, 
and  afterward  succeeded  by  Jeremiah  E.  Dean.  Dean  was,  at  the  beginning, 
first  lieutenant,  but  was  succeeded  by  Alfred  F.  Berry,  once  second  lieutenant. 
Lycurgus  Irwin  became  second  lieutenant.  The  Fifteenth  Regiment  assembled 
at  Lafayette  for  the  one-year  state  service,  but  was  reorganized  and  mustered 
into  the  three-year  service  on  the  14th  of  June,  t86i,  with  George  D.  Wagner 
as  the  colonel. 

Perhaps  no  regiment  in  the  Civil  war  saw  harder  service  or  suffered 
more  loss  than  the  gallant  Fifteenth.  From  beginning  to  end  they  were  in  the 
maelstrom  of  warfare,  and  the  men  who  fell  before  the  rebel  bullets  were  many 
and  constituted  the  flower  of  the  regiment.  On  July  i,  1861,  the  regiment 
entrained  at  Indianapolis,  and  were  transported  to  western  Virginia.  On  the 
Tith,  while  the  battle  of  Rich  Mountain  was  in  progress,  the  regiment  reached 
the  spot,  but  were  too  late  to  participate,  except  in  the  pursuit  and  capture  of 
prisoners.  LTntil  November  19th  the  regiment  occupied  Elk  Water  valley, 
and  engaged  in  the  meantime  in  the  battle  of  Greenbrier,  which  resulted  in  the 
repulse  of  Lee.  In  the  latter  part  of  November  tlie  regiment  joined  the  divi- 
sion commanded  by  Buell  at  Louisville,  Kentucky.  As  Buell's  campaign  was  a 
strenuous  one,  including  the  sanguinary  struggle  at  Shiloh,  the  siege  of 
Corinth  and  the  battle  at  Perrysville,  the  boys  underwent  a  rigorous  life  dur- 
ing those  days;  the  regiment  was  also  among  the  troops  which  pursued  the 
army  under  Bragg  to  Cumberland  Gap.  In  the  month  of  November.  1862, 
it  was  at  Nashville,  where  Gustavus  A.  Wood  became  colonel.  It  engaged  at 
Stone  River  on  December  31,  1861,  and  January  i  and  2,  1863.  and  out  of  the 
four  hundred  and  forty  men  engaged,  the  loss  by  death  and  disability  by 
wounds  was  one  hundred  and  ninety-seven.  Until  June  24th  the  regiment 
quartered  around  Murfreesboro,  participating  in  several  small  expeditions. 
The  next  step  of  any  importance  was  in  the  movement  on  Tullahoma,  then  en- 
campment at  Pelham,  Tennessee,  and  on  the  17th  of  August  began  the  ad- 
vance toward  Chattanooga.  The  routine  here  was  monotonous,  and  the  boys 
failed  to  get  a  taste  of  battle  until  the  bloody  combat  at  Mission  Ridge,  when 
the  regiment  suffered  frightfully,  losing  by  death  and  wounds  two  hundred 
and  two  men  out  of  the  three  hundred  and  thirty-four  engaged.  The  next 
day  the  regiment  marched  to  the  relief  of  General  Burnside  at  Knoxville,  and 
thev  made  the  remarkable  record  of  covering  the  one  hundred  miles  in  six 


days,  on  short  rations  and  lack  of  other  necessities.  They  stayed  in  Knox- 
ville  until  February,  1864,  then  went  to  Chattanooga,  where  part  of  the  men 
veteranized.  On  June  i6th  they  departed  for  IndianapoHs  to  be  mustered  out. 
The  veterans  and  a  company  of  recruits  remained,  and  were  assigned  to  the 
Seventeenth  Regiment,  serving  until  being  mustered  out  on  August  8,  1865. 

Company  B,  of  the  Eighteenth  Regiment,  was  made  up  mostly  of  men 
from  Lawrence  county,  and  was  commanded  by  Capts.  Samuel  W.  Short, 
William  S.  Cook,  D.  R.  Bowden  and  Francis  M.  Dugger ;  First  Lieuts.  Will- 
iam S.  Cook,  D.  R.  Bowden,  Napoleon  H.  Daniels  and  Robert  Hardwick; 
Second  Lieuts.  Parker  Pearson,  N.  H.  Daniels.  Coleman  Duncan  and  William 
Mitchell.  The  regiment  was  mustered  in  on  August  i6th,  along  with  several 
other  companies,  under  Col.  Thomas  Pattison.  N.  H.  Daniels  was  made  a 
major  and  Doil  R.  Bowden  a  colonel.  The  Eighteenth  was  also  once  in  com- 
mand of  Henry  P.  Washburn.  The  regiment  left  for  St.  Louis  immediately 
after  being  mustered  in.  During  the  war  which  followed  the  gallant  Eigh- 
teenth ever  distinguished  itself,  participating  in  the  engagements  at  Elkhorn 
Tavern,  Cotton  Plant,  Port  Gibson,  Champion's  Hill.  Black  River  Bridge, 
Vicksburg,  Fort  Esperanza,  Pea  Ridge,  Opequon,  Fisher's  Hill  and  Cedar 
Creek.  In  the  latter  engagement  the  regiment  lost  heavily.  Tn  the  other 
battles  the  regiment  was  not  fortunate  by  any  means.  Their  quota  of  dead 
and  wounded  always  mounted  high,  a  stern  testimony  to  their  courage  and 
undaunted  devotion.  In  the  spring  of  1863  the  regiment  was  joined  with 
Grant's  army,  and  in  the  next  year  was  with  Butler's  division,  and  then  that 
of  Phil  Sheridan.  On  August  28,  1865,  the  regiment  was  mustered  from  the 
service  at  Indianapolis. 

In  the  month  of  July  about  twenty-fix  e  men  from  Bedford  and  the  west- 
ern portion  of  the  county  entered  Company  F,  of  the  Twenty-first  Regiment, 
four  or  five  men  joining  the  regimental  band.  Henry  F.  McMillan,  of  Bed- 
ford, became  adjutant  in  August  of  1862,  and  continued  as  such  under  the 
reorganization  of  the  Heavy  Artillery.  James  W.  McMillan,  also  of  Bedford, 
was  commissioned  colonel  of  the  regiment  in  July,  1861,  and  was  promoted 
to  the  rank  of  brigadier-general  in  November,  1862,  and  breveted  major- 
general  on  March  5,  1865.  Benjamin  Newland  was  appointed  to  the  office 
of  surgeon  of  the  Twenty-second  on  August  12,  1861.  but  resigned  on  Novem- 
ber 4,  1862. 

The  Twenty-first  was  mustered  in  on  July  24.  1861,  and  was  immediately 
ordered  east.  After  a  period  of  service  there,  the  regiment  was  taken  to  the 
vicinity  of  New  Orleans,  and  there  underwent  the  hardest  campaigning  ex- 
perienced bv  them  during  the  war.     In  the  battles  of  Baton  Rouge,  Port  Hud- 



son  and  Sabine  Pass  the  men  won  renown  for  their  colors  and  always  were  in 
the  thick  of  the  fight  wherever  it  waged.  During  the  New  Orleans  campaign 
with  Butler,  part  of  the  men  were  transferred  to  gunboats  and  accompanied 
Weitzel's  advance  up  the  Bayou  Teche,  fighting  at  Cornet's  Bridge,  and  also 
destroying  the  "Gotten."  At  Baton  Rouge  the  regiment  sustained  a  loss  of  a 
hundred  and  twenty-six  men,  including  Adjutant  Latham  and  Lieutenants 
Seeley,  Grimstead  and  Bryant.  Most  of  Gompany  F,  in  which  Bedford  was 
represented,  were  captured  during  the  fighting  around  Brashear  Gity.  In 
1863  and  1864  large  numbers  of  the  men  re-enlisted,  and  were  re-mustered 
at  New  Orleans. 

Gompany  A,  Twenty-fourth  Regiment,  was  the  third  raised  for  the  war, 
and  the  period  of  enlistment  covered  June  and  July,  1861.  Hugh  Erwin, 
George  Sheeks  and  Gharles  H.  Dunihue  were  captains  during  the  period  of 
service;  George  Sheeks  and  G.  H.  Dunihue,  first  lieutenants;  Hiram  F.  Brax- 
ton, Jesse  L.  Gain  and  Richard  F.  Gleeland,  second  lieutenants.  By  regimental 
reorganization,  John  L.  Stewart,  of  Mitchell,  became  second  lieutenant  of 
Gompany  I;  John  S.  Bailey,  of  Bedford,  second  lieutenant  of  Gompany  G; 
David  Kelley,  of  Mitchell,  major,  and  Francis  A.  Sears,  of  Bedford,  lieuten- 
ant-colonel. Alvin  P.  Hovey,  afterward  brigadier-general,  and  Governor  of 
Indiana,  and  William  T.  Spicely  were  colonels  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Regi- 
ment. The  regiment  was  mustered  in  at  Vincennes  on  July  31,  1861,  and  im- 
mediately marched  to  St.  Louis,  joining  Fremont's  army,  which  was  in  Mis- 
souri at  the  time.  The  regiment  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Shiloh,  and  lost 
many  men.  among  them  Major  Gerber.  The  companies  of  the  Twenty- 
fourth  also  participated,  in  the  siege  of  Gorinth.  In  the  campaign  against  the 
city  of  Vicksburg,  the  regiment  was  a  part  of  Grant's  army.  With  this 
division  they  also  engaged  at  Ghampion's  Hill  and  Port  Gibson.  Their  ulti- 
mate destination  was  Louisiana  and  New  Orleans.  On  December  10,  1864, 
the  Sixty-seventh  Regiment  consolidated  with  the  Twenty-fourth,  the  new 
organization  retaining  the  latter  name.  In  July,  1865,  the  regiment  was  re- 
organized as  a  battalion  of  five  companies,  and  was  mustered  out  on  July  19, 
1865.  The  regiment  had  also  been  in  the  movement  against  Mobile  in  April 
of  that  year. 

William  Guthrie,  of  Tunnelton.  second  lieutenant  in  Gompany  G,  Twenty- 
fifth,  was  commissioned  on  April  10.  1862.  and  died  on  April  28,  1862,  in  the 
hospital  at  Mound  Gity.  Illinois. 

In  the  month  of  August.  1861.  there  was  a  fourth  company  organized  in 
Lawrence  county  and  sent  into  the  field.  At  Indianapolis  the  company  was 
joined  to  the  Twenty-seventh  Regiment,  which  organization  was  mustered 


into  the  three-year  service  on  September  12th,  under  Col.  Silas  Colgrove.  The 
company  was  given  the  letter  D,  and  during  the  progress  of  the  war  had  the 
following  officers:  Captains,  John  A.  Cassady.  Theodore  E.  Buehler  and 
Thomas  J.  Box;  first  lieutenants,  James  M.  Kern,  Thomas  Peters,  T.  J.  Box 
and  George  H.  Stephenson ;  second  lieutenants,  Meredith  W.  Leach,  Daniel  R. 
Conrad,  T.  J.  Box  and  Joseph  Balsley.  In  1863  Balsley  became  captain  of 
Company  H.  and  was  mustered  out  as  such  on  November  4,  1864. 

The  Twenty-seventh  Regiment  joined  Banks'  Army  of  the  Shenandoah, 
after  a  short  time  spent  at  Washington  City.  The  winter  was  passed  at  Camp 
Halleck,  near  Frederick  City,  Maryland,  and  in  the  month  of  March,  1862, 
the  troops  crossed  the  Potomac  river  into  the  Shenandoah  valley.  They 
marched  into  the  city  of  Winchester  on  the  9th  of  March,  and  after  the  en- 
gagement of  Winchester  Heights,  joined  in  the  pursuit  of  Stonewall  Jack- 
son's army.  May  23d  the  regiment  fought  at  Front  Royal,  and  was  in  the 
historic  retreat  the  next  day  along  the  Strasburg  road.  That  night  they 
reached  Winchester,  and  at  the  break  of  dawn  the  next  day  engaged  hotly 
with  the  Confederates.  The  brigade  of  which  the  Twenty-seventh  was  a 
part  stood  off  twenty-eight  rebel  regiments  for  a  period  of  three  and  one- 
half  hours,  repulsing  every  onslaught  made  upon  them.  The  Southerners 
finally  massed  and  attempted  to  flank  the  brigade  and  in  this  maneuver  were 
successful.  The  brigade  gallantly  held  together,  and  for  a  time  held  the  rebel 
host  on  even  terms,  but  sheer  force  of  numbers  prevailed  and  they  fell  back  in 
order  to  Winchester,  where  the  fighting  continued  unabated  in  the  streets. 
On  May  26th  the  regiment  crossed  the  Potomac. 

Afterward  the  Twenty-seventh  was  transported  into  Virginia,  and  fought 
at  Cedar  Mountain :  then  moved  north  of  the  Rappahannock,  and  took  promi- 
nent part  in  the  Maryland  campaign.  The  ranks  were  depleted  by  the  clash 
at  Antietam  on  the  17th  of  September,  and  its  regiment  was  placed  on  picket 
duty  along  the  banks  of  the  Potomac  until  the  vacancies  had  been  supplied 
with  new  men.  The  winter  months  were  spent  near  Stafford  Court  House. 
In  May,  1863,  the  regiment  was  at  the  front  at  Chancellorsville  and  suffered 
great  losses.  Close  on  the  heels  of  Robert  E.  Lee  the  regiment  proceeded 
northward,  and  during  the  first  three  days  of  July,  1863,  engaged  on  the 
blood-red  field  at  Gettysburg,  and  was  one  of  the  regiments  which  helped  re- 
pulse the  famous  Pickett  charge  of  July  3d.  Heavy  losses  occurred  on  this 
field,  but  the  gallant  Twenty-seventh  won  her  spurs  and  bore  the  reputation 
afterward  of  the  utmost  courage  in  the  time  of  danger.  After  following  the 
Army  of  Northern  Virginia  to  the  Potomac,  the  regiment  rested  until  Sep- 
tember, and  then  was  transferred  to  the  West,  along  with  the  Twelfth  Corps. 


During  the  fall  and  winter  following,  the  regiment  remained  at  Tullahoma, 
and  early  in  1864  a  portion  veteranized  and  returned  home  on  a  furlough. 
On  May  15,  1864,  the  regiment  won  conspicuous  renown  by  engaging  with 
two  Alabama  regiments  on  the  field  of  Resaca,  Georgia,  and  defeating  them, 
killing  and  wounding  a  large  number  and  capturing  some  one  hundred  prison- 
ers, besides  the  enemy's  battle  flag.  The  Twenty-seventh  lost  sixty-eight 
killed  and  wounded.  They  moved  to  the  city  of  Atlanta  and  fought  in  all  of 
the  battles  of  the  Atlanta  compaign.  Here  the  non-veterans  were  mustered 
from  the  service  and  the  veterans  and  recruits  were  transferred  to  the  Seven- 
tieth Regiment,  which  organization  served  well  in  the  Carolina  campaign,  later 
becoming  a  part  of  the  Thirty-third  Regiment.  On  July  21,  1865,  the  regi- 
ment was  mustered  out  at  Louisville,  Kentucky. 

Spring-\'ille.  this  county,  placed  a  company  in  the  field  in  September,  1861. 
The  organization  bore  the  name  of  Company  F,  and  was  assigned  to  the  Forty- 
third  Regiment.  They  were  mustered  into  the  three-year  service  on  Septem- 
ber 27th,  under  the  command  of  Col.  George  K.  Steele.  The  company  from 
Springville  had  as  officers  during  the  war  the  following:  Alexander  H. 
Gainey,  Joseph  Lane,  and  James  B.  Dyer,  captains ;  Joseph  Lane,  John  P.  Pot- 
ter, John  Bugher,  James  B.  Dyer,  John  East  and  Miles  F.  Richeson,  first  lieu- 
tenants; Ira  H.  Rainwater.  John  Bugher,  John  R.  Hall.  James  B.  Dyer, 
Charles  W.  Holland,  second  lieutenants.  They  assembled  at  Terre  Haute,  and 
shortly  after  being  mustered  in  moved  to  Spottsville,  Kentucky,  and  from 
there  to  Calhoun.  In  February,  1862,  the  regiment  went  to  Missouri,  where  it 
participated  in  the  seige  of  Island  No.  10  and  New  Madrid.  The  Forty-third 
was  a  unit  in  the  division  which  moved  on  P'ort  Pillow,  the  scene  of  one  of 
the  crudest  and  barbaric  massacres  of  the  war,  and  was  one  of  the  leaders 
when  Memphis  was  entered,  remaining  in  the  latter  city  for  about  two  months. 

In  July,  1862,  the  Forty-third  traveled  up  White  river,  to  Helena,  and 
on  Independence  day,  1863,  won  a  hotly  contested  battle  against  a  force 
triple  their  number,  in  support  of  a  battery,  holding  off  three  successive  attacks 
and  capturing  the  entire  rebel  regiment.  The  regiment  moved  against  Little 
Rock  and,  as  a  part  of  Steele's  expedition,  engaged  at  Elkin's  Fork,  Jenkin's 
Ferris  Camden  and  Marks  Mills.  On  April  30th,  at  Marks  Mills,  while  on 
guard  over  four  hundred  supply  wagons,  the  regiment  was  attacked  by  a  large 
force  under  General  Marmaduke,  and  in  the  fight  which  resulted  lost  nearly 
two  hundred  men  killed,  wounded  and  missing.  Veterans  numbering  one 
hundred  and  four  were  captured  (the  regiment  had  veteranized  in  January, 
1964).  Soon  after  this  disaster  the  Forty-third  returned  home  on  a  furlough, 
but  en  route  went  to  Frankfort  to  aid  in  repelling  Morgan's  cavalry,  also  to 


engage  briefly  with  Jesse's  guerillas  near  Eminence.  The  next  period  of  serv- 
ice for  the  regiment  was  at  Indianapolis,  on  guard  duty  over  Confederate 
prisoners.  The  final  muster  out  occurred  on  June  14,  1865.  A  dozen  or  so  of 
the  Forty-third's  men  met  their  death  in  the  miasmic  filthv  horror  of  Southern 

Two  aijd  one  half  companies  were  raised  for  the  Fiftieth  Regiment  in 
October,  i86i,' which  regiment  was  organized  at  Seymour,  under  the  command 
of  Cyrus  L.  Dunham.  Company  G  was  made  up  entirely  of  men  from  Law- 
rence county,  and  was  officered  during  the  war  by  the  following:  Isaac 
Carothers,  captain ;  Hiram  Malott,  Austin  G.  Spear  and  William  C.  Newkirk, 
first  lieutenants :  Caswell  R.  Burton,  A.  G.  Shear,  W.  C.  Newkirk  and  John 
F.  Flinn,  second  lieutenants.  Compan}-  I  was  also  made  up  mostly  of  Law- 
rence county  boys,  and  their  officers  were  :  Abraham  H.  Miller,  captain ;  Jacob 
McHenr}'  and  Daniel  A.  Baker,  first  lieutenants;  Daniel  J.  Dean,  Thomas  J. 
Falkenburg  and  Aha  \\'^est,  second  lieutenants.  Company  D,  of  the  Residu- 
ary Battalion,  was  also  largely  from  this  count)-.  William  C.  Newkirk  was 
captain ;  S.  A.  Flarrah,  J.  F.  Leonard,  James  H.  Watts,  W.  C.  Newkirk  and 
John  T.  Flinn  were  first  lieutenants;  Albert  Adams,  John  Judy,  John  F. 
Leonard,  John  T.  Flinn  and  James  Gray,  second  lieutenants.  Henry  C. 
Huston,  of  Bedford,  was  a  first  lieutenant  in  Company  A. 

In  January,  1862,  twenty-five  men  entered  Company  E,  of  the  Fifty- 
second  Regiment,  and  about  ten  in  Company  K,  of  the  same  regiment.  John 
^^^  ^NlcCowlck  was  the  captain  of  Company  E.  A  great  deal  of  Company  D, 
after  the  reorganization,  was  from  the  county  of  Lawrence,  and  their  officers 
were  :  John  T.  Flinn,  captain  ;  John  T.  Flinn  and  James  Gray,  first  lieutenants  ; 
Tames  Grav  and  .Vlexander  jMarley,  second  lieutenants.  All  of  the  men  from 
Lawrence  countv  were  m.ustered  into  the  service  on  February  i,  1862.  The 
regiment  participated  in  the  Civil  war  to  a  large  extent,  and  performed  meri- 
torious service  during  all  the  years  of  its  service.  In  these  movements  the 
Fiftv-second  was  engaged  at  the  siege  of  Fort  Donelson.  siege  of  Corinth, 
skirmish  at  Durhamville,  Tennessee,  other  skirmishes  with  guerillas,  raid  on 
Meriden,  battles  of  Jackson.  Fort  DeRussey,  Pleasant  Hill.  Moore's  Planta- 
tion. Yellow  Bayou,  Lake  Chicot.  Tupelo,  Hurricane  Creek.  Franklin.  jNIis- 
souri,  Nashville,  Tennessee,  pursuit  of  Hood,  Spanish  Fort,  Blakely.  and  in 
addition  many  other  less  important  expeditions.  The  regiment  was  mustered 
out  of  the  service  on  September  10,  1865.  In  the  month  of  August.  1862, 
fifteen  men  entered  Company  F,  of  the  Sixty-fifth  Regiment,  and  an  added  ten 
recruits  joined  in  1863.  James  Marley,  of  Lawrence  county,  was  a  second 
lieutenant,  and  later  a  first  lieutenant. 


Company  A,  of  the  Sixty-seventh  Regiment,  had  a  great  many  Law- 
rence county  men  in  its  ranks.  They  were  mustered  into  the  service  on  Aug- 
ust 19,  1862,  and  during  the  subsequent  term  of  enlistment  had  the  following 
officers :  Francis  A.  Sears,  George  W.  Rahm  and  Jacob  Smith,  captains ;  G. 
W.  Rahm,  Leander  P.  Leonard,  David  T.  Mitchell,  Jacob  Smith,  Thomas 
Hendricks  and  John  S.  Bailey,  first  lieutenants;  L.  P.  Leonard,  David  T. 
Mitchell  and  Jacob  Smith,  second  lieutenants.  Company  H  also  was  from 
Lawrence  county,  and  its  officers  were:  David  Kelly,  captain;  Allen  C.  Bur- 
ton, Benjamin  N.  Hostetler  and  John  T.  Stewart,  first  lieutenants;  Wiley  G. 
Burton  and  Benjamin  Hostetler,  second  lieutenants. 

The  Sixty-seventh  was  mustered  in  at  Madison,  under  Col.  Frank  Emer- 
son, and  then  moved  to  Louisville,  thence  to  Munfordville,  and  in  this  latter 
place,  on  the  14th  of  September,  was  engaged  with  Bragg's  army,  and  after 
a  losing  fight  and  a  loss  of  forty-three  men  killed  and  wounded,  was  sur- 
rendered to  the  enemy.  The  regiment  was  paroled,  and  forced  to  remain  at 
home  until  the  month  of  December,  when  it  was  exchanged.  Immediately 
the  men  were  re-equipped  and  dispatched  to  Memphis.  Their  first  engage- 
ment after  exchange  occurred  in  the  assault  on  Arkansas  Post,  where  they 
suffered  severely  in  killed  and  wounded.  The  regiment  later  moved  to  Young's 
Point,  and  then  joined  the  Vicksburg  campaign.  The  men  of  the  Sixty- 
seventh  fought  valiantl}'  at  Port  Gibson,  Champion's  Hill,  Black  River  Bridge, 
and  at  the  siege  and  capture  of  Vicksburg.  In  succession  the  troops  were  ad- 
vanced against  Jackson's  companies,  then  to  New  Orleans,  and  then  fought  at 
Grand  Coteau,  Louisiana,  where  two  hundred  of  the  men  were  captured.  In 
January,  1864,  the  regiment  went  to  Texas,  and  joined  the  Red  River  expe- 
dition, fighting  at  Sabine- Cross  Roads,  Cane  River  and  Alexandria,  and  losing 
heavily.  After  this  southern  campaign  the  men  were  mo\'ed  against  Forts 
Gaines  and  Morgan,  and  were  thus  engaged  for  twenty  days.  Then,  and  until 
December,  1864,  the  regiment  was  located  at  Morganza,  Louisiana,  in  the 
meantime  taking  part  in  several  small  expeditions.  The  Sixty-seventh  was 
next  consolidated  with  the  Twenty-fourth  Regiment,  under  the  latter  name, 
and  moved  in  the  campaign  against  Mobile,  and  then  was  taken  to  Galveston, 
Texas.  In  this  place  the  men  were  mustered  out  of  the  service  on  July  19, 
1865,  the  recruits  continuing,  however,  in  active  service.  The  record  of  this 
regiment  is  remarkable  in  several  ways.  Not  only  did  they  suffer  great  losses 
in  battles,  Imt  in  the  number  of  battles  engaged,  eighteen  in  all,  they  had  the 
uniform  misfortune  to  receive  more  than  their  share  of  rebel  Inillets.  They 
were  under  fire  a  total  of  one  hundred  and  forty  seven  days,  and  traveled  a 
distance  of  seventeen  thousand  miles. 


Company  G,  Fourth  Cavalry  (Seventy-se\'enth  Regiment),  was  organ- 
ized in  July,  1862,  and  mustered  in  on  August  7,  1862.  The  roH  of  officers 
during  the  war  was  as  follows :  Jesse  Keithley  and  Isaac  Newkirk,  captains ; 
Isaac  Xewkirk.  Elihu  C.  Newland  and  Thomas  C.  Williams,  first  lieutenants; 
E.  C.  Newland,  T.  C.  Williams  and  James  Kern,  second  lieutenants.  Under 
Col.  Isaac  P.  Gray  the  regiment  was  organized  at  Indianapolis,  and  when  the 
time  came  to  enter  the  field  the  regiment  was  divided  and  distributed  among 
various  places  in  Kentucky.  One  of  the  battalions,  under  command  of  Major 
Platter,  participated  in  light  skirmishes  at  Madisonville  on  August  26th,  and 
at  Mount  Washington  on  October  ist,  sufifering  slight  casualties.  On  the  5th 
of  October  this  division  again  fought  at  Madisonville.  and  lost  several  men. 
The  other  battalion,  under  Colonel  Gray,  was  first  taken  to  Louisville,  thence 
to  Madison,  then  to  Vevay,  then  to  several  Kentucky  counties,  to  Frankfort 
on  October  24,  from  there  to  Gallatin,  then  up  the  Green  river  in  pursuit  of 
John  Morgan.  On  Christmas  day  they  engaged  the  rebel  Morgan  near  Mun- 
fordville,  and  defeated  him  with  severe  loss.  In  the  early  part  of  1863  the 
regiment  moved  to  Murfreesboro,  and  on  the  loth  of  March  were  in  battle 
at  Rutherford  Creek.  Under  command  of  Shuler.  they  skirmished  near 
Murfreesboro,  on  March  28th. 

It  was  not  long  before  the  two  battalions  of  the  Fourth  Cavalry  were 
united,  and  the  regiment  as  a  whole  joined  the  army  under  Rosecrans.  In 
this  army  they  participated  in  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  on  September  19 
and  20,  1863,  and  on  the  23d.  The  battle  of  Chickamauga,  not  excepting 
Gettysburg,  was  the  largest  in  the  Civil  war.  and  the  gallant  Fourth  received 
their  baptism  of  fire  along  with  hundreds  of  other  troops,  and  were  forced  to 
withdraw  from  the  fated  field.  Had  the  Confederates  followed  up  their  ad- 
vantage on  this  historic  field,  the  Civil  war  would  have  been  historically  differ- 
ent. But,  as  it  was,  the  Army  of  the  Cumberland  recuperated,  and  lived  to 
see  the  destruction  of  the  rebel  host.  On  the  first  of  November  the  regiment 
fought  at  Fayetteville.  During  the  winter  of  1863-1864  the  men  harbored 
in  eastern  Tennessee,  during  which  time  they  fought  at  Mossy  Creek,  Talbot's 
and  Dandridge,  and  performed  valiantly  the  duties  assigned  to  them.  Their 
work  on  January  27,  1864,  when  both  battalions  engaged  at  Fair  Garden,  dis- 
persing the  enemy  and  capturing  many,  besides  a  battery  and  battle  flag,  de- 
serves special  mention  in  the  military  record  of  Lawrence  county.  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Leslie  was  killed  by  a  bullet  while  he  was  cheering  his  men  on  to 
victory.  In  the  month  of  May  the  regiment  started  on  the  Atlanta  campaign, 
and  fought  at  Varnell's  Station,  Georgia,  and  at  Burnt  Church,  on  June  2nd. 
In  the  McCook  raid  and  fight  at  Newman  on  July  31st  the  Fourth  was  very 


active.  Atlanta  once  captured,  the  regiment  moved  to  the  state  of  Tennessee, 
and  fought  at  Columbia  in  October.  The  regiment  was  afterward  placed  at 
several  different  points,  including  Nashville,  Waterloo,  and  were  under  fire 
at  Plantersville  and  Selma.  The  men  were  mustered  out  of  the  service  on 
June  29,  1865,  at  Edgefield,  Tennessee. 

There  were  numerous  other  companies  sent  to  the  front  from  Lawrence 
county.  Evei-y  new  enlistment  from  Indiana  was  sure  to  have  a  strong  repre- 
sentation from  this  county.  In  the  months  of  July  and  August,  1862,  a  com- 
plete company  was  sent  to  the  Sixteenth  Regiment,  three-year  service,  and  was 
known  as  Company  D.  At  different  periods  of  the  war,  Columbus  Moore 
and  David  B.  Moore,  of  Mitchell,  acted  as  captains ;  William  Mannington, 
Milton  N.  Moore,  D.  B.  Moore  and  Cyrus  Crawford  were  first  lieutenants; 
Milton  N.  Moore  was  second  lieutenant.  The  Sixteenth  Regiment  was  under 
the  command  of  Col.,  Thomas  J.  Lucas,  of  Lawrenceburg.  In  August,  1862, 
nearly  sixty  men  from  the  county  entered.  Company  F,  Ninety-third  Regiment, 
the  remainder  being  from  Monroe  county.  Samuel  J.  Bartlett,  Lafayette 
Bodenhamer.  George  W.  Reeves  were  captains :  Alexander  Hawkins,  L. 
Bodenhamer,  G.  W.  Reeves  and  James  S.  Harvey,  first  lieutenants ;  L.  Boden- 
hamer, G.  W.  Reeves  and  William  S.  Sowder,  second  lieutenants.  DeWitt 
C.  Thomas  was  the  colonel  of  the  regiment.  Six  or  eight  Lawrence  county 
men  also  entered  Company  E,  of  the  Ninety-seventh  Regiment,  which  organ- 
ization went  from  Springville.  William  T.  Butcher  was  commissioned  a  first 
lieutenant  in  1865.  Other  men  left  the  county  from  time  to  time  to  join 
regiments  made  up  in  other  places,  and  it  is  certain  that  Lawrence  county  did 
not  get  full  credit  for  her  services.  Henry  Davis,  Leesville,  remembered 
as  a  captain  in  the  Lawrence  county  company  which  went  to  the  Mexican  war 
in  1846,  was  made  a  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Eighty-second  Regiment  on 
August  27,  1862,  but  resigned  on  October  i,  1863. 

Lawrence  county,  as  her  neighboring  county,  Monroe,  managed  to  escape 
the  draft  of  October  6,  1862,  being  one  of  the  fifteen  counties  in  the  state  of 
Indiana  to  escape  the  draft.  Many  of  the  counties  and  townships  in  the 
state  had  been  slow  in  filling  their  quotas,  consequently  the  state  military  au- 
thorities decided  to  hold  a  draft  in  September.  In  order  to  give  the  backward 
districts  an  opportunity  to  make  up  their  deficiency  the  draft  w^as  postponed 
until  October  6th,  at  which  date  it  was  executed.  Charles  G.  Berry  was  ap- 
pointed draft  commissioner  in  Lawrence  county:  James  R.  Glover,  provost 
marshal,  and  John  W.  Newland,  surgeon.  However,  these  men  had  nothing 
to  do  on  the  day  of  the  draft,  for  the  condition  of  the  county  was  perfect. 
The  report  of  the  state  enrollment  commissioners  on  September  iq,  1862.  in 


regard  to  the  military  status  of  the  county,  gave  the  locality  the  following 
credits;  Total  militia,  1,732;  total  volunteers,  1,500;  total  exempt,  358; 
conscientiously  opposed  to  bearing  arms,  none ;  total  volunteers  in  the  service, 
1,500;  total  subject  to  draft,  1,374-  This  ver}^  excellent  record  was  unsur- 
passed in  the  state.  Taking  into  consideration  the  fact  that  many  men,  pos- 
sibly three  hundred,  enlisted  several  times,  and  were  counted  each  time,  the 
record  shows  that  from  April,  1861,  to  September,  1862,  the  county  sent  ap- 
proximately twelve  hundred  men  into  the  service  of  the  country,  a  record  of 
which  to  be  proud. 

morgan's    RAID. 

In  July,  1863,  the  news  that  Morgan  and  his  cavalry  were  in  the  state 
threw  the  people  of  Lawrence  county  into  a  furore.  The  proximity  of  trouble 
created  excitement  unequaled  at  any  other  time  during  the  war.  Only  a  few 
days  passed  when  six  full  companies  were  sent  into  Mitchell  from  the  county, 
and  they  were  joined  by  four  companies  from  Orange,  Washington  and  Mon- 
roe counties.  The  organization  was  called  the  One  Hundred  and  Twelfth 
Minute  Men,  under  command  of  Col.  Hiram  F.  Braxtan,  of  Bedford;  Samuel 
P.  Dade,  also  of  Bedford,  was  adjutant ;  Ferdinand  W.  Beard,  of  Springville, 
surgeon,  and  Addison  W.  Bare,  of  Br\'antsville,  assistant  surgeon.  The  com- 
panies and  their  officers  from  Lawrence  county  were :  Company  B,  Capt. 
David  T.  Mitchell.  First  Lieut.  Henry  Paugh.  Second  Lieut.  Bolivar  Duncan ; 
Company  D,  Capt.  William  Muir,  First  Lieut.  George  W.  Douglass,  Second 
Lieut.  Oily  Owens ;  Company  F,  Capt.  Willoughby  Blevins,  First  Lieut. 
Milton  McKee,  Second  Lieut.  William  Withers;  Company  G,  Capt.  John  H. 
Bartlett,  First  Lieut.  Alexander  Hawkins,  Second  Lieut.  Elisha  Lee;  Com- 
pany H,  Capt.  Zachariah  B.  Wilson,  First  Lieut.  Benjamin  R.  Smith,  Second 
Lieut.  Theodore  Stackhouse;  Company  K,  Capt.  John  Beaty,  First  Lieut. 
Josiah  C.  Foster,  Second  Lieut.  John  P.  Potter.  The  period  of  service  of  this 
regiment  of  minute  men  was  from  July  lOth  to  the  17th,  1863.  From  Mitchell 
they  went  to  Seymour,  and  from  there  to  North  Vernon  to  meet  General 
Morgan  and  his  raiders,  thence  to  Sunman's  Station,  and  then  home  again. 
At  this  same  period  of  fright,  three  other  companies,  E,  H  and  I,  entered  the 
One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth  Regiment,  minute  men.  Company  E  was  under 
Capt.  A.  F.  Tannehill,  First  Lieut.  Henry  Cox  and  Second  Lieut.  H.  F.  Pit- 
man. Company  H  was  under  Capt.  Francis  M.  Davis,  First  Lieut.  Samuel 
Lynn  and  Second  Lieut.  John  Dean.  Company  I  was  under  Capt.  Luther 
Briggs,  First  Lieut.  George  W.  Burton  and  Second  Lieut.  Anderson  Beasley. 
Thev  were   in   service   six  days,   ending  July    16.    1863.     They   went    from 


Mitchell  directly  to  North  Vernon,  then  to  Snnman's  Station,  then  Indian- 
apolis, and  home. 

On  June  15,  1863,  there  was  a  call  for  six  months'  men,  and  in  com- 
pliance with  this  order  Lawrence  county  responded  with  a  full  company,  which 
became  Company  D,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Seventeenth  Regiment,  and 
officered  by  Hiram  F.  Braxtan,  captain,  Robert  R.  Stewart,  first  lieutenant, 
and  James  H.  Crawford,  second  lieutenant.  Very  little  active  fighting  fell 
to  the  lot  of  these  men,  but  they  performed  well  their  services  as  provost 
guards,  and  experienced  hardships  on  field  and  march  equally  as  disastrous 
as  the  rebel  bullets. 

As  late  as  1864  there  were  many  enlistments  from  Lawrence  county. 
In  the  spring  of  that  year  twenty-five  men  went  to  Company  H,  and  fifty-six 
men  to  Company  I,  One  Hundred  and  Twentieth  Regiment,  three-year  service. 
Of  Company  H,  John  H.  Bartlett,  second  lieutenant,  and  in  Company  I, 
William  J.  Cook  and  John  V.  Smith,  captains,  J.  V.  Smith  and  William  Day, 
first  lieutenants,  Henry  H.  Reath  and  W.  Day,  second  lieutenants,  were  from 
this  county.  They  were  mustered  in  during  the  months  of  February  and 
March,  1864,  under  command  of  Col.  Richard  F.  Prather,  and  took  the  field 
at  Louisville,  then  Nashville,  and  Charleston,  Tennessee,  and  then  joined  the 
Atlanta  campaign,  fighting  at  Resaca,  where  the  boys  won  renown  by  charg- 
ing and  routing  the  enemy.  Other  notable  engagements  which  this  regiment 
experienced  were  Lost  and  Kenesaw  Mountains,  Atlanta  on  July  22nd,  and 
Jonesboro,  Franklin,  Nashville,  Wise's  Fork  on  March  8,  1865.  The  men 
joined  in  the  pursuit  of  Hood  after  Atlanta.  In  the  sanguinary  conflict  at 
Franklin,  the  regiment  lost  its  major  and  forty-eight  men  were  killed  and 
wounded ;  their  losses  in  other  battles  were  also  large,  as  they  were  ever  in  the 
thickest  of  the  fight.  At  Franklin  they  formed  a  part  of  the  solid  blue  line 
which  the  enemy,  by  thirteen  successive  charges,  failed  to  break.  At  Wise's 
Fork,  after  their  removal  to  North  Carolina,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Twen- 
tieth seven  were  killed  and  forty-eight  wounded.  The  regiment  was  mus- 
tered from  the  service  in  the  early  part  of  1866. 

In  the  fore  part  of  1864  twenty-five  men  joined  Company  H,  of  the  One 
Hundred  and  Thirty-first  Regiment,  were  mustered  in  on  April  5th,  and  the 
company  had  as  officers  the  following  men  from  Lawrence  county :  John  W. 
Mannington  and  William  M.  Munson,  first  lieutenants  and  W.  M.  Munson 
and  Samuel  Cook,  second  lieutenants.  The  regiment  was  properly  named 
the  Thirteenth  Cavalry.  Among  the  engagements  in  which  it  participated 
were  Overall's  Creek.  Wilkinson's  Pike,  Nashville  (dismounted),  the  invest- 
ment of  Mobile,  and  in  manv  other  small  raids  and  skirmishes.     Their  losses 


totaled  sixty-five  men  killed  and  wounded,  and  the  command  was  mustered  out 
at  Vicksburg  on  November  i8.  186^. 

The  call  for  one-hundred-day  men  was  answered  in  May,  18(14,  ]>y  the 
county.  A  full  company  was  sent  to  the  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-sixth 
Regiment.  The  company  was  assigned  the  letter  E,  and  was  officered  by 
David  Mitchell,  captain;  Francis  L.  Parkison,  first  lieutenant,  and  William 
Patterson,  second  lieutenant.  This  company  was  mustered  into  service  on 
May  21st,  and  were  assigned  to  provost  duty  in  Kentucky  and  Tennessee. 
In  September,  1864,  Company  A  was  raised  in  Lawrence  county  for  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fortieth  Regiment.  Charles  P.  Pendergast  and  Robert  R.  R. 
Stewart  were  captains;  R.  R.  R.  Stewart  and  James  T.  Andrews  were  first 
lieutenants ;  J.  T.  Andrews,  Eli  M.  Dale  and  John  R.  Smith,  second  lieutenants. 
Pendergast  was  commissioned  a  major,  E.  M.  Dale,  adjutant,  and  David  T. 
Mitchell,  a  lieutenant-colonel.  The  men  were  mustered  in  for  one  year's 
service,  under  command  of  Col.  Thomas  J.  Brady.  On  the  15th  of  November 
they  were  taken  to  Nashville,  and  then  to  Murfreesboro,  where  there  were 
quite  a  number  of  skirmishes  and  small  engagements.  In  December  the  regi- 
ment moved  to  Columbia,  and  in  January,  1865,  to  Washington,  D.  C.  Shortly 
afterward,  they  were  transported  to  North  Carolina,  in  time  to  aid  in  the 
attack  on  Fort  Fisher.  Also  the  regiment  was  in  the  movement  on  Fort 
Anderson,  was  under  the  fire  of  the  Federal  gunboats,  and  captured  the  flag 
of  the  garrison.  The  men  were  in  the  struggle  at  Town  Creek  Bridge,  where 
the  enemy  were  completely  defeated  and  captured.  Subsequent  movements 
included  Kingston,  Goldsboro,  Raleigh,  and  Greensboro,  and  at  the  latter 
place  the  men  were  mustered  from  the  service  on  July  11,  1865. 

The  last  volunteering  in  Lawrence  county  occurred  in  the  early  months 
of  1865,  when  the  L^nion  forces  were  being  concentrated  around  the  Army  of 
Northern  Virginia.  Men  who  had  hitherto  failed  to  enlist  saw  the  approach- 
ing crisis  and  were  anxious  to  join  the  victorious  forces.  In  January,  1865, 
Company  B,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Forty-fifth,  was  nearly  all  raised  in 
Lawrence  county,  and  seventeen  men  for  Company  C  and  fifty  for  Company 
D  of  the  same  regiment.  Vinson  V.  Williams  and  Michael  A.  Gelwick  of 
this  county  were  captains  in  Company  B;  Gelwick,  Samuel  Hostetler,  James 
McClelland  were  first  lieutenants  and  Hostetler,  McClelland  and  William  J. 
Owens  were  second  lieutenants.  In  Company  C  Archibald  Anderson  was  a 
first  lieutenant  and  later  a  captain.  In  Company  D  George  W.  Burton  was  a 
captain,  David  A.  Goodin,  a  first  lieutenant,  and  John  Stotts  and  Adolphus 
W.  Trueblood,  second  lieutenants.  The  regiment  was  under  the  command  of 
Col.   W.   A.   Adams,    loshua   Budd.   of   Mitchell,   adjutant,   and   Vinson   V. 


Williams,  major,  and  later  lieutenant-colonel.  The  men  were  mustered  in  in 
January  and  February,  1865,  and  on  the  i8th  of  February  left  Indianapolis 
for  Nashville,  Tennessee,  arriving  there  on  the  21st,  and  on  the  23d  reported 
to  General  Steadman  at  Chattanooga.  Their  period  of  service  consisted 
mostly  in  provost  duty  near  Dalton.  and  in  Marietta  where  they  remained 
until  August  1865.  They  were  removed  to  Cuthbert,  Georgia,  in  January, 
1866,  and  were  mustered  from  the  service  at  Macon,  Georgia. 

The  Lawrence  County  Legion  was  an  organization  consisting  of  twelve 
companies.  The  following  is  a  list  of  these  companies,  the  date  of  their 
organization,  and  the  officers  of  each.  Reserved  Guards  of  Bedford,  June, 
i86i — John  M.  Harron,  captain;  W.  N.  Bivins,  first  lieutenant;  G.  W.  Rahm, 
second  lieutenant.  Union  Guards  of  Bedford,  June,  1861 — Charles  G.  Back, 
captain;  W.  P.  Malott.  first  lieutenant;  A.  P.  Lemon,  second  Heutenant. 
Perry  Guards,  June,  1861 — John  P.  Potter,  captain;  B.  F.  Dean,  first  lieu- 
tenant; F.  W.  Beard,  second  lieutenant.  Independent  Grays  of  Fayetteville, 
July,  1861 — John  Foot  and  A.  F.  Tannehill,  captains;  Eldridge  Williams,  J. 
H.  Reynolds  and  Henry  Cox,  first  lieutenants;  H.  F.  Pitman,  second  lieu- 
tenant. Mitchell  Light  Infantry,  July,  1861 — William  Muir,  captain;  G.  W. 
Douglas,  first  lieutenant:  William  Hammersley,  second  lieutenant.  Big 
Spring  Guards,  July,  1861 — Samuel  Hostetler.  captain;  John  L-  Stewart,  first 
lieutenant;  R.  R.  Stewart,  second  lieutenant.  Lawrence  Guards  of  Bedford, 
July,  1863 — Henry  C.  Hardy,  captain;  William  Cook,  first  lieutenant;  J.  W. 
Glover,  second  lieutenant.  Marshal  Guards,  July,  1:863. — A.  Anderson,  cap- 
tain; B.  F.  Kingrey,  first  lieutenant;  T.  J.  Boruff,  second  lieutenant.  Helton- 
ville  Guards,  August,  1862 — J.  J.  Durand,  captain;  Hiram  Malott,  first  lieu- 
tenant ;  William  Gray,  second  lieutenant.  Leatherwood  Sharpshooters.  Aug- 
ust. 1863— Silas  N.  Whitted,  captain;  Eli  Younger,  first  lieutenant ;  John  Mal- 
ott, second  lieutenant.  Bartlettsville  Guards,  August,  1863 — J.  H.  Bartlett 
and  S.  J.  Bartlett,  captains ;  Alexander  Hawkins,  first  lieutenant ;  J.  H.  Clen- 
denin,  second  lieutenant.  Jefferson  Grays,  August.  1863— G.  W.  Burton, 
captain;  Obed  Mercer,  first  lieutenant;  Michael  Voorhis,  second  lieutenant. 
Henry  Davis  was  a  colonel. 

Many  other  regiments  which  participated  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion 
had  varying  numbers  of  men  from  Lawrence  county  in  their  personnel. 
Twenty-seven  men  enrolled  in  Company  F  of  the  Ninety-third  Regiment  late 
in  1862  and  early  in  1863.  In  June,  1863.  about  ten  men  were  recruited  for 
Company  F,  of  the  Sixty-fifth.  Later  in  the  same  year  and  in  the  beginning 
of  1864  twenty-six  men  joined  Company  G  of  the  Fourth  Cavalry.  Several 
entered  the  Twentv- fourth  and  a  few  the  Eighteenth.     Late  in  1864  and  early 



in  1865  thirty-five  men  enlisted  in  Company  D  of  the  Sixteenth.  About  the 
same  time  eighty-five  recruits  left  Lawrence  county  for  Company  F  of  the 

The  second  draft  for  enlisted  men  occurred  in  Indiana  in  October,  1864. 
Lawrence  county  came  within  the  bounds  of  the  third  district,  and  the  ofificers 
wtre:  John  R.  B.  Glasscock,  commissioner;  Albert  G.  Collier,  surgeon; 
Simeon  Stansifer,  provost  marshal,  to  March.  1865,  and  then  James  B.  Mulky. 
These  district  ofificers  were  appointed  in  May,  1863.  The  county  was  not 
fortunate,  as  she  had  been  in  the  draft  of  October,  1862.  and  several  men  were 
forced  to  enlist.  The  reports  show  that  eighty  men  were  drafted  in  Law- 
rence county.  The  third  draft  for  Indiana  occurred  in  Februaiy,  1865.  The 
demand  on  the  county  was  very  light,  as  the  records  show  only  two  men 
credited.  It  is  questionable  whether  or  not  the  draft  ever  took  place  in  the 
county,  but  if  it  did,  it  was  extremely  light.  Doubtless,  had  the  county  been 
accredited  with  all  the  men  who  enlisted  in  other  counties,  she  would  have 
never  been  burdened  with  the  draft. 

In  summarizing  the  number  of  men  furnished  by  the  county  of  Lawrence 
for  the  Federal  army,  it  is  well  to  give  a  few  of  thed  figures  compiled  by  reliable 
authorities,  relating  to  the  subject.  Before  December  19,  1862.  the  county 
was  credited  with  a  contribution  of  1,500  men  prior  to  that  date.  Under  the 
call  of  June  i,  1863,  for  six  months'  men  the  county  supplied  a  complete  com- 
pany of  one  hundred  men.  In  October,  1863,  she  furnished  149  men.  By  a 
table  prepared  on  the  last  day  of  the  year,  1864,  the  calls  of  1864  are  tabulated 
by  counties,  and  the  total,  that  is,  the  report  for  Lawrence  county  as  a  whole, 
is  as  follows:  First  enrollment,  1,874;  quota  under  call  of  Februaiy  i,  1864, 
299;  quota  under  call  of  March  14,  1864,  ^20;  quota  under  call  of  July  18, 
1864,  310;  total  of  quotas  and  deficiencies,  729;  credits  by  voluntary  enlist- 
ments, new  recruits,  586,  veterans,  lOi  ;  credits  by  draft,  80;  total  credits  by 
enlistments  and  draft,  767;  one  year,  150;  three  years,  617;  surplus,  38.  On 
April  14,  1865,  the  following  figures  were  prepared  by  authority,  at  which 
time  all  efforts  were  abandoned  in  raising  men:  Second  enrollment,  1,191; 
quota  under  call  of  December  19,  1864,  147;  total  of  quotas  and  deficiencies, 
147;  new  recruits,  148;  credits  by  draft,  2;  total  credits  by  enlistments  and 
draft,  150;  deficiency,  43;  and  surplus,  46.  Taking  all  enlistments  together 
it  is  shown  that  2,669  men  enlisted  from  Lawrence  county  during  the  progress 
of  the  war,  but  as  some  men  enlisted  as  high  as  three  or  four  times,  and  were 
counted  each  time,  the  number  is  much  too  large.  It  has  been  estinlated  that 
fifteen  hundred  men  left  Lawrence  county  for  the  Federal  army,  which  record 
is  an  excellent  one  in  the  scale  of  Indiana  counties. 


One  of  the  chief  reasons  for  the  success  of  the  great  Northern  armies 
is  the  fact  that  in  the  homes  and  towns  where  the  brave  fellows  hailed  from 
there  were  preparations  constantly  being  made  for  relief  and  aid.  Mothers 
and  sisters  and  sweethearts  sewed  and  collected  sundry  articles  to  be  sent  to 
the  field,  entertainments  of  all  kinds  were  given  and  the  proceeds  invested  in 
supplies,  and  many  a  helping  hand  was  extended  to  the  soldiers'  families  who 
were  destitute,  their  support  at  the  front  risking  his  life  for  the  countiy. 
Pleasures  were  sacrificed,  luxuries  forgotten,  and  just  the  necessities  were 
spent  by  the  Northern  people,  in  order  that  the  hardships  of  the  men  in  the 
field  might  be  lessened  and  a  measure  of  comfort  given  the  battlefield  and 
camp.  In  the  adjutant  general's  report  on  the  amount  of  bounty  and  relief 
furnished  by  Lawrence  county  during  the  war,  the  following  figures  will  be 
interesting:  The  county,  bounty,  $61,700,  relief,  $2,815;  Flinn  township: 
bounty,  $4,600,  relief,  $500;  Pleasant  Run  township:  bounty,  $1,000,  relief, 
$300;  Perry  township:  bounty,  $1,650,  relief,  $500;  Indian  Creek  township: 
bounty,  $8,400,  relief,  $1,500;  Spice  Valley  township:  bounty,  $1,426,  relief, 
$650;  Marion  township:  $5,000,  relief,  $1,000;  Bono  township:  bounty, 
$3,200,  relief,  $1,000;  Shawswick  township:  bounty,  $3,125,  relief,  $4,000; 
and  Marshall  township:  bounty,  $2,600,  relief,  $300.  Making  a  total  of 
bounty,  $92,701  and  relief,  $12,565. 

In  a  county  history  of  the  scope  and  importance  of  this  volume,  there  are 
a  thousand  and  one  little  incidents  of  war-time  public  meetings,  celebrations, 
.societies,  supplies  furnished,  mass  meetings,  eulogies,  speeches,  and  personal 
notes  which  can  be  gained  through  but  one  source,  the  newspaper  files.  Past 
historians  have  discovered  that  such  a  file  is  absent  in  the  county  of  Lawrence, 
due  to  a  theft  or  accidental  destruction.  These  interesting  parts  of  the  chapter 
on  the  military  history  are  consequently  lost  for  all  time. 


When  the  Spanish-American  war  broke  out  in  1898,  there  was  a  great 
amount  of  excitement  in  the  city  of  Bedford  and  the  surrounding  country. 
The  young  bloods  prepared  to  enlist  immediately,  and,  as  there  was  no  regu- 
larly organized  company  in  Bedford,  the  most  of  the  recruits  went  to  Indi- 
anapolis and  Louisville,  where  they  joined  the  National  Guard  being  rendez- 
voused at  those  points.  With  a  few  exceptions,  these  men  saw'  little  service, 
for  their  regiments  were  transported  to  Camp  Thomas  at  Chickamauga,  Camp 
Alger,  and  other  places,  and  there  kept  during  the  summer  without  receiving 


opportunity  to  get  to  the  tiring  line  in  Cuba.     Certain  men  enlisted  in  the 
regular  army,  and  thus  were  able  to  participate  in  the  fighting. 

After  the  peace  between  the  two  countries,  many  other  men  enlisted  in 
the  regular  United  States  army,  and  were  sent  to  the  Philippines,  to  quell  the 
insurrection  there.  The  Thirty-fifth  United  States  Regiment,  the  Fortieth, 
and  the  Second  United  States  Artillery  received  most  of  these  men.  All 
together,  during  the  war  period,  approximately  three  hundred  men  joined  the 
American  forces  from  Lawrence  county. 



Bedford  exists  because  the  location  was  selected  by  the  county  seat 
locating  commissioners  in  1825  as  the  seat  of  justice  for  Lawrence  county, 
after  it  had  been  located  at  old  Palestine  (now  defunct)  for  about  seven  years, 
mention  of  which  is  made  in  the  chapter  on  "County  Government."  The 
original  plat  contained  two  hundred  acres ;  in  length  this  tract  was  two  hun- 
dred rods  and  in  width' one  hundred  and  sixty  rods.  The  survey  was  to  begin, 
as  per  order  of  the  county  board,  on  March  30.  1825.  It  took  several  days, 
but  when  finished  the  platting  was  a  fac  simile  of  the  original  town  of  Pales- 
tine. Many  lots  were  lawfully  exchanged  in  Palestine  for  ones  in  Bedford, 
but  other  lots  were  sold  at  public  auction  commencing  June  2,  1826.  The 
proceeds  of  the  lot  sales  was  $1,849.25.  The  geographical  situation  of  the 
city  is  (or  the  first  platting  was)  in  sections  14  and  23,  township  5  north  and 
range  i  west. 

The  land  was  located  in  consideration  that  the  county  seat  should  be 
located  here.  The  donation  was  made  by  Samuel  F.  Irwin,  Joseph  Glover, 
John  Owens,  Reuben  Kilgore,  Moses  Woodrufif  and  Isaac  Stewart.  It  is  a 
beautiful  town  site  now,  'but  when  first  occupied  was  not  of  the  most  charming, 
although  the  eminence  of  its  higher  lands  and  general  landscape  view  was  even 
by  nature  always  sightly  and  fine  to  behold. 

Among  the  first  to  reside  in  Bedford  were  John  Lowrey,  clerk  and  re- 
corder of  the  county;  Henry  Lowrey,  merchant,  of  the  firm  of  Lowrey  & 
Simpson,  the  latter  being  a  non-resident,  however ;  Samuel  F.  Irwin,  merchant ; 
Joseph  Athon,  hotel  proprietor;  Rollin  C.  Dewey,  a  lawyer;  L.  N.  Livingston, 
lawyer;  John  Vestal,  merchant;  Samuel  D.  Bishop,  carpenter;  John  Brown 
postmaster;  Jacob  Mosier,  a  Methodist  minister;  Samuel  Wilson,  laborer; 
Richard  Evans,  miller  ;  Gotleib  Byrer,  a  hatter ;  David  Borland,  tanner ;  Joseph 
Cowan,  stone  mason;  Turner  Sullivan,  wagoner;  William  Sullivan,  black- 
smith; Joseph  Cuthbertson,  cabinetmaker;  Henry  Parsell,  laborer;  William 
Benefield,  hotel  keeper;  William  Kelsey,  deputy  sherifif;  Henry  Hendricks, 
saddler;  John  Ouackenbosh,  carpenter;  Henry  Quackenbosh,  laborer;  Jacob 
Hufif.  wagoner;  Winthrop  Foote,  physician;  A.  H.  Dunihue,  merchant  for 
Isaac    Stewart;  Andrew  Hattabaugh,  liquor  dealer.     These  men,  with  their 


families,  and  possibly  a  half  dozen  more,  constituted  the  first  to  locate  at  Bed- 
ford, all  having  settled  here  by  the  spring  of  1826.  The  next  five  years  saw- 
many  additions  to  the  population,  and  they  were  too  numerous  to  here  enumer- 
ate. But  suffice  it  to  state  that  many  of  the'ir  offspring  still  reside  in  and  near 
the  city. 


The  start  in  merchandising  here  was  effected  by  the  firm  of  Irwin  &  Stew- 
art (Samuel  F.  Irwin  and  Isaac  Stewart),  who  occupied  the  first  frame  build- 
ing in  the  town.  They  carried  a  four-thousand-dollar  stock  of  general  mer- 
chandise. A.  H.  Dunihue,  who  came  to  the  town  in  1826,  entered  this  store 
as  a  clerk,  continuing  as  such  for  a  number  of  years.  In  1830  the  store  was 
sold  to  Joseph  Rawlins,  and  he  followed  mercantile  business  for  thirty  years, 
accumulating  a  fortune. 

The  second  store  was  opened  by  Lowrey  &  Simpson,  who  commenced 
soon  after  the  first  store  started.     They  thrived  many  years. 

The  first  "groceiy"  was  started  by  Andrew  Hattabaugh  in  1826.  It  was 
really  a  saloon,  but  then  known  as  a  "wet  grocery"  ;  it  was  kept  in  a  log  build- 
ing on  the  east  side  of  the  public  square.  In  1827  came  a  man  of  much 
prominence  named  Moses  Fell  and  he  opened  a  general  store  which  he  success- 
fully conducted  until  his  death,  in  1840.  William  McLane,  who  had  been 
dubbed  colonel,  and  who  had  conducted  a  store  as  early  as  181 5  at  Orleans, 
Orange  county,  located  at  Bedford,  where  for  many  years  he  was  engaged 
in  merchandising.  For  a  time  he  was  president  of  the  Bedford  Branch  of 
the  old  Indiana  State  Bank,  and  was  the  owner  of  a  large  drygoods  business 
at  Louisville,  Kentucky.  He  amassed  a  fortune  of  one  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  dollars  and  in  1854  removed  to  Texas,  where  he  died  in  1873,  aged 

In  1828.  John  Vestal,  who  had  been  engaged  in  trade  at  Springville, 
opened  a  general  store  in  Bedford  on  the: southeast  corner  of  the  public  square, 
continuing  until  about  the  date  of  his  death  in  1873. 

William  Benefield  opened  the  first  tavern  in  Bedford  in  1825.  David 
Kelley  opened  a  liquor  store  in  1829.  Foote  &  Fell  ojiened  another  liquor 
store  at  about  that  date  and  the  following  is  a  true  copy  of  their  "recommend"  : 

"Bedford.  January  4,  1830. 

"We,  the  undersigned  subscribers,  do  certify  that  \\'inthrop  Foote  and 
Moses  Fell  are  men  of  good  moral  character."  Signed  l:)y  John  Brown  and 
eleven  more. 



FROM     1830    TO    1840. 

This  was  a  very  prosperous  decade  for  Bedford.  In  1834  the  first  news- 
paper was  founded  and  a  little  later  the  branch  of  the  old  Indiana  State  Bank 
was  estabhshed  here.  This  bank  brought  the  town  much  ready  money  and 
advertised  it  far  and  near,  so  that  many  speculators  found  their  way  here. 
It  was  this  class  who  started  to  buy  and  transport  much  pork,  grain,  etc.,  down 
the  rivers  to  the  Southland.  Vaughn  &  Moberly  dealt  extensively  in  liquors. 
There  were  no  less  than  seven  firms  engaged  in  this  business  at  one  time  here 
in  that  decade.  Some  became  very  wealthy  from  the  profits  of  the  whisky 
trade.  In  fact  nearly  all  of  the  pioneer  merchants  got  their  start  in  this  busi- 
ness. The  only  exception  among  these  merchants  was  perhaps  A.  H.  Dunihue, 
who  refused  even  to  attach  his  name  to  certificates  of  "good  moral  character" 
for  those  who  sought  a  license  to  deal  in  liquors.  But  it  must  be  admitted 
that  the  sale  of  liquor  those  days  was  not  fraught  with  the  debauchery  seen 
in  later  times.  Good,  moral,  religious  men  countenanced  the  sale,  and  even 
conducted  "groceries,"  as  saloons  were  then  styled,  of  their  own.  Other 
merchants  during  the  thirties  were  E.  C.  Moberly,  D.  R.  Dunihue,  Lankford 
Trueblood,  John  Brown,  Mason  &  Harvey,  Jacob  Clark,, Medicine,  Vestal  & 
Crooke,  M.  A.  &  W.  H.  Malott,  F.  W.  Dixon,  and  others  whose  names  are 
lost  from  view  with  the  passage  of  years. 


The  decade  from  1840  to  1850  saw  manv  changes  in  the  role  of  business 
men  in  Bedford.  Henry  J.  Acoam  at  first  sold  liquor,  but  later  opened  a  large 
merchandise  store.  In  1845  permission  was  granted  the  citizens  by  the 
county  board  to  erect  a  market  house,  which  was  carried  out.  It  was  during 
this  eventful  ten-year  period  that  the  effort  to  banish  the  sale  of  liquors  from 
"groceries"  in  the  town  was  almost  successful,  at  least  the  number  was  greatly 
reduced,  but  a  few  old  establishments,  like  Phillip  Renter's,  continued  to  thrive 
in  spite  of  opposition.  Strong  efforts  were  made  to  prevent  the  issuance  of 
licenses  for  Renter,  and  se\eral  petitions  with  that  object  in  view,  after  con- 
sideration by  the  county  board,  were  duly  granted,  but  the  sale  did  not  stop. 
One  of  these  petitions  which  was  granted  was  as  follows,  being  given  here  as 
an  example  of  the  times  and  for  the  old-time  names  attached  thereto : 

"Bedford,  Indiana,  December  24,  1844. 
"To  The  Honorable  Board  of  Commissioners  of  the  County  of  Lawrence, 
if  in  session;  if  not  in  session,  to  the  Auditor  and  Treasurer  of  said  county: 


The  undersigned  citizens  of  the  Town  of  Bedford,  beheving  that  retaihng 
spirituous  liquors  within  the  town  hmits  is  pernicious  in  its  effects,  therefore 
respectfully  remonstrate  against  the  granting  of  license  to  any  person  or  per- 
sons to  retail  spirituous  liquors  within  the  limits  of  said  town  for  the  term 
of  five  years. 

"D.  R.  Dunihue,  Isaac  Denson,  William  Newkirk,  W.  V.  Daniel.  M.  W. 
Houston,  William  Smith,  Daniel  Dunihue,  Sr.,  C.  P.  Reed,  A.  G.  Young, 
Horatio  Jeter,  John  Vestal,  Joseph  Rawlings,  T.  N.  Robertson,  James  R. 
Glover,  James  G.  Duncan,  Robert  Biggs,  Eli  Dale.  Henry  Quackenbosh.  John 
Webb,  Edmond  B.  Kennedy,  William  McLane.  William  S.  Watson,  Solomon 
Eldridge,  John  Gyger,  S.  F.  Irwin,  H.  B.  Richardson.  William  Perkins,  A.  S. 
Ferguson,  John  Owen,  A.  H.  Donihue.  Elizabeth  Barner,  Isaac  Rector,  Alex- 
ander Wall,  William  Ross.  F.  T.  Raymond,  Oily  Owens.  J.  G.  McDonald, 
Nancy  Wilder,  Edith  H.  Hendricks.  Levi  H.  Dale.  David  Borland,  William 
Porter,  Dr.  Laforce,  Luke  Barker.  W.  W.  Williamson.  Ezekiel  Blackwell,  N. 
D.  Glazenbrook,  R.  M.  Parks,  James  C.  Lynn." 

Mr.  Renter  was  denied  a  license,  but,  through  his  attorney,  James  Hughes, 
demanded  a  re-hearing,  but  this  was  refused,  and)  an  exception  was  filed.  The 
matter  was  settled  in  the  circuit  court  in  such  a  manner  that  Renter  was  per- 
mitted to  go  on  with  the  sale  of  liquor.  During  this  time  a  full  list  of  the 
resident  families  of  the  town  was  made  up,  but  it  is  too  lengthy  to  here  ap- 
pend.    These  families  represented  a  population  of  five  hundred  people. 

CIVIL  WAR  PERIOD.  .  1  .  .. 

The  business  interests  of  Bedford  from  1850  to  1870  were  largely  in  the 
hands  of  the  following  men  and  firms :  In  the  fifties,  Dunihue  &  Kelley, 
M.  A.  Malott,  Joseph  Rawlins,  John  Vestal,  J.  C.  Gavins,  drugs;  W.  M. 
Northcraft,  clothing;  John  Sues,  Portman  &  Francis,  E.  &  E.  M.  Braxtan, 
hardware ;  Houston  &  Buskirk,  furniture ;  Krenking  &  Schmidt,  grist  mill ; 
Godfrey  Schlosser,  marble  dealers;  J.  G.  fnkel.  jeweler;  W.  W.  Owens,  post- 
master; Malott  &  Sons,  general  store;  J.  S.  Wigmore.  watches  and  clocks; 
James  Calvert,  furniture;  R.  H.  Carlton  &  Company,  drugs;  Malott  &  Reed, 
general  store;  Newland  &  Hostetler,  drugs;  B.  Lepman.  diy  goods  and  cloth- 

In  the  sixties  the  business  was  carried  on  by  some  of  the  above,  with 
others  as  follows :  Park  &  Williams,  general  dealers ;  Henry  Ewald,  grocer ; 
Adam  Ruth,  furniture;  J.  P.  Francis,  general  store;  Charles  Kramer,  bakery; 
Kahn  &  Brother,  clothing;  George  Roberts,  drugs;  Glover  &  Driscoll.  dentists; 


A.  G.  Gainey  &  Company,  general  store ;  Howell  &  Johnson,  drugs ;  J.  V.  & 
Z.  C.  Mathes,  hardware;  D.  Barnes  &  Son,  furniture;  J.  J.  Hardy,, livery;  Mrs. 
S.  A.  W.  Brown,  millinery ;  Abderson  &  Hamilton,  books,  etc. ;  J.  W.  Acoam, 
harness  and  saddles.     The  merchant  tailors  were  Palmer  &  Messick. 


One  of  the  hrst  manufacturing  plants  of  Bedford,  odd  as  it  may  now 
sound,  was  a  distillery  operated  by  steam,  fitted  up  by  Samuel  F.  Irwin  in  a 
log  cabin.  At  the  same  time  he  started  a  horse  mill  to  supply  his  distillery 
with  ground  grain.  These  two  enterprises  were  popular  and  well  patronized 
by  the  surrounding  farming  community.  Then,  there  was  scarcely  any  other 
market  for  corn  than  at  the  distilleries  of  the  country.  The  present  uses  for 
corn,  such  as  glucose,  etc.,  were  then  unknown.  Corn  was  fed  to  hogs,  which 
were  packed  and  shipped  in  large  numbers  to  the  South,  on  flat-boats.  Some- 
times the  com  sold  for  cash,  but  usually  it  was  made  up  into  liquor  on  the 
shares.  The  large  amounts  of  whisky  and  brandy  made  at  the  Irwin  still 
house  were  sent  mostly  to  Louisville,  Kentucky.  An  average  of  about  three 
barrels  per  day  were  turned  out  at  this  one  distillery.  This  represented  the 
consumption  of  thirty-five  bushels  of  corn,  or  an  annual  capacity  of  about 
ten  thousand  bushels,  equal  to  eight  hundred  barrels  of  liquor.  Rye  was  also 
used  for  the  same  purpose.  Whisky  sold  at  a  shilling  a  gallon.  After  ten 
years  distilling  by  Irwin  his  l)usiness  was  abandoned. 

In  about  1836,  a  cotton  factory  was  erected  by  William  McLane,  Samuel 
F.  Irwin,  Moses  Fell,  John  Vestal  and  a  few  more.  The  machinery  came  by 
two-horse  wagons  from  Lexington.  Kentucky.  H.  B.  Richardson  and  six 
workmen  operated  this  factory,  he  being  the  superintendent.  The  cotton  was 
purchased  in  Kentucky  and  hauled  out  to  Bedford  by  wagons.  Yarns  were 
made  here,  but  no  cloth  was  woven.  In  1840  the  factory  was  sold  and  shipped 
to  Salem. 

In  183.4,  Barker  &  Phelps  started  an  ashery,  which  they  conducted  three 
years.  They  paid  three  cents  a  bushel  for  'ashes  and  sometimes  had  to  pay  as 
high  as  seven  cents  per  luisliel.  From  these  they  manufactured  a  fair  quality 
of  black  salts,  which  found  sale  in  Louisville  markets.  Connected  with  this 
plant  was  also  a  shingle  factory  owned  and  operated  by  the  same  men  and 
propelled  by  the  same  steam.  The  rough  shingles,  made  from  native  woods, 
found  ready  sale  at  home.  As  early  as  1826,  Richard  Evans  built  a  tread- 
power  saw  mill  near  Bedford,  which  he  conducted  until  about  1830;  at  first 
it  was  well  patronized. 


A  large  tanner}^  was  l>uilt  in  1826,  some  say  earlier,  by  David  Borland. 
He  conducted  this  twenty  years.  It  had  forty  vats,  and  he  did  an  extensive 
business,  the  leather  here  made  going"  mostly  to  Louisville.  About  a  year  later 
another  tannery  was  started  by  Samuel  and  Thomas  Biggs,  consisting  of 
twenty  vats.  Later  this  was  sold  to  Biggs  &  Young  and  operated  for  about 
fifteen  years  longer,  or  probably  up  to  1855.  These  tanneries,  in  a  good  season. 
made  work  for  about  a  dozen  workmen. 

In  1826  Thomas  and  Robert  Carlton  bought  the  machinery  of  the  old 
woolen  factory  of  the  Lockharts.  at  Palestine,  removed  it  to  Bedford  and 
installed  a  factory  here.  Carding  in  all  of  its  various  forms  was  carried  on 
here  on  a  large  scale.  A  large  custom  business  was  done  and  from  May  to 
September  six  hands  were  kept  busy.  Wool  raised  over  a  wide  scope  of 
country  was  brought  here  to  be  carded  and  then  returned  to  the  families, 
where  it  was  woven  into  cloth.  The  Carltons  also  bought  and  shipped  to 
Louisville  large  amounts  of  wool.  This  industry  lasted  several  years.  In 
1834,  John  Lynn  started  a  carding  factory  and  continued  to  operate  it  a 
dozen  or  more  years.  His  plant  was  really  of  more  importance  than  that  of 
the  Carltons,  and  gave  work  to  as  many  men,  also  advanced  beyond  carding 
to  fulling  and  coloring  without  dressing.  His  work  was  known  by  its  rough- 
ness, its  warmth  and  wearing  qualities. 

At  an  early  day  there  -were  three  important  cabinet  shops  in  Bedford. 
These  were  owned  by  Matthew  Borland.  William  Templeton  and  Joseph 
Culbertson.  Each  made  tables,  stands,  bureaus,  cupboards,  chairs,  bedsteads, 
coffins,  etc.  About  three  workmen  were  constantly  employed  in  each  shop. 
Two  of  these  shops  ran  for  many  years. 


The  packing  and  shipment  of  pork  was  a  lively  industry  in  Bedford  in 
the  early  history  of  the  town.  Chief  among  the  operators  were  William  Mc- 
Lane,  Samuel  F.  Irwin,  Joseph  Rawlins  and  David  Borland.  Michael  A. 
Malott  also  packed  and  shipped  considerable  pork.  McLane  &  Irwin  com- 
menced this  branch  of  business  in  1827,  when  they  erected  a  log  building  on 
Leatherwood  creek,  below  town.  It  was  thirty  by  one  hundred  and  twenty 
feet  in  size,  and  it  was  occupied  jointly  by  these  two  men,  who,  however, 
worked  separately.  Hogs  were  bought  over  a  large  section  of  the  country, 
on  credit,  for  which  payment  was  made  after  the  pork  was  marketed  in  the 
South.  The  great  cotton  and  sugar  plantations  demanded  a  vast  amount  of 
this   product,  especially   Mississippi   and   Louisiana,   both   sections   liking  the 


flavor  of  the  Indiana  corn-fed  hogs.  The  packing  season  extended  from 
November  to  February,  and  from  twelve  to  tv^^enty  workmen  were  employed 
in  each  packing  house,  where  there  were  slaughtered  and  packed  from  five  to 
nine  thousand  hogs,  sufficient  to  load  about  six  large  flat-boats.  Joseph 
Rawlins  and  David  Borland  each  had  a  packing  house  on  Salt  creek,  where 
they  carried  on  about  as  extensive  operations  as  the  two  last-named  gentlemen. 
For  many  years  from  five  to  twelve  thousand  hogs  were  slaughtered  and 
packed  by  these  four  men.  It  required  about  eight  flat-boats  to  transport 
twelve  thousand  hogs.  These  boats  were  built  as  needed,  from  native  lum- 
ber, at  the  packing  houses,  and  sold  in  southern  markets  after  having  been 
unloaded.  During  those  palmy  days  of  flat-boating  it  is  related  that  about 
seventy-five  of  these  rude  crafts  were  sent  down  the  river  from  Lawrence 
county  annually.  During  the  busy  months  fifty  men  were  employed  by  the 
Bedford  packers.  Nothing  has  ever  been  so  large  in  the  industrial  line  in 
Bedford  until  the  opening  of  the  Bedford  stone  industry  a  few  decades  since. 

Another  early  industry  was  that  of  making  hats.  Gotleib  Byrer,  John 
Hovious  and  William  Cook  each  owned  a  battery,  each  g"i\ing  employment  to 
three  to  five  men.  Each  made  hats  from  fur  and  wool.  Byrer  began  as 
early  as  1826.  continuing  ten  years.  Hats  were  made  from  mink,  otter, 
beaver,  coon  and  other  furs,  and  from  lamb's  wool.  As  many  as  fifteen  hun- 
dred hats  were  manufactured  in  Bedford  in  a  single  year.  They  sold  at 
prices  ranging  from  fifty  cents  to  six  dollars. 

The  Bedford  Woolen  MiUs  were  built  about  1859,  by  Charles  Mason  & 
Son,  of  Michigan.  They  had  an  excellent  business.  J.  H.  Mason  &  Company 
owned  the  mills  at  the  close  of  the  Civil  war.  and  at  the  time  sixty-cent  cassi- 
n.eres,  sixty-cent  jeans,  sixty-five-cent  satinets,  forty-five  to  ninety-cent  flan- 
nels, and  four  dollar  and  fifty  cent  blankets  were  the  chief  articles  made.  Also 
this  firm  did  an  extensive  carding  business,  at  ten  cents  a  pound.  Carding  and 
spinning  was  twenty-seven  cents  per  pound.  Soon  after  this,  however,  the 
business  declined  and  war  prices  no  longer  obtained,  and  the  property  was 
transferred  to  Dr.  J.  C.  Ca\ins,  who  owned  it  until  1871,  when  if  passed  to 
Jesse  A.  Mitchell,  who,  with  W.  C.  Windstandley.  owned  it  in  the  middle  of 
the  eighties.  At  one  time  goods  made  here  went  freely  into  nine  states  and 
amounted  in  the  aggregate  to  thirty  thousand  dollars  annually.  Weaving  was 
discontinued  in  1882  and  within  a  few  years  the  business,  with  hundreds  of 
others  in  that  line,  took  on  a  different  mode  of  operation  and  got  into  the  hands 
of  trusts,  etc.,  and  at  last  closed  down  permanently. 

A  good  flouring  mill  was  built  here  about  1870  by  Charles  Cramer,  who 
did  an  immense  business  for  many  years,  until  the  flour  industiy  also  shaped 


itself  into  milling  trusts,  such  as  the  great  mills  at  Minneapolis,  after  which 
the  mills  only  ground  for  local  demand. 

Then  there  was  the  furniture  factory  of  James  McPheeters,  with 
which  was  connected  a  large  sav  mill.  All  the  patented  and  latest  machin- 
ery for  making  chairs,  tables,  etc.,  was  used  and  prosperity  was  with  this 
branch  of  home  industry,  but  in  later  years  it  went  down  with  the  inevitable 
change  wrought  out  by  the  larger  concerns  of  the  country  centralizing. 


In  the  fall  of  1913  the  following  included  about  all  the  industrial  con- 
cerns of  Bedford : 

The  railroads  were  the  "Monon,"  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Southwestern, 
the  Terre  Haute  &  Southeastern,  and  Belt  Line. 

There  were  four  saw  mills  for  timber  sawing. 

Within  three  miles  radius  there  were  stone  quarries  and  stone  dressing 
mills  having  a  capital  of  not  less  than  six  million  dollars. 

The  Bedford  Boiler  Works  were  located  at  No.  1306  Seventh  street. 

There  was  one  bottling  works ;  two  brick-making  plants ;  the  car  shops- 
of  the  Chicago,  Terre  Haute  &  Southeastern  railroad;  the  United  States 
Cement  Company's  plant  in  the  eastern  limits  of  city;  the  Lemon  Flouring 
Mills,  No.  1 128' Seventeenth  street;  Bedford  Foundry  and  Machine  Shops,, 
at  Fifth  and  K  streets;  John  Hartman's  planing  mills,  at  Sixth  and  J  streets,, 
and  a  few  lesser  plants. 


While  the  present  city  library  is  really  a  coimty  institution  from  the 
fact  that  the  people  of  the  county  are  taxed  a  small  amount  annually  for  its 
support,  yet  it  is  styled  a  city  library.  Its  history  runs  back  many  years  as  a 
city  or  town  library. 

Long  before  the  great  iron  master,  Andrew  Carnegie,  won  fame  at  the 
steel  works  in  Pittsburg  and  amassed  his  fortune,  Bedford  had  a  public 
library.  In  the  organization  of  the  various  counties  in  this  state,  very 
wisely  the  lawmakers  set  apart  ten  per  cent,  of  the  sales  of  the  county  seat 
town  lots  for  the  establishment  of  a  county  libran.^  As  the  proceeds  in  this 
county  were  considerable,  the  library  was  placed  on  a  finn  footing  at  a  very 
early  day  in  the  history  of  the  town  and  county.  The  books  kept  in  this 
library  were  read  and  reread  many  times  by  several  generations  who  had 
grown  up  in  Lawrence  county.     The  first  books  were  purchased  in  1819,  and 


were  kept  in  the  ci>urt  house  by  John  Lowrey,  county  clerk,  and  consisted 
of  about  one  Imndred  vokunes  of  standard  books  of  that  period.  By  Febru- 
ary, 1823,  the  Hbrary  fund  had  amounted  to  about  seven  hundred  and  fifty 
dollars,  a  greater  portion  of  which  was  placed  out  on  interest.  In  1821  a 
neat  book  case  was  made  and  placed  in  the  northeast  room  of  the  old  court 
house  at  Palestine,  the  old  seat  of  justice  of  this  county.  Nearly  every  old 
pioneer  had  been  a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  for  this  library.  In 
1840  there  were  five  hundred  volumes  of  books.  In  1824  the  fund  was 
nine  hundred  dollars,  and  reached  at  one  time  about  twelve  hundred  dollars. 
About  half  this  sum  was  used  and  the  remainder  was  loaned  out.  At  one 
time  the  liljrary  owned  a  lot  in  town,  which  was  finally  sold.  In  1895  the 
permanent  fund  amounted  to  two  thousand  dollars  and  the  books  were  being 
kept  in  the  county  recorder's  office  at  Bedford. 

In  1856  the  state  furnished  the  county  with  eight  township  libraries, 
distributed  in  proportion  to  the  population.  Each  library  composed  three 
hundred  volumes  of  general  matter.  But  few  of  these  survived  more  than 
twenty-five  years. 

Late  in  the  fifties  the  McClure  libraries  were  received,  two  or  three  in 
the  county,  but  after  six  years  the  design  of  the  benevolent  testator  was 
carelessly  thwarted  by  the  distribution  of  the  books,  to  individual  members, 
or  in  cases  actually  sold  at  auction. 

But  to  return  to  the  public  library  at  Bedford,  properly  speaking,  it 
should  be  said  that  the  books  were  finally  removed  from  the  court  house  and 
taken  to  the  old  Baptist  church  building,  near  the  present  federal  building 
on  b'ourteenth  street,  and  there  the  library  was  kept  until  its  removal,  about 
1902,  to  the  present  public  Hbrary,  the  building  of  which  was  the  gift  of 
Andrew  Carnegie,  and  the  lot  dt^nated  by  the  city.  This  fine  stone  structure 
cost  twenty  thousand  dollars  and  now  has  about  eleven  thousand  volumes  on 
its  shelves.  A  board  of  trustees,  holding  life-time  terms,  has  charge  of  the 
libraiT,  which  faces  the  new  United  States  building,  the  postoffice  on  K 
street.  The  librarian  is  Georgia  Friedley.  who  has  been  in  charge  since  the 
removal  to  the  new  building. 


The  postoffice  at  Bedford  was  established  in  1825,  having  first  been  at 
the  old  county  seat  town  of  Palestine,  where  it  was  established  in  1819,  with 
John  Brown  as  first  postmaster.     The  following  is  a  list  of  postmasters  in 



Bedford,  with  date  of  appointment,  as  furnished  by  the  department  at  \\''ash- 
ington : 

June  I.  1825 — John  Brown. 

October  17.  1829— Robert  M.  Carl- 

May  7.  1836— Robert  Mitchell. 

May  31.  1841 — Gustavus  Clark. 

August  TO,  1845— Samuel  Mitchell. 

October  30.  1848 — Benjamin  New- 

November  21.  1849 — Wihie  W. 

March  t8.  1851— AMUiam  M.  North- 

May  7.  1852— \\'illie  \\'.  Owens. 

June  7,  1853 — Robert  M.  Parks. 

March  5,  1855^.  Wesley  Newland. 

March   13.    1857 — James  C.   Carlton. 

March  19.  1861 — Isaac  Rector. 

March  30.    1863— William   S.   Riley. 

June  30.  1864 — Paris  T.  Vestal. 

September  21,  1864 — James  M. 

August  17,   1866 — James  C.  Carlton. 

March  17,  1869 — J.  M.  Mathes. 

March  14.  1877 — Henry  Davis. 

May  6,  1885— James  C.  Carlton. 

December  21.  1889 — William  Erwin. 

Januan*^  9,   1894 — John  Johnson,  Jr. 

January  to,  1898 — Vinson  V.  Will- 

January  29.  1906— Sherman  L. 

Bedford  is  now  a  second  class  office  and  has  six  rural  free  delivery-  routes 
extending  out  into  the  surrounding  country,  with  routes  averaging  about 
twenty-four  miles  each.  It  was  made  a  free  city  delivery  office  in  November, 
1900,  and  now  has  five  carriers.  There  are  now  thirteen  mail  trains  a  day 
in  Bedford.  The  federal  postoffice  building,  on  K  street,  near  Fourteenth 
Street,  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  seventy-one  thousand  dollars.  It  was  com- 
pleted in  October.  1909.  The  site  is  included  in  the  above  cost  of  the  build- 
ing. The  present  are  the  employes  and  officers  of  the  Bedford  postoffice: 
Sherman  L.  Reach,  postmaster:  Doyle  W.  Graham,  assistant  postmaster: 
Albert  H.  Dunihue.  postal  savings  department:  Walter  A.  Pitman,  Lew  W. 
Cosner.  ^^'illiam  E.  Cannedy,  general  utility  clerks:  Arthur  J.  Boy  and 
Albert  H.  Fletcher,  mailing  clerks:  Joseph  L.  Glover,  Leroy  R.  Trueblood. 
Oliver  L.  Rayburn.  Harrison  M.  Ramsey  and  Edward  C.  Consalus,  city 
carriers:  Frank  M.  Carlton,  Lawrence  Stutz.  Isaac  H.  Crim,  James  W.  An- 
derson, Opal  Armstrong  and  Harley  S.  Abderson.  rural  carriers.  Basil 
Miller  is  special  delivery  messenger:  Dell  Hazel,  char-woman.  Postal  sav- 
ings amount  to  $15,811. 



Bedford  is  one  of  the  oldest  banking  towns  in  the  state.  When  the 
Bedford  branch  of  the  State  Bank  of  Indiana  was  organized  in  1834,  twelve 
banks  were  to  be  established  in  as  many  districts.  The  eighth  district  was 
composed  of  the  counties  of  Orange,  Lawrence,  Monroe,  Morgan,  Martin 
and  Greene.  After  great  rivalry  the  branch  was  located  at  Bedford,  largely 
for  the  reason  of  its  central  location.  The  bank  was  chartered  for  twenty- 
five  years,  and  the  capital  was  furnished,  one-half  by  the  state  and  one-half 
by  individual  stockholders.  The  state  directors  of  the  Bedford  Branch  were 
Moses  Fell,  William  McLane  and  Pleasant  Parks,  and  its  first  ofificers  were, 
William  McLane,  president;  D.  R.  Dunihue,  cashier,  and  John  Brown,  clerk. 
The  second  president  was  John  Vestal,  and  in  1848,  Mr.  Dunihue  was  suc- 
ceeded as  cashier  by  Isaac  Rector.  At  one  time  there  were  over  one  hun- 
dred stockholders  in  this  bank,  several  residing  outside  the  county  of  Law- 
rence. Among  the  leading  stcokholders  at  first  were  William  McLane, 
Moses  Fell,  John  Vestal,  Joseph  Rawlins,  David  and  Matthew  Borland,  M. 
A.  Malott  and  John  Inman,  John  Bowland,  William  Fish,  G.  G.  Dunn,  A.  H. 
Dunihue.  At  one  date  in  1838  there  were  upwards  of  three  hundred  bor- 
rowers at  this  bank.  The  liabilities  of  the  directors  as  drawers  were  $38,200; 
number  of  stockholders  holding  under  $500,  twenty-five;  number  holding 
from  $500  to  $5,000,  twenty:  number  holding  over  $5,000,  one.  On  Decem- 
ber 14,  1839,  there  was  in  this  bank  specie  to  the  amount  of  $63,677.88,  and 
August  24th  of  the  same  year  there  was  $100,590.96.  This  banking  concern 
did  a  great  deal  for  Lawrence  county  and  Bedford  in  those  early  days.  Its 
loans  were  extremely  large  in  the  fall  and  winter  to  pork  and  grain  dealers. 
Its  circulation  exceeded  $100,000  considerably,  and  the  individual  deposits 
at  times  were  even  much  greater  than  this  amount.  Its  affairs  were  wound 
up  in  1854  and  from  its  effects  came  the  organization  of  the  old  Bank  of  the 
State  of  Indiana,  founded  at  Bedford  with  a  capital  of  $150,000.  D.  Rick- 
etts  was  president  and  G.  A.  Thornton,  cashier.  It  did  a  flourishing  business, 
with  many  stockholders,  and  its  issues  were  always  received  par  value.  In 
1865,  M.  A.  Malott  became  president  and  W.  C.  Winstandley,  cashier.  Un- 
der'this  management  the  bank  was  conducted  until  the  spring  of  1871,  when 
its  long  career  was  honorably  brought  to  a  close  and  the  issues  all  retired. 
In  October,  that  year,  the  Bedford  National  Bank  was  organized  with  a  capi- 
tal of  $100,000,  and  M.  A.  Malott  was  president  and  W.  C.  Winstandley, 
cashier.  This  organization  began  with  large  deposits  and  continued  to  grow. 
At  the  death  bi  Mr.  M.  A.  Malott  in  the  autumn  of  1875,  W.  C.  Winstandley 


became  president,  and  T.  H.  Malott,  cashier.  Succeeding  this  bank  came 
the  private  bank  called  the  Bedford  Bank,  whose  stockholders  were  W.  C. 
Winstandley,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Malott,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Gardner,  Mrs.  Mary  H. 
Duncan,  T.  H.  Malott,  N.  E.  Malott  and  John  E.  Malott.  In  1884  this  was 
the  only  bank  in  the  city  of  Bedford  and  was  doing  an  extensive  business  for 
those  days. 

A  private  bank  was  conducted  between  1857  ^"d  1865,  by  Isaac  Rector. 
It  finally  failed,  and  it  is  said  that  many  in  the  community  lost  considerable 
by  his  failure. 

.  The  Indiana  National  Bank  was  organized  by  Thomas  Marshall  and 
others,  about  1880,  but  was  absorbed  by  the  Bedford  Bank  shortly  after  its 
organization  and  liquidated. 

The  present   (1913)   banking  concerns  of  Bedford  are  as  follows: 


This  banking  house  was  organized  in  May,  1899,  and  its  location  is  on 
the  corner  of  Sixteenth  and  I  streets,  Bedford.  It  was  organized  by  John 
R.  Walsh,  J.  J.  Brooks,  Vinson  V.  Williams,  Thomas  O.  Daggy  and  George 
W.  McDaniel.  Its  first  president  was  John  R.  Walsh;  Dr.  W.  H.  Smith, 
vice-president ;  Thomas  O.  Daggy,  cashier ;  William  Erwin,  assistant  cashier, 
and  has  a  present  surplus  of  $20,000.  Its  recent  deposits  amount  to  $380,000. 
The  bank's  first  capital  was  $50,000,  but  it  has  been  increased  to  $100,000, 
It  owns  its  own  bank  building,  worth  $25,000.  Its  charter  from  the  United 
States  is  dated  in  1899.  The  present  officers  are  as  follows:  Thomas  J. 
Brooks,  president ;  George  W.  Hay,  vice-president ;  W.  A.   Brown,  cashier. 

This  institution  has  always  'been  looked  upon  as  one  of  the  solid  banks 
of  southern  Indiana,  and  its  officers  and  stockholders  have  from  the  first 
been  among  the  best  class  of  citizens  in  the  county  and  commonwealth.  Its 
methods  of  transacting  business  are  correct  and  the  people  have  all  confidence 
in  the  men  at  the  various  desks.  To  be  a  depositor  in  this  bank  is  to  be  safe 
and  secure. 


The  Citizens  National  Bank,  of  Bedford,  was  organized  in  1891,  as  a 
state  bank,  by  A.  C.  Voris,  S.  B.  Voris,  W.  H.  Martin,  E.  D.  Norton  and 
John  Haase.  In  1898  it  was  converted  into  a  national  bank.  Its  first  capital 
was  $50,000,  but  it  is  now  working  under  a  capital  of  $100,000.  Its  surplus 
in  the  autumn '  of  1913  was  S^20,ooo:  undivided  profits.  $20,000;  deposits, 


The  present  (1913)  officers  of  this  solid  banking  institution  are  as  fol- 
lows :  J.  R.  Voris,  president ;  H.  G.  Alderhagen,  cashier.  The  original 
officers  of  the  bank  were,  .\.  C.  Voris,  president,  and  J.  R.  Voris,  cashier. 
In  the  twenty-two  years  that  this  concern  has  been  doing  business  in  the 
county  it  has  opened  thousands  of  accounts  and  received  and  paid  out  mil- 
lions of  dollars  over  its  counters.  It  has  come  through  the  financial  storms 
of  the  country,  when  others  failed,  but  this  bank  has  always  met  its  obliga- 
tions to  the  people  who  have  from  time  to  time  deposited  their  money  there. 
The  gentlemen  who  have  been  at  the  head  of  it  h^ve  all  been  men  of  good 
business  judgment  and  have  looked  well  to  the  interests  of  their  patrons. 


This  l)anking  institution  was  organized  in  March,  1900,  with  a  capital 
of  $25,000,  and  has  been  increased  to  $35,000.  It  now  has  a  surplus  of 
$15,000,  with  deposits  amounting  to  $300,000.  It  was  organized  by  A.  C. 
Voris,  William  M.  Mathews.  Michael  N.  Messick,  I.  N.  Glover,  Harry  M. 
Voris.  Edward  K.  Dye  and  John  W.  Cossner.  The  first  officers  were :  A. 
C.  Voris,  president;  M.  N.  Messick,  vice-president;  I.  N.  Glover,  cashier. 
The  officers  today  are :  William  H.  Martin,  president :  Charles  H.  Emery, 
vice-president ;  E.  E.  Farmer,  secretary  and  treasurer. 

The  statement  of  this  concern  in  August,  1913.  showed  resources 
amounting  to  $373,643,  with  liabilities  the  same  amount.  Of  the  resources 
exhil)ite(I  in  this  statement,  there  were  the  items  of  $285,034  as  loans  and 
discounts;  bonds  and  stocks,  $21,440;  bonds  to  secure  postal  savings  de- 
posits, $7,000.  In  the  list  of  liabilities  there  appears  the  items  of  undivided 
profits.  $1,954;  surplus,  $15,000;  interest,  discount  and  other  earnings, 


The  Stone  City  Bank,  of  Bedford,  was  organized  in  1890  with  a  capital 
of  $25,000,  which  has  been  increased  to  $75,000,  with  a  surplus  of  $13,227, 
with  deposits  of  $350,000.  The  first  officers  and  organizers  were;  J.  M. 
Andrews,  president;  I.  N.  Glover,  cashier;  T.  V.  Thornton,  vice-president; 
H.  E.  Wells,  John  W.  Cosner,  W.  A.  Webb,  E.  D.  Pearson,  J.  Y.  Bates,  M. 
N.  Messick,  George  W.  McDaniel,  V.  V.  Williams. 

The  bank  erected  a  building  of  its  own  in  1893,  in  which  they  still 
operate  their  extensive  banking  business. 

The  present  ("1913)   officers  are;     W.  E.  McCormick,  president;  Will- 


iam  Turley.  vice-president:  Henry  D.  Alartin,  cashier:  H.  E.  A/IcCormick, 
assistant  cashier.  The  board  of  directors  are  W.  E.  McCormick,  WilHam 
Turley.  Dr.  J.  T.  Freeland,  H.  D.  Martin.  S.  L.  Keach.  Frank  W.  Holland 
and  C.  H.  Cobb. 

Their  recent  statement  shows  items  in  the  table  of  resources  as  follows: 
Loans  and  discounts,  $265,437;  overdrafts,  $3,135;  cash  on  hand,  $26,333, 
while  in  the  list  of  liabilities  are  these  items:  Capital  stock.  $75,000;  surplus, 
$10,766;  undivided  profits,  $2,461;  demand  deposits.  $328,831,  making  a 
total  of  $419,501  for  the  resources,  with  the  same  in  the  column  of  liabili- 
ties, all  showing  an  excellent  banking  business,  handled  by  men  of  sound 
business  principles,  having  the  confidence  of  the  community  in  which  they 
operate  a  first  class,  modern  bank. 


Before  Bedford  was  ruled  under  a  ''city"  government,  which  was  not 
until  1889,  it  was  a  town  incorporation  for  many  years.  On  June  10,  1864, 
the  Lawrence  county  commissioners  were  petitioned  to  order  an  election  to 
settle  the  question  whether  the  place  should  be  incorporated  or  not.  The 
proposed  "town  of  Bedford"  was  to  comprise  one  thousand  four  hundred 
and  forty  acres.  The  day  of  election  was  fixed  as  June  29,  1864,  and  on 
that  day  there  were  one  hundred  and  twenty-two  \'Otes  cast  in  favor  of  in- 
corporation and  only  fourteen  against  the  measure,  whereupon  on  Septem- 
ber 8,  1864,  the  county  board  duly  declared  Bedford  to  be  an  incorporated 
town.  The  first  officers  were  M.  N.  Messick,  D.  W.  Parker  and  J.  D.  Thomp- 
son, trustees;  John  M.  Stalker,  clerk;  Levi  H.  Dale,  marshal;  A.  H.  Duni- 
hue,  treasurer.  J.  D.  Thompson,  trustee,  immediately  resigned  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  A.  C.  Glover,  and  J.  M.  Stalker,  clerk,  having  resigned,  was  suc- 
ceeded by  H.  F.  Braxton.  The  first  acts  of  the  new  board  of  trustees  was  to 
formulate  a  set  of  ordinances,  which  consumed  several  weeks'  time.  E.  D. 
Pearson  was  appointed  town  attorney.  The  question  of  granting  a  liquor 
seller's  license  was  up  before  the  trustees,  who  submitted  to  Judge  Bicknell, 
of  the  circuit  court,  that  they  had  not  that  right.  The  records  show  that 
the  receipts  and  e.xpenditures  in  the  new  town  of  Bedford  from  Octol^er  28. 
1864.  to  April  22.  1865.  were  as  follows:  Receipts — Liquor  license.  S150.00; 
peddler's  license.  $17.00:  gymnastic  performers.  S4.00 :  total.  $171.00.  The 
expenditures  were — Printing.  $31.95:  copying  ordinances,  $34-00;  liquor 
license  refunded,  $50.00;  cash  to  balance.  $55.05.  making  the  account  to 
foot  and  balance.  $171.00. 


The  municipal  go\ernnient  was  in  abeyance  from  1866  to  September, 
1869,  and  was  then  revived  by  the  election  of  the  following  ofiBcers :  Alex- 
ander H.  Dunihue,  James  C.  Carlton  and  E.  D.  Pearson,  trustee;  M.  N. 
Messick,  clerk  and  treasurer ;  Erastus  Ikerd,  marshal.  A  new  and  complete 
code  of  ordinances  were  then  made,  Newton  Crook  having  been  chosen 
town  attorney.  One  of  the  early  acts  of  this  board  was  to  issue  ten  thou- 
sand dollars  in  school  bonds  to  tide  over  the  school  fund,  which  was  then 
insufficient  to  complete  the  building  under  course  of  erection.  Four  lamps 
were  erected  to  illuminate  the  public  square.  Numerous  streets  and  side- 
walks were  immediately  ordered  built.  Seven  dollars  and  fifty  cents  were 
paid  for  a  corporation  seal. 

Steps  were  taken  in  May,  1870.  to  macadamize  the  streets  surrounding 
the  public  squire.  Hall  and  Harrison's  bids  of  thirty-seven  and  a  half  cents 
per  cubic  yard  for  the  grading  part  were  accepted;  then  the  matter  of  mac- 
adamizing fifty  feet  wide,  at  three  dollars  and  twenty  cents  per  lineal  foot; 
guttering,  at  thirty  cents  per  lineal  foot:  depth  of  work,  six  inches. 

engineer's  report. 

R.  H.  Carlton,  the  engineer  in  charge,  made  this  report  in  January,  1871  : 
Grading  1.722  yards,  at  thirty-seven  and  a  half  cents.  $645.75;  guttering 
2,017  ^^^^-  ^t  thirty  cents,  $605.10:  macadamizing  1,516  feet,  at  $3.20 
$4,851.10:  high  street  culvert,  $93.15:  curbing  Sycamore  street,  $10.00; 
change  in  grade,  $1.00;  total,  $6,206.20. 

Of  the  above  amount,  the  town  paid  $800.23  and  Lawrence  county. 
$2,453.76:  the  New  Albany  railroad  paid  $754  and  the  remainder  was  paid 
by  owners  of  realtv.  The  largest  single  individual  payment  was  by  Dr. 
W.  A.  Foote,  $126.56. 

In  March.  1873.  Winstandley  &  Malott  were  allowed  to  put  in  a  set  of 
Fairbanks  scales  on  the  public  square. 

The  same  season,  a  metaled  pavement  was  ordered  built  on  the  side 
of  the  square,  fronting  lots  i.  2.  3  and  4.  the  pavement  to  be  ten  feet  wide. 
D.  C.  Campbell  contracted  to  fence  the  cemetery  for  $70.50,  Samuel  Bristow 
furnishing  the  posts  at  $185.38.  The  Messick  pond  was  ordered  surveyed 
and  drained  in  the  general  cleaning  up  made  in  fear  of  the  appearance  of 
cholera.  The  contract  for  building  a  sewer  or  drain,  with  twelve-inch  hard 
clay  pipe,  was  awarded  to  Jennings  Larter  for  twenty-nine  cents  a  cubic 

November    5,    1877,    a   serie*;    of   resolutions    was   passed   by    the    town 


board,  deploring  the  death  of  Hon.  Oliver  P.  Morton,  in  which  his  public 
career  was  greatly  extolled. 

In  1878  the  liquor  license  was  fixed  at  $600. 

In  December,  1879,  the  Bedford  Light  Guards  assumed  the  responsibil- 
ity of  a  hook  and  ladder  company,  and  steps  were  taken  to  provide  them 
with  the  necessary  fire-fighting  apparatus.  They  vvere  organized  and  ac- 
cepted by  the  town  board  as  the  Fire  Company  of  Bedford,  in  April,   188 1. 

In  1882  the  board  appropriated  sixty  dollars  to  erect  a  monument  to 
the  memory  of  George  Carney,  who  was  murdered  while  serving  as  marshal. 

In  1884,  upon  petition  from  more  than  one-third  of  the  voters,  the 
question  of  making  the  "town"  the  "city  of  Bedford"  was  submitted  to  the 
people.  John  W.  Marshall  was  the  census  taker  on  this  occasion,  and  found 
that  the  place  had  a  population  of  2,451,  hence  an  election  was  called  for  on 
May  12,  1884.  That  same  year  four  large  cisterns  were  ordered  constructed 
for  the  streets,  each  to  contain  a  capacity  of  five  hundred  barrels.  These 
were  to  be  located  on  the  four  corners  of  the  public  square  and  serve  as 
fire  protection  to  the  town. 


Not  until  1889  was  Bedford  made  a  city,  under  the  general  laws  of 
Indiana.  The  exact  date  of  incorporation  was  July  26.  1889.  when  it  was 
divided  into  three  wards. 

The  mayors  who  have  served  Bedford  under  its  city  government  are : 
John  B.  Thomasson.  V.  V.  Williams.  William  Day.  H.  P.  Pearson,  David  Y. 
Johnson.  J.  Hickson  Smith.  Peter  Pillion,  who  died  in  office  and  his  place 
was  filled  by  J.  B.  Stipp.  Albert  J.  Fields,  the  last  named  elected  in  1908. 

The  present  city  officers  (1913)  are:  Arthur  J.  Fields,  mayor;  Noah 
Mullen,  treasurer:  Joseph  E.  Pierce,  marshal:  John  D.  McMurphy.  street 
commissioner:  James  F.  Stephenson,  clerk:  W.  E.  Clark,  city  attorney. 

The  19 1 2  state  reports  give  Bedford  a  total  \aluation  of  property  (less 
exemptions).  $3,715,443.  Expenditures  of  the  city  in  1910,  were  $70,389: 
on  hand,  January  i,  1910,  $19,956:  taxes  that  year,  $35,963:  total  receipts 
for  the  year,  $96,434. 

The  reports  of  the  state  for  1910-11  gives  Bedford  as  having  one 
hundred  and  twelve  fire  pings  or  street  hydrants.  They  owned  their  own 
water  plant  and  were  using  the  meter  system.  There  were  then  five  police- 
men, and  the  police  department  spent  that  year  (1911),  $4,228.  The  firemen 
from  the  volunteer  company  were  then  receiving  two  dollars  for  each  fire 


they  were  called  out  to  attend  to.  The  fire  department's  building  and  equip- 
ment was  then  valued  at  $4,000. 

At  present  (September.  1913)  the  fire  protection  consists  of  the  fire 
company,  a  three-horse  combination  wagon,  and  four  paid  firemen.  The 
coming  year  the  city  will  install  another  fire  station  in  the  north  end  of  the 
city,  where  the  present  appliances  will  be  kept,  while  the  present  fire  house 
will  be  furnished  with  a  motor  engine  truck  and  a  complete  new  outfit. 

The  city  is  furnished  with  water  from  the  White  river,  whose  waters 
are  filtered  in  a  basin  south  of  the  city,  and  is  supplied  with  power  by  the 
Southern  Indiana  Power  and  Light  Company.  The  street  lights  of  Bedford 
are  now  supplied  l)y  the  Indiana  State  Light,  Heat  and  Power  Company, 
who  also  furnish  steam  heat  and  gas  lights.  This  corporation  purchased  the 
old  Bedford  Heat,  Light  and  Power  Company's  plant  in  1912.  Bedford  now 
has  fifty-two  city  blocks  paved,  equal  to  four  and  one-half  miles  of  brick 
paving,  of  an  excellent  quality. 



\\  ithout  doubt  the  greatest  industry  of  Lawrence  county  is  the  stone 
industry,  and  from  its  magnitude  tlie  city  of  Bedford  has  long  since  been 
styled  the  "Stone  City."  But  few  localities  in  the  entire  United  States 
domain  afifords  better  facilities  for  quarrying  the  best  of  workable  building 
stone.  This  stone  goes  by  various  names.  "St.  Louis  Limestone"  "Bedford 
Stone,"  and  "Bedford  Oolitic  Stone"  are  among  the  commercial  and  geo- 
logical terms  used  in  describing  these  immense  deposits  of  building  stone. 
Owen,  Lawrence  and  Monroe  counties  are  all  underlaid  with  about  the  same 
grade  of  stone,  with  some  variations  as  to  hardness  and  fineness.  While 
the  real  development  of  these  valuable  quarries  does  not  date  back  more  than 
thirty  years,  the  stone  from  these  quarries  was  worked  and  known  far  and 
near  many  years  prior  to  that  time. 

Among  the  earliest  settlers  in  this  county  was  that  prince  of  gentlemen. 
Dr.  Winthrop  Foote,  of  Connecticut,  a  man  well  versed  in  both  law  and 
medicine  who  invaded  the  wilds  of  this  county  and  settled  at  the  old  county 
seat,  Palestine,  in  1818,  but  moved  to  Bedford  when  this  city  became  the 
seat  of  justice.  He  was  a  firm  believer  in  the  future  of  Lawrence  county 
and  in  the  possibilities  of  the  stone  found  here,  so  lavishly  bestowed  by  the 
hand  of  the  Creator.  He  it  was  who  acquired,  by  purchase  and  the  "taking 
up"  of  government  land,  nearly  all  the  sites  upon  which  the  most  productive 
quarries  are  now  located,  at  least  all  that  were  worked  a  quarter  of  a  cen- 
tury ago.  He  early  remarked  to  a  friend  that  some  day  they  would  be 
sending  that  stone  to  New  York  city,  and  was  met  with  the  assertion  that  it 
could  not  be  so,  on  account  of  there  being  no  way  to  transport  such  heavy 
commodities  so  great  a  distance,  but  Dr.  Foote  remarked  that  there  would 
be  found  a  way  by  the  time  the  stone  was  demanded  there. 

In  1832  Dr.  Foote  went  to  Louisville,  Kentucky,  and  there  interested  a 
stone  cutter  named  Toburn,  who  returned  with  him  and  located  at  Bedford. 
He  was  probably  the  first  regular  stone  cutter  who  ever  entered  this  county. 
Among  the  evidences  of  his  having  lived  and  labored  here  are  numerous 
pieces  of  his  handiwork  in  way  of  monuments  and  buildings  from  stone. 
Important  and  interesting  among  these  is  the  vault  cut  from  a  large  boulder 



which  hes  in  the  position  it  was  left  by  some  mighty  upheaval,  on  the  eastern 
slope  of  the  hill  overlooking  what  is  now  known  as  "Blue  Hole"  quarry, 
al)out  a  mile  from  the  center  of  Bedford.  This  vault  is  known  as  the  Foote 
vault.  The  Doctor  had  a  brother,  Ziba  Foote,  who,  while  acting  as  a  gov- 
ernment surveyor,  in  1806,  had  been  drowned,  in  what  is  now  known  as 
Foote's  Grove  pond,  and  he  was  buried  on  its  banks.  As  soon  as  the  vault 
was  completed  the  body  was  exhumed  and  placed  therein,  and  here  also,  in 
1856,  Dr.  Winthrop  Foote  himself  was  buried.  This  spot  was  selected  by 
the  Doctor  on  account  of  its  being  in  a  quiet  spot,  away  from  the  rush  and 
noise  of  the  city  life.  But  things  have  changed  with  the  march  of  time  and 
the  wonderful  development  of  the  great  stone  industry,  and  today  number- 
less trains  of  cars  rush  madly  by,  upon  two  lines  of  railroad.  The  sound 
of  the  steam  channeling  machines,  steam  derricks  and  stone  saw-mill  ma- 
chinery is  ever  heard  in  that  locality,  but  the  dead  sleep  on  and  heed  it  not. 


What  may  be  termed  the  opening  wedge  to  this  industry  was  when 
the  building  of  the  first  railroad,  the  old  New  Albany  &  Salem  line,  brought 
to  this  county  Davis  Harrison,  a  civil  engineering  expert.  He  became  firm 
in  the  belief  that  the  marketing  of  this  stone  was  practicable,  and  when  his 
railroad  work  had  ended  he  moved  his  family  here  from  Kentucky,  taking 
up  his  residence  in  Bedford.  Here  he  made  a  systematic  study  of  the  stone 
measures  hereabouts,  and  labored  long  to  interest  capital  to  aid  in  developing 
the  quarries.  It  was  not  until  1877.  when  the  Dark  Hollow  Quarry  Com- 
pany was  organized,  that  his  efforts  met  with  any  degree  of  success,  al- 
though he  was  interested  in  several  enterprises  before  that  date.  His  knowl- 
edge and  careful  research  made  the  present  success  possible. 

Nathan  Hall  was  another  pioneer  in  this  industry.  He.  at  the  sugges- 
tion of  A'Tr.  Harrison,  was  induced  to  begin  operations  directly  adjoining 
the  quarry  of  what  is  now  styled  "Blue  Hole."  This  was  long  before  the 
discovery  of  the  modern  channeling  machines,  in  fact  it  was  before  the  Civil 
war  period,  when  all  the  stone  had  to  be  blasted  out  with  powder.  To  Mr. 
Hall  the  credit  belongs  for  first  making  this  stone  known  and  valued  by  the 
outside  world,  or  to  give  any  commercial  value  to  it.  He  shipped  the  first 
stone  out  of  Bedford  on  the  railroad,  hauling  it  by  ox  team  from  the  quarry, 
about  one  mile  distant  from  a  railroad  track.  He  invented  and  had  made 
the  wagon  for  hauling  these  huge  stone  upon,  now  so  common.  Later  he 
employed  steam  power  at  his  quarries  and  was  in  direct  communication  with 


the  railroad.  In  1881  Mr.  Hall  sgld  his  interest  to  the  Hinsdale-Doyle  Gran- 
ite Company,  but  the  face  of  his  old  quarry  was  left  about  as  he  last  worked  it. 
One  of  the  earliest  quarries  operated  was  that  of  John  Glover,  a  mile 
and  a  half  south  of  Bedford.  But  little  stone  had  been  taken  out  of  this  quarry 
before  the  Civil  war,  at  which  time  operations  were  completely  suspended, 
and  that  ended  his  work.  Some  of  the  stone  from  his  quarry,  however,  are 
still  to  be  seen  in  the  earlier  l)uildings  of  Bedford.  He  used  a  very  primitive 
saw  for  cutting  stone  with.  It  reminded  one  of  a  large  sized  wood-saw 
operated  by  two  men. 


With  the  whirling  trains  of  Bedford  stone  that  go  whizzing  by  day 
after  day  now  to  Chicago,  it  may  be  of  interest  to  know  that  the  first  ship- 
ment was  made  by  the  owners  of  "Dark  Hollow  Quarry,"  and  was  sent  to 
John  Rawle,  who  had  just  been  appointed  agent  at  Chicago  for  this  build- 
ing stone.  It  was  billed  to  him  at  about  eighty-five  cents  per  cubic  foot. 
Mr.  Rawle  had  worked  on  the  oolitic  limestone  in  the  Portland  quarries  of 
England  and  knew  the  good  value  of  this  Bedford  stone.  He  at  once  en- 
tered with  zeal  upon  his  duty  of  trying  to  interest  Chicago  builders  in  this 
commodity.  He  fashioned  a  huge  vase  cut  from  this  stone  which  attracted 
great  attention.  He  also  employed  a  stone  cutter  one  entire  winter  cutting 
paper  weights  from  Bedford  stone  which  he  distributed  among  architects 
and  builders  the  country  over.  He  also  contracted  to  erect  the  first  Bedford 
stone  building  ever  gracing  the  streets  of  Chicago,  the  Mandel  building  on 
Dearborn  street.  The  first  year  this  stone  was  shipped  to  Chicago  there 
were  only  three  car  loads  used  there.  Contrast  that  date  with  the  present 
era.  Then  three  car  loads  lasted  a  whole  season,  whereas  now  thousands 
upon  added  thousands  of  cars  go  to  that  city  alone  annually. 

Again,  the  state  and  government  geologists  have  done  all  in  their 
power  to  bring  the  right  understanding  of  this  material  before  the  American 
builders.  From  them  we  are  able  to  draw  many  clear  conceptions  of  just 
what  this  wonderful  stone  is  and  its  high  value  to  the  world  at  large. 

A  carefid  examination  of  oolitic  limestone  shows  that,  while  it  varies 
in  the  nature  and  arrangement  of  its  particles,  its  more  striking  character- 
istics are  general  and  permanent.  Shells  more  or  less  minute — scarcely  dis- 
cernible to  the  naked  eye — and  fragments  of  shells,  cemented  by  carbonate 
of  lime,  make  up  the  mass.     Indeed  is  the  cementing  so  meager  that  it  is 


scarcely  observable  even  with  the  aid  of  an  ordinary  pocket-glass.  This 
structure  gives  this  stone  the  oolitic  appearance — hence  the  name. 

It  is  when  we  reach  the  sub-carboniferous  area  of  the  state  that  we 
discover  the  true  wealth  of  Indiana  limestone.  The  formation  known  as 
the  St.  Louis  division  or  group  covers  a  large  area  of  the  state,  but  it  is  the 
surface  rock  of  a  much  smaller  space,  and  while  outlined  in  several  counties 
it  is  only  in  Lawrence  and  Monroe  counties  that  it  exists  as  the  surface 
rock  throughout  the  entire  county.  Along  the  line  of  St.  Louis  outcrop 
from  Putnamville  southward  to  near  the  Ohio  river  is  found  the  famous 
oolitic  limestone.  It  lies  in  a  narrow  strip  of  country  running  somewhat 
diagonally,  from  northeast  to  southwest,  a  distance  of  about  one  hundred 
miles,  and  varies  in  width  from  three  to  fifteen  miles.  Every  indication 
seems  to  be  that  the  oolitic  limestone  has  been  deposited  in  deep  sea  waters, 
filling  a  basin  whose  shores  are  now  marked  by  these  lines  where  the  rock  is 
lightly,  une\enly  and  irregularly  bedded  and  formed  of  coarser  and  more 
loosely  cemented  materials  than  those  of  the  main  body  of  the  stone.  In 
Lawrence  county  as  we  pass  eastward  from  her  outcrops  of  most  excellent 
stone,  the  struggling  edge  of  the  deposit  is  soon  reached,  and  it  takes  on  a 
coarser  and  looser  structure. 

If.  then,  the  geologist  has  hit  upon  the  true  scientific  theory  and  oolitic 
limestone  owes  its  fine  and  even  grain  to  a  deep  sea,  still  teeming  with 
minute  shell-bearing  animal  forms,  whence  came  the  carbonate  of  lime  that 
bound  together  this  innumerable  multitude  of  shells?  It  seems  reasonable 
to  suppose  that  the  shores  of  the  then  prevailing  sea  were  surrounded  by 
the  deposits  and  rocks  of  a  still  older  sea  of  the  sub-carboniferous  age,  and 
from  these  more  ancient  rocks  the  water  took  up  in  the  solution  or  suspension 
the  carbonate  of  lime,  which  when  precipitated  along  with  the  animal  re- 
mains served  as  a  cement  to  bind  together  the  shells  that  form  the  body  of 
this  building  stone. 

The  strata  in  which  oolitic  stone  is  found  are  homeogenous,  equally 
strong  in  vertical,  diagonal  or  horizontal  sections.  The  stone  comes  from 
the  quarry  so  soft  as  to  be  readily  worked  by  saw  and  chisel  or  planing  ma- 
chines, while  on  exposure  it  hardens  to  a  strength  of  from  ten  to  twelve 
thousand  pounds  to  the  square  inch,  a  strength  sufficient  to  sustain  the 
weight  of  the  largest  structure  in  the  world.  Its  tone,  when  struck,  is  a 
clear,  musical  bell-note,  indicative  of  thorough  metallic  sympathy  throughout 
the  mass.  The  elasticity  of  this  stone  enables  it  to  adapt  itself  without 
cleavage  to  our  changeable  climate,  where  material  will  be  subjected  to  a 
change  of  from  twenty  to  sixty  degrees  in  a  few  hours'  time. 



It  has  been  the  aim  of  the  writer  of  this  chapter  to  give  as  clear  and 
full  an  account  of  this  Bedford  stone  industry  as  the  data  that  is  obtainable 
by  a  writer  of  local  history  can  secure.  It  is  not  given  to  build  up  one  sec- 
tion of  the  state  or  to  tear  down  any  other  section  dealing  in  the  same  com- 
modity, though  perhaps  under  another,  or  even  the  same  name.  But  be- 
fore entering  into  a  description  of  the  present,  with  a  mention,  too.  of 
some  of  the  older  quarries  of  the  past  decades,  it  may  be  well  to  inform  the 
reader  as  to  the  true  chemical  analysis  of  this  stone  with  such  a  remarkable 


When  the  state  house  was  built  in  Georgia  the  committee  in  charge  had 
the  state  chemist  make  a  test  of  the  quality  of  this,  with  other  stone,  and 
the  result  shows  the  Bedford  oolitic  stone  in  the  following  constituent  parts : 

Carbonate    of    lime    96.04  per  cent. 

Carbonate  of  magnesia   .72  per  cent. 

Oxides  of  iron  and  alumnia 1.06  per  cent. 

Insoluble  silicates i.i,:;  per  cent 

Chlorides  of  soda  and  potash .15  per  cent. 

Water  expelled  at  212  degrees  F. .10  per  cent. 

Combined    water,    etc.    .80  per  cent. 

Total  elements 100.00  per  cent. 

It  is  possible  that  with  the  passing  of  years  the  names  of  some  of  the 
stone  operators  have  been  overlooked,  though  not  intentionally,  but  it  is 
certain  that  the  following  constitutes  a  large  majority  of  the  captains  in 
this  noted  industry.  Indeed  to  be  connected  with  sn  laudable  a  work  as  the 
furnishing  of  building  material  for  great  structures  is  an  lionor  not  to  be 
overlooked.  "Limestone,"  one  writer  has  said,  "has  been  the  material  out 
of  which  many  of  the  greatest  and  most  magnificent  structures  of  the  world 
have  been  constructed,  both  in  ancient  and  modern  times.  The  old  Egyp- 
tian builders  used  it  in  the  construction  of  the  pyramids,  and  they  have 
stood  for  centuries  as  monuments  to  the  enduring  qualities  of  limestone. 
The  English  House  of  Parliament,  in  which  the  British  lawmakers  have 
met  for  more  than  two  hundred  years,  is  constructed  of  oolitic  limestone 
from  the  Portland  quarries,  whose  product,  though  perhaps  the  best  to  be 


found  in  England,  does  not  compare  with  that  taken  from  the  Indiana 
quarries  in  point  of  strength  and  durabihty." 

Among  tlie  important  companies  operating  in  this  county  in  1895, — 
eighteen  years  ago, — as  we  learn  from  a  publication  known  as  Stone,  pub- 
published  in  Chicago,  were  these : 

The  Dark  Hollow  Quarry  Company,  in  1877,  was  composed  of  Col.  A. 
C.  Voris,  S.  B.  Voris,  Davis  Harrison  and  R.  Rogers.  All  but  one  of  these 
men  were  new  at  the  stone  business  and  little  dreamed  of  its  possibilities. 
Their  first  large  contract  was  to  furnish  the  stone  for  the  Indianapolis  state 
house.  At  the  end  of  nine  years  they  had  distributed  $146,400  among  the 
stockholders,  and  purchased  much  new,  improved  machinery  for  their  quar- 
ries. It  was  first  styled  the  Dark  Hollow  Stone  Company,  and  in  1890  it 
was  sold  and  went  under  the  name  above  given. 

Hollo  well  Stone  Company. — This  was  organized  in  1878,  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  Bedford,  and  ranked  first  in  importance  twenty  years  ago.  It  had  a 
name  from  the  ocean  on  the  east  to  that  on  the  west  and  from  lake  to  gulf. 
They  were  among  the  first  to  employ  improved  and  superior  machinery  in 
their  extensive  quarries.  They  began  on  a  small  way,  with  few  men,  but 
the  virtues  of  their  stone  made  them  forefront  and  famous.  Its  first  great 
contract  was  furnishing  the  stone  for  the  Chicago  city  hall  building  in  1882, 
when  it  came  into  the  possession  of  the  Hinsdale-Doyle  Granite  Company. 
Four  steam  channeling  machines  and  four  steam  derricks  were  employed  in 
1895.  Another  great  contract  by  this  company  was  furnishing  stone  for 
the  immense  Mutual  Life  Insurance  Building,  the  Farmers  Trust  Company, 
Bank  of  America  and  Merchants  Bank,  all  of  New  York  City;  also  the  Cot- 
ton Exchange  of  New  Orleans,  and  still  later  the  Vanderbilt  mansion  of 
North  Carolina.  In  the  eighties  they  put  in  planing  and  sawing  machinery, 
then  little  known  to  this  intlustry.  This  mill  was  located  a  half  mile  north 
of  Bedford,  and  was  driven  by  a  hundred-horse-po\ver  engine. 

Chicago  and  Bedford  Stone  Company,  known  as  the  "Blue  Hole,"  was 
the  old  Nathan  Hall  quarry  of  remote  date,  just  east  of  the  city  of  Bedford. 
It  is  the  pioneer  of  all  the  quarries  hereabouts.  This  is  the  original  blue- 
stone  quarry  of  Indiana,  and  today  its  stone  is  unsurpassed.  W.  K.  Van- 
derbilt's  Fifth  avenue  mansion  in  'New  York  city  was  from  this  quarry. 
The  main  building  of  the  Missouri  University  was  from  this  quarry,  also. 

The  Bedford  Steam  Stone  Works,  one  of  the  busiest,  most  prosperous 
plants  in  the  region  of  Bedford,  began  business  in  1886.  Here  the  finest  of 
oolitic  stone  is  found  in  immense  ledges.  Seven  cuts  of  fine  material  are 
found  here.     The  upper  eighteen  feet  is  the     finest  grade  anywhere  discov- 


ered.  The  stone  for  the  old  custom  house  at  Louisville  was  shipped  from 
this  quarry.     Also  the  large  blue  capitals  for  the  Illinois  state  house. 

The  C.  S.  Norton  Blue  Stone  Company  was  originally  organized  in  1888, 
and  commenced  operations  a  mile  southwest  of  Bedford,  where  they  owned 
a  large  tract  of  land  underlaid  with  excellent  blue  oolitic  limestone.  The 
trade-mark  adopted  by  the  re-organized  company,  in  1895,  was  "Royal 
Blue  Oolitic."  This  stone  takes  a  polish  equal  to  marble.  It  has  long  been 
used  for  ornamental  work  and  monuments.  In  1895  the  capacity  was  only< 
three  car  loads  per  day,  but  it  was  soon  increased  materially.  A  portion  of 
the  great  St.  Louis  union  railway  station  was  from  this  quarry.  Also  the 
front  of  the  Ne%v  York  Commercial  office. 

Perry,  Matthews  &  Buskirk  Company  took  the  highest  rank  in  many 
particulars,  in  1895,  of  any  quarry  in  this  wonderful  stone  belt.  It  was 
organized  in  1889,  when  two  hundred  and  forty  acres  were  bought  in  the 
bluff  ridge  region,  five  miles  to  the  north  of  Bedford.  The  company  was 
not  incorporated  until  1893.  W.  N.  Matthews  was  chosen  president.  The 
ledge  is  more  than  fifty  feet  in  thickness;  is  slightly  soft  at  first,  but  soon 
hardens.  Ample  capital  always  aided  this  concern  to  operate  on  an  extensive 
plan.  Eighteen  years  ago  they  were  operating  ten  steam  channel  machines, 
six  steam  derricks,  four  steam  drills,  three  steam  pumps  and  sundry  other 
machinery.  Their  annual  capacity  then  was  seven  hundred  thousand  cubic 
feet.  Eighty-five  thousand  feet  were  taken  out  in  a  single  month.  The  Man- 
hattan Life  Insurance  Company's  building  of  New  York  city,  a  splendid 
type  of  modern  '"sky-scraper,"  was  from  this  quarry.  Hundreds  of  other 
buildings  scattered  all  over  the  Union  attest  the  value  of  the  i)roduct  from 
this  company's  quarry. 

The  Peerless  Stone  Company  was  organized  in  April,  1890,  with  a 
capital  of  $100,000.  The  quarries  are  four  miles  north  of  Bedford,  in  about 
the  center  of  the  oolitic  district.  Here  one  sees  forty  feet  of  light  blufif 
stone  overlaying  twelve  feet  of  blue  stone.  This  stone  is  within  a  few  feet 
of  the  surface,  making  it  easy  of  access.  The  residence  of  the  late  John 
Sherman,  in  Washington,  D.  C,  was  made  from  stone  from  this  quarry. 
Scores,  if  not  hundreds,  of  large  structures  in  as  many  states  and  territories 
have  been  constructed  from  the  stone  here  quarried  by  this  company.  The 
Peerless  Stone  Company  was  fitted  up  with  the  1)est  of  modern  stone-work- 
ing machinery,  propelled  by  a  fifty-horse-power  engine.  This  is  another  of 
the  quarries  that  have  made  Bedford  and  Lawrence  county  famous  the 
country  over  for  its  excellent  grade  of  building  stone. 

The  West  Bedford   Stone   Company   commenced   its   operations   in   the 


early  spring  of  1892.  It  is  located  three- fourths  of  a  mile  west  of  the  city 
of  Bedford.  Most  of  the  output  here  is  a  dark  gray  Hmestone,  suitable  for 
the  construction  of  massive  structures.  The  residence  of  Mayor  Roach,  of 
Chicago,  was  erected  from  this  stone  here  obtained.  It  has  stood  the  test  of 
many  years. 

The  Standard  Stone  Company  was  organized  in  January,  1893,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $50,000.  with  A.  B.  Tressler  as  its  president.'  The  company 
purchased  three  hundred  and  twenty-five  acres  of  land,  about  a  half  mile 
north  of  the  city  limits  of  Bedford.  Modern  appliances  and  machinery  was 
employed  from  the  beginning  of  their  operations.  The  Bedford  Belt  rail- 
road passes  through  their  lands  and  thus  the  product  is  the  more  easily  and 
cheaply  removed  to  main  lines  for  the  far  distant  markets  where  their  stone 
is  ever  in  excellent  demand.  Here  both  the  buff  and  blue  oolitic  stone  are 
found  in  immense  quantities.  Stone  from  these  quarries  were  a  part  of  the 
once  famous  Rawlins  Mill  and  the  abutments  of  the  rather  ancient  bridge 
that  crosses  the  river  at  that  point.  For  nearly  seventy-five  years  these  stone 
have  held  the  clear  tool  marks  and  are  in  an  excellent  state  of  presentation 
even  at  this  late  day. 

The  Oolitic  Stone  Company  of  Indiana  have  great  quarries  fifteen 
miles  north  of  Bedford,  on  the  Monon  railroad  line,  where  the  company  in 
1895  owned  a  quarter  section  of  superior  stone  land.  This  is  a  part  of  the 
old  David  Reed  estate  and  every  stone  operator  knows  what  marked  success 
attended  this  gentleman's  efforts  in  years  long  since  passed.  Nearly  a  score 
of  years  ago  the  capital  stock  of  this  company  was  $100,000,  and  the  equip- 
ments of  the  plants  tliere  operated  were  of  the  most  improved  type.  Ten 
car  loads  of  stone  per  day  were  easily  taken  out  there  as  long  ago  as  1895. 
Stone  from  here  went  into  the  great  Auditorium  in  Chicago,  now  so  famous 
in  national  history.  Other  immense  structures  recalled  now  in  which  this 
stone  figured  largely  were  the  Criminal  Court  building  and  the  celebrated 
Chicago  Public  Library;  the  Coffee  Exchange.  New  York,  and  the  Temple 
Beth  Synagogue,  New  York,  with  a  number  of  buildings  in  Pliiladelphia, 
Boston  and  other  eastern  cities. 

The  Bedford  Quarry  Compan\-,  of  which  ^^^  J.  Tubman,  of  Chicago, 
was  formerly  president,  was  incorporated  with  a  capital  of  $75,000.  and  at 
first  they  owned  forty-eight  acres  a  few  miles  to  the  north  of  Bedford. 
Dark  blue  stone  was  the  specialty  at  these  quarries.  None  but  the  best 
equipment  was  allowed  place  in  the  plant  they  installed.  Five  hundred  thou- 
sand cubic  feet  of  stone  was  their  annual  capacity,  twenty  years  ago.  It  will 
be  understood  that  this  quarry  is  within  the  famous  Dark  Hollow  district 


where  the  stone  crops  out  with  bold  perpendicular  faces,  which  record  plainly 
the  stand  points  of  streams  through  the  long  ages  during  which  they  have 
been  engaged  in  hewing  out  of  a  solid  rock  their  deep  valleys.  From  ten  to 
twenty-five  feet  thick,  this  stone  ledge  is  of  a  workable  grade  of  superior 
building  stone.  Among  the  buildings  erected  from  this  stone  may  be  named 
those  erected  in  the  nineties  and  early  in  this  century,  the  Catholic  cathedral 
on  Grand  avenue,  St.  Louis,  and  the  Brooks  residence  in  Chicago. 

The  Bedford  Quarries  Company  (not  the  same  as  above)  is  known 
wherever  Bedford  stone  is  known,  and  that  is  every  part  of  this  Union. 
The  holdings  of  this  giant  concern  in  1895  comprised  nearly  one  thousand 
acres  of  choice  stone  land,  with  expensive,  practical  and  up-to-date  machin- 
ery to  handle  immense  amounts  of  stone.  They  owned  the  "Hoosier,"  the 
"New  Hoosier,"  "Buff  Ridge,"  "Oolitic  No.  i,"  "Oolitic  No.  2,"  and  the 
"Louisville  and  Bedford."  So  well  and  favorably  is  this  company  and 
their  vast  quarries  known  that  it  is  idle  to  here  enlarge  upon  their  output  of 
building  material.  They  are  situated  in  the  Buff  Ridge  region,  five  miles 
northwest  of  Bedford,  in  a  section  about  one  mile  wide  and  three  in  length. 
From  forty  to  sixty  feet  of  solid  stone  is  here  found  waiting  the  future 
years,  for  after  all  the  vast  tonnage  that  has  already  come  from  these  quar- 
ries, it  seems  as  if  it  had  not  yet  been  touched  by  the  puny  hand  of  man. 

Nearly  twenty  vears  ago  the  machinery  required  by  this  company  em- 
braced twenty  channeling  machines,  ten  steam  derricks,  all  driven  by  ponder- 
ous engines.  Here  one  saw  many  gangs  of  saws  cutting  and  shaping  into 
even,  artistic  stones  a  wonderful  output.  Electricity  was  the  illuminating 
agency  for  the  entire  works.  The  number  of  buildings  and  monuments,  that 
have  been  erected  from  the  product  of  these  quarries  is  very  large,  and  only 
a  few  can  here  be  enumerated.  They  are  the  Emigrant  Savings  Bank,  New 
York  City;  Algonquin  Club,  Boston;  Manufacturers'  Club  building,  Phila- 
delphia ;  Louisville  &  Nashville  railroad  bridge  at  Henderson,  Kentucky,  over 
the  Ohio  river;  Illinois  Central  railroad  bridge  at  Cairo;  Merchants'  bridge, 
over  the  Mississippi  at  St.  Louis;  Kansas  City  &  Memphis  railroad  bridge, 
at  Memphis;  court  house  at  Columbia  City,  Logansport,  and  hundreds  of 
business  houses  of  lesser  magnitude. 

One  of  the  later  additions  to  the  machinery  of  this  plant  is  the  stone- 
crushing  outfit  for  crushing  stone  for  railroad  and  highway  purposes.  This 
was  the  first  company  to  engage  in  this  growing  industry  in  the  country,  at 

The  Achme-Bedford  Stone  Company,  whose  quarries  are  situated  three 
miles  west  of  Bedford,  occupies  the  original  site  of  one  of  the  original  quar- 


ries  in  this  famous  section  of  limestone  in  Indiana.  Several  years  after 
Nathan  Hall  opened  his  quarry  to  the  east  of  Bedford  and  John  Glover  began 
his  operations  on  the  south,  another  quarry  was  opened  in  a  small  way  at 
this  point  by  Moses  F.  and  George  W.  Dunn.  Like  Hall  and  Glover's  quarry, 
this  quarry  was  worked  in  the  old-fashioned  and  crude  manner,  and  opera- 
tions soon  ceased  without  the  owners  having  discovered  what  an  abundance 
of  excellent  stone  there  existed.  Lack  of  the  proper  facilities  caused  these 
pioneer  operators  to  become  discouraged.  Most  of  the  men  connected  with 
this  enterprise  had  no  previous  experience  and  the  old  quarry  was  after  a 
time  abandoned.  It  was  not  until  1890  that  the  Achme-Bedford  company 
was  organized  and  secured  control  of  a  very  large  tract  of  land,  including 
the  site  of  the  old  original  quarries.  This  company  was  formed  with  John 
Rawle  as  its  president  and  general  manager,  who  had  been  interested  in  and 
connected  with  the  stone  industry  from  young  manhood's  days  and  was  very 
competent  and  practical  in  all  of  bis  methods.  He  had  mastered  his  calling 
in  England.  He  came  to  America  in  1868,  but  it  was  not  until  1871  that  he 
first  saw  the  Bedford  stone  region.  Through  his  expertness  he  soon  won 
his  way  into  the  management  of  a  quarry  here  and  soon  after  was  made  the 
Chicago  agent,  and  there  spent  his  time  in  developing  the  interests  of  stone 
from  this  Bedford  district.  He  it  was  to  whom  the  first  car  of  Bedford 
stone  was  billed  at  Chicago. 

The.  state  reports  for  191 1 -12  stated  that  there  were  twenty-one  stone 
mills  in  operation  in  this  county  at  that  time.  The  products  of  these  mills 
were  then  being  shipped  to  various  parts  of  this  countiy  and  Canada.  "This 
county  is  also,"  says  the  report,  "the  seat  of  great  cement  plants,  two  of 
which  are  located  at  Mitchell,  and  these  give  employment  to  several  hundred 
workmen,  in  one  way  and  another.  In  the  summer  season  many  car  loads 
daily  of  this  superior  cement  go  to  many  parts  of  the  country.  The  lime- 
stone used  in  the  making  of  this  cement  is  quarried  at  Mitchell,  while  the 
shale  that  goes  into  the  cement  is  shipped  from  Jackson  county,  Indiana. 
Bedford  has  one  cement  mill  and  is  doing  an  extensive  business,  so  far  as 
their  capacity  will  admit  of." 


Through  the  courtesy  of  one  of  the  Stone  Club's  secretaries,  Roy  C 
Sowder,  we  are  permitted  to  insert  the  following  telling  figures  recently  com- 
piled by  him  for  this  special  purpose : 

Bedford  Stone  Company,  one  mill. 


M.  F.  Brooks  Cut  Stone  Company,  one  mill. 

C.  S.  Norton  Blue  Stone  Company,  one  quarry. 

Consolidated  Stone  Company,  two  quarries,  one  mill. 

J.  P.  Fait  Company,  one  mill. 

East  Bedford  Stone  Company,  one  mill,  one  quarry. 

Ingalls  Stone  Company,  two  mills,  one  quarry. 

Indiana  Quarries  Company,  three  mills,  three  quarries. 

Henry  Struble  Cut  Stone  Company,  one  mill. 

Indiana  Bedford  Stone  Company,  one  mill,  one  quarry. 

Stone  City  Cut  Stone  Company,  one  mill. 

Bedford  Steam  Stone  Works,  one  mill  and  one  quarry. 

Bedford  Stone  Construction  Company,  one  mill  and  one  quariy. 

Climax  Stone  Company,  one  mill. 

Furst-Kerber  Stone  Company,  two  mills,  one  quarry. 

E.  F.  Gilberson  &  Company,  one  mill,  one  quarry. 

W.  McMillan  &  Son,  one  mill,  two  quarries. 

Shea  &  Donnelly,  one  mill. 

Reed  Stone  Company,  two  mills,  two  quarries. 

John  A.  Rowe  Cut  Stone  Company,  one  mill. 

Bedford  is  strictly  a  stone  city.  Here  are  located  twenty-five  of  the 
largest  cut-stone  mills  in  the  United  States,  shipping  their  product  into 
almost  every  state  in  the  Union,  besides  Canada.  Cuba  and  the  West  Indies. 
At  least  sixteen  large  quarries  supply  these  mills,  besides  shipping  large 
quantities  in  the  rough  blocks  east  to  New  York  and  west  to  San  Francisco. 
During  the  summer  months,  when  the  stone  can  be  safely  quarried  and 
shipped,  at  least  four  thousand  men  are  employed  in  all  the  lines  of  busi- 
ness and  on  the  railroad  to  handle  the  output,  at  wages  ranging  from  two  to 
eight  dollars  per  day.  Ten  switching  crews  are  needed  by  the  various  rail- 
roads to  handle  the  shipments. 


This  club  was  organized  in  about  1900  by  the  members  of  various  stone 
mill  and  quarry  operators,  at  Bedford,  and  in  a  few  years  were  incorporated. 
They  had  their  club  room  at  the  corner  of  H  and  Sixteenth  streets  until 
recently,  when  the  property  was  sold  and  now  is  the  home  of  the  Moose 
society.  The  members  of  the  Stone  Club  expect  to  build  a  substantial  home 
of  their  own  in  the  city,  in  the  near  future.  There  are  more  than  fifteen 
companies  represented  in  this  club,  and  it  has  proved  of  great  service,  both  in 
a  social  and  business  way. 



Under  this  caption  will  appear  numerous  events  of  interest,  not  treated 
in  the  special  and  general  chapters : 


The  several  United  States  census  enumerations  give  the  following  on 

the  population  of  Lawrence  county:     In    1820,  4,116;   1830,  9,334;   1840, 

11,782;    1850,    12,097:    i860.    13,692:    1870.    14,628;    1880,  18,543;    1890, 
19,792;  1900,  25,729;  1910,  30,625. 

In  the  enumeration  of  1900  and  1910  the  figures,  by  townships  and  cor- 
porations, was  as  follows : 

1900  1910 

Bono   township    1.060  1,095 

Flinn   township   880  823 

Guthrie  township 1.295  1.056 

Indian  Creek  township 2,356  2,379 

Marion  township  and  Mitchell 3.869  6,482 

Marshall  township 1,854  2,125 

Perry  township 810  717 

Pleasant  Run  township 2,004  1,769 

Shawswick  township  and  City 9-436  12,480 

Bedford  City 6,115  8,716 

Oolitic    (town   of)    1,079 

Spice  Valley  township  and  Huron 2,165  1.699 

Huron  township   I97 

Total 25,729     30,625 

The  last  federal  census  gives  these  figures:  Total  population  in  Law- 
rence countv,  1910.  30,625;  number  of  males,  15,681;  females,  14,598;  col- 
ored males,  197;  colored  females,  148;  foreign  born  white,  813:  number 
dwellings,  6,916;  number  families,  7,050. 



Avoca  was  platted  in  the  south  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section 
32,  township  6,  range  i  west,  July,  1819,  by  Hayden  Bridwell. 

Bedford  was  originally  platted  on  a  two-hundred-acre  tract  in  sections 
14  and  23,  township  5  north,  range  i  west,  by  the  county  seat  locating  com- 
missioners, March  30,  1825. 

Bono,  platted  April  4,  1816. 

Bryantsville  (first  called  Paris),  platted  May  28.  1835,  by  Dr.  F.  Crooke. 

Bartlettsville,  platted  by  Samuel  J.  Bartlett  on  the  southwest  quarter  of 
the  northwest  quarter  of  section  8,  township  6,  range  i  east,  January  19, 

Dixonville,  platted  in  the  center  of  section  10,  township  4,  range  2  east, 
by  Lucy  and  Sarah  Dixon,  April  8,  1853. 

Erie,  platted  by  Dr.  Joseph  Gardner,  April  29,  1901,  on  the  southwest 
quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  11,  township  5,  range  i  west. 

East  Oolitic,  platted  by  James  D.  Farmer,  in  the  west  half  of  section  3, 
township  5.  range  i  west,  September  i,  1900. 

Fort  Ritner,  platted  by  Michael  Ritner,  May  29,  1857. 

Fayetteville,  platted  by  Ezra  Kern,  February  6,  1838. 

Georgia,  platted  February  14,  1853,  by  John  and  Alexander  Case,  on 
section  12,  township  3,  range  2  west. 

Guthrie,  platted  January  3,  1866,  on  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  north- 
west quarter  of  section  3,  township  6,  range  i  west,  by  Winthrop  Rinser. 

Heltonville,  platted  on  the  west  half  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  sec- 
tion 26,  township  6,  range  i  east,  by  Andrew  Helton  and  wife,  September 
18,  1845. 

Hancock,  platted  by  Mrs.  Martha  E.  Hancock,  on  the  southeast  quarter 
of  section  11.  township  5,  range  i  west,  April  18,  1893. 

Huron,  platted  March  15,  1859,  on  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  6. 
township  3,  range  2  west,  by  John  Tewell  and  others. 

Leesville  was  platted  February  27.  1840,  by  William  Flinn,  Sr.,  and 
William  Flinn,  Jr. 

Liberty  was  platted  May  25,     1829,  by  John  Lackey  and  Silas  Beezley. 

Lawrenceport  was  platted  May  17,  1837. 

Limestone  was  platted  December  11,  1888,  by  Isaac  H.  Crim,  on  section 
4,  township  5,  range  i  west. 

Mitchell  was  platted   September  29,    1853,   on  section   36,   township  4, 


range  i  west,  and  on  the  north  half  of  section  i,  township  3,  range  i  west,  by 
John  Sheeks  and  George  W.  Cochran. 

Moore's  Hill  was  platted  November  10,  1904,  on  section  10,  township  5, 
range  i  west,  by  William  N.  Matthews. 

Oolitic  was  platted  by  the  Bedford  Onarries  Company,  March  23,  1896, 
on  section  4,  township  5,  range  i  west. 

Pattonville,  platted  March  10,  1891,  by  Enoch  Patton,  on  the  northeast 
quarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  section  5,  town- 
ship 5,  range  i  west. 

Peerless  was  platted  November  13,  1891,  by  John  Williams,  on  section 
27,  township  6,  range  i  west. 

Redding  was  platted  by  Robert  Porter  and  wife  and  John  R.  Nugent 
and  wife,  August  25,  1842,  on  the  southeast  of  section  15,  township  4,  range 
I  west. 

Rawlins  was  platted  April  20,  1893,  by  the  Standard  Stone  Company, 
on  sections  10  and  11,  township  5,  range  i  west. 

Springville  was  platted  on  section  22.  township  6.  range  2  west,  by 
Samuel  Owens.  July  11,  1832. 

Silverville  was  platted  July  26,  1855,  on  sections  19  and  20.  township 
5,  range  2  west,  by  Robert  C.  McAfee. 

Sunset  was  platted  June  27,  1905,  on  section  15.  township  5,  range  i 
west,  by  Euphennia  R.  Dunn. 

Tunnelton  was  platted  by  Isaac  Newkirk,  on  section  19,  township  4, 
range  2  east,  August  28,  1859. 

Woodville  was  platted  on  section  26.  township  4,  range  i  west,  by  Edwin 
Wood  and  wife,  December  10,   1849. 

Williams  was  platted  May  20,  1889,  by  Henry  Cox,  on  sections  4  and  9, 
township  4,  range  2  west. 

Zelma,  platted  May  23.  1890,  by  Stephen  and  James  Fountain,  on  the 
southeast  quarter  of  section  21.  township  6,  range  2  east. 


The  following  is  the  substance  of  an  article  published  several  years  ago, 
in  the  Indianapolis  News,  written  by  Hon.  James  H.  Willard,  and  may  be 
relied  upon  as  authentic: 

The  story  of  Palestine,  the  first  county  seat  of  Lawrence  county,  is 
romantic  and  mournful.  Since  the  days  when  Oliver  Goldsmith  wrote  "The 
Deserted  Village,"  a  tinge  of  melancholy  reminiscence  has  surrounded  those 


abodes  where  men  had  experienced  the  hope,  the  disappointments  and  vicissi- 
tudes of  life,  had  made  their  homes  for  years  and  then  relinquished  them 
to  silence  and  deca}^  The  story  of  Palestine  is  indeed  a  strange  one,  for  it 
is  of  a  town  that  at  one  time  promised  to  be  a  metropolitan  city,  but  was 
abandoned  by  man  and  reclaimed  by  nature.  Green  meadows  and  forest 
trees  now  occupy  its  former  site  and  not  even  a  foundation  stone  tells  of  a 
vanished  town. 

Palestine  was  situated  on  a  high  l)lufif  on  the  north  side  of  White  river, 
near  in  the  center  of  Lawrence  county.  The  conical  hill  which  it  surmounted 
is  so  high  that  the  view  over  many  miles  of  the  broken  country  is  magnificent. 

The  land  on  which  the  town  was  situated,  two  hundred  acres  in  extent, 
was  conve>'ed  to  the  newly  created  county  of  Lawrence  in  the  early  part  of 
the  year  1818  by  Benjamin  and  Ezekiel  Blackwell.  Henry  Speed  and  Henry 
H.  Massie,  in  consideration  of  the  location  of  the  seat  of  justice  on  the  site. 
The  site  was  accepted  by  the  county  and  the  land  was  laid  off  by  a  countv 
agent  into  two  hundred  and  seventy-six  lots,  surrounding  a  public  square,  on 
which  the  court  house  and  jail  were  to  be  built.  A  sale  of  lots  was  ordered, 
the  proceeds  of  which  were  to  be  devoted  to  the  expenses  of  the  new  county. 

The  first  sale  of  these  lots  was  advertised  to  take  place  on  Mav  25.  1818, 
the  following  newspapers  being  the  mediums  employed  in  giving  notice  to  the 
public:  The  Louisi'ille  Correspondent,  the  Indiana  Gazette,  the  Western 
Sun,  the  Salem  Tocsin  and  a  newspaper  printed  at  Madison.  Indiana,  the 
name  of  which  has  been  lost.  Not  one  of  these  newspapers,  except  the 
Western  Sun.  is  in  existence  at  the  present  time. 

WANTED    TO    BE   THE    CAPITAL.  • 

About  the  year  1818  there  was  great  excitement  regarding  the  reloca- 
tion of  the  capital  of  Indiana,  it  being  evident  that  Corydon,  the  first  capital 
of  the  new  state,  was  much  too  far  south.  The  beautiful  situation  of  Pales- 
tine on  the  high  bluff,  with  its  proximity  to  White  river,  so  that  it  was  ac- 
cessible to  the  commerce  of  those  days,  impressed  land  speculators  that  in 
all  probability  this  town  would  be  chosen  as  the  capital  of  Indiana  and  as  a 
result  they  flocked  to  the  sale  of  the  lots  from  all  quarters  and  the  bidding 
of  non-resident  speculators  was  spirited  and  heavy.  From  all  the  sale  of 
lots  in  Palestine  there  was  realized  the  sum  of  $17,826,  partly  in  cash  and 
partly  in  notes,  and  speculation  was  so  rife  that  many  of  the  first  purchasers 
made  great  profits  on  their  investments. 


The  following  account  rendered  to  the  county  may  give  an  idea  of  the 
fees  of  real  estate  agents  at  that  time : 

Laying  out  276  lots  in  Palestine $132.00 

Selling  249  lots,  bond,  etc i3-50 

Drawing  432  notes  at  six  and  one-fourth  cents 27.00 

Superintending  erection,  courthouse 7.00 

Taking  bonds,  advertising,  etc 10.00 

Taking  bond  advertising  jail ^ 6.00 

Clearing  public   square 4.00 

Letting  building  of  stray-pen 2.00 

Total    $201.50 


Immediately  after  receiving  the  contract  for  the  court  house,  the  con- 
tractor began  its  erection.  It  was  known  that  on  a  certain  day  in  January, 
1 819.  he  was  to  begin  the  cutting  of  the  timber  to  be  used  for  it.  In  order 
that  he  might  have  the  occasion  properly  celebrated,  he  went  to  a  settlement 
near  where  the  Valonia  now  stands,  to  secure  a  good  supply  of  whisky. 
Some  of  the  3'oung  bloods  of  the  new  and  ambitious  town,  knowing  that  he 
would  not  return  until  after  nightfall  and  by  a  road  cut  through  the  dense 
forests,  conspired  to  get  the  liquor.  One  of  them  was  quite  tall,  was  dressed 
in  a  bear  skin,  with  a  pair  of  horns  on  the  top  of  his  head.  He  met  the  con- 
tractor as  he  came  through  the  woods,  near  the  river,  a  little  after  dusk  and, 
with  awful  groans,  rushed  toward  him.  The  contractor  fled.  The  boys 
were  drunk  for  nearly  a  week,  while  every  able-bodied  inhabitant  of  the  young 
town  was  entertained  many  days  by  the  contractor's  tale  of  his  meeting  Satan 
in  the  forest  and  the  last,  but  not  the  least,  result  was  that  the  cutting  of  the 
timber  for  the  new  court  house  was  celebrated  by  those  who  participated  in 
the  ceremony  without  the  customary  formalities. 

The  father  of  Hon.  Joseph  A.  Wright,  afterward  governor  of  Indiana, 
cut  and  laid  the  stone  for  the  foundation  for  the  Palestine  court  house.  The 
governor,  in  early  life,  attended  court  at  Palestine  with  his  father,  and  it  is 
said  that  it  was  here  that  he  acquired  the  nickname  "The  Walnut-hiller." 
Bv  this  he  was  ever  after  known  in  his  campaigns. 

Several  stores  were  opened  in  Palestine  and  a  carding  machine,  a  cabinet 
shop  and  two  tan  yards  started  as  infant  manufacturing  industries.  The 
town  grew  and  in  the  course  of  about  four  years  had  a  population  of  between 
six  and  seven  hundred,  being  the  seat  of  commerce  for  a  territory  of  about 


fifty  miles  in  radius.  It  soon  became  one  of  the  most  flourishing  towns  in 
southern  Indiana. 

The  surrounding  forests  of  poplar,  oak  and  walnut  were  very  dense, 
the  timber  being  of  the  best  quality.  Lawrence  county  even  to  the  present  time 
being  celebrated  for  its  fine  timber.  This  gave  impetus  to  the  flat-boat  in- 
dustry and  several  of  the  boats,  loaded  with  produce,  started  from  Palestine 
each  year  on  their  voyage  for  New  Orleans. 

Game  was  plentiful,  forming  the  main  culinary  resource  of  the  in- 
habitants of  Palestine  during  the  winter  season.  Of  the  hunters  of  that  day, 
one  reminiscence  remains.  One  winter  day  a  hunter  brought  in  four  deer 
on  a  sled  to  sell  to  the  residents  and  informed  them  that  all  the  deer  had  been 
killed  by  one  bullet  from  his  rifle.  He  found  two  deer  in  range  and  killed 
both,  recovering  his  bullet,  which  was  imbedded  in  the  neck  of  the  second 
deer.  He  reloaded  his  rifle  with  this  bullet  and  was  lucky  enough  to  find 
two  deer  again  in  range  and  brought  them  both  down,  but  lamented  that  his 
lucky  bullet  had  passed  through  them  both  and  was  lost  to  him.  So  it  ap- 
pears that  the  tales  of  what  happened  to  a  man  when  he  is  alone  have  not 
changed  much  with  the  years. 

Some  of  the  court  records  of  old  Palestine  are  very  quaint.  In  the 
March  term,  1823,  Judge  Wick  and  Associate  Justices  Field  and  Blackwell, 
pursuing  their  regular  circuit,  opened  court  in  Palestine  and  the  following 
comment  regarding  the  clerk's  entries  was  ordered  spread  of  record :  "Some 
improvement  in  neatness  and  mechanical  execution  and  technicality,  and 
conciseness  of  style,  might  be  made  and  is  earnestly  recommended." 

To  show  the  ineffectiveness  of  the  admonition,  it  may  be  noted  that  in 
the  entry  of  this  order  there  is  one  interlineation  of  several  words  and  several 
erasures  made  by  drawing  the  pen  over  the  writing.  A  new  trial  was  ordered 
in  one  criminal  case  because  "the  jury  dispersed  and  mingled  with  the  people 
after  returning  to  consult."  They  had  probably  been  in  care  of  the  bailiff 
under  a  shade  tree  near  the  court  house,  instead  of  being  sent  to  a  room. 


One  citizen  applied  for  benefits  under  an  act  to  aid  soldiers  of  the  Revo- 
lution, and  he  says  in  his  affidavit  that  he  has  "one  cow,  one  yearling,  a  bed 
and  household  furniture  not  exceeding  ten  dollars  in  value,  and  a  contract 
for  the  value  of  three  barrels  of  whisky  in  Kentucky,  which  it  is  doubtful  if 
he  ever  gets ;  and  he  has  eight  children  scattered  abroad  in  the  world." 

Dr.  Winthrop  Foote,  who  had  immigrated  from  Connecticut  and  who 



was  learned  both  in  law  and  medicine,  was  probably  the  leading  citizen  of 
Palestine.  He  was  eccentric  in  manner,  but  a  man  of  great  mental  force  and 
ability.  He  was  prosecuting  attorney  and  there  is  a  record  that  says  "John 
Bailey  was  fined  thirty-seven  and  one-half  cents  for  assaulting  Winthrop 
Foote,  prosecuting  attorney."  M  the  same  term  is  the  entry:  "Ordered 
that  W.  Foote,  prosecuting  attorney,  be  allowed  the  sum  of  seventy-five  dol- 
lars for  services  during  the  year,"  and  on  the  margin  is  found  in  Dr.  Foote's 
handwriting  the  characteristic  indorsement  "Rejected." 

There  was  just  one  case  involving  the  slavery  question  tried  in  Palestine, 
the  first  civil  case  tried  in  the  county  seat.  The  title  was  "Susannah  Witcher 
vs.  Phillis  (a  woman  of  color),  recognizance."  The  evidence  was  heard  and 
as,  under  the  law.  neither  Phillis  nor  any  of  her  color  could  be  permitted  to 
testify  against  Susannah  (who  was  white),  the  jury  had  to  return  a  verdict 
according  to  the  evidence:  "We  the  jury  find  Phillis  to  be  the  property  of 
Susannah  Witcher." 


Joseph  Glover  was  the  first  sheriff  of  the  county  and,  being  a  most 
hospitable  man.  almost  kept  o])en  house  during  the  terms  of  court.  He 
owned  the  first  clock  e\er  l>rought  to  the  county,  a  fine  old  wall-sweep  in 
mahogany  case,  with  brass  works.  The  clock  showed  the  changes  of  the 
moon  and  the  days  of  the  month,  a  perfect  clock,  even  in  these  days.  It  was 
the  only  clock  in  Palestine  for  many  years. 

With  whiskv  at  ten  cents  a  gallon,  the  temptations  were  greater  in  those 
days,  and  on  one  occasion  Sherifif  Glover,  about  night-fall,  found  one  of  the 
prominent  citizens  of  the  county  too  much  under  the  influence  of  liquor  to 
reach  his  home.  The  sherifif  promptly  took  him  to  his  own  house.  In  the 
middle  of  the  night  the  unconscious  guest  woke  up  in  total  darkness  and 
cried  out.  "Where  am  1.  Where  am  I?"  and  then,  pausing,  he  heard  the  clock 
ticking,  and  knowing  it  was  the  only  one  in  the  county,  he  said,  "Oh  it's  all 
right !  Good  J^e  Glover  has  taken  good  care  of  me,  God  bless  him !"  Pales- 
tine has  passed  into  the  realm  of  reminiscence,  but  that  same  old  clock  still 
ticks  away  in  a  modern  residence  in  P.edford,  keeping  time  as  perfectly  as  it 
did  three  (|uarters  of  a  century  ago. 


From  the  Ijeginning  Palestine  was  very  unhealthful.  Deadly  miasm  rose 
from  tlie  river,  and  malignant  fevers  prevailed  among  the  inhabitants.     This 


alone,  in  all  probability,  prevented  Palestine  from  becoming  the  capital  of 
Indiana.  Judges  and  lawyers  who  rode  the  circuit  and  attended  court  there 
went  into  the  country  at  night  rather  than  encounter  the  malaria  in  the  town 
and  thereby  incurring  the  danger  of  being  exposed  to  disease.  It  is  doubt- 
ful whether  this  sickly  condition  of  the  town  came  from  the  fact  that  the 
river  was  in  front  and  tanyard  branch  behind,  the  miasm  of  the  dense  fogs 
sweeping  across  the  town  from  both  ways,  or  whether  it  was  because  the 
town  was  built  on  the  site  of  an  old  and  extensive  grave  yard  of  the  Indians 
or  Mound  Builders.  The  town  was  slightly  sandy,  and  the  spring  from 
which  it  drew  its  water  supply  was  just  below  the  old  burying  ground  or 
Indian  cemetery.  Some  of  these  mounds  have  of  later  years  been  excavated 
and  many  curious  relics  found  in  them. 

After  a  struggle  of  seven  years,  the  inhabitants  found  that  their  grave 
yard  was  growing  faster  than  the  town,  and  they  decided  to  apply  to  the 
Legislature  for  relief,  and  an  act  was  approved  February  9,  1825,  providing 
for  the  re-location  of  the  county  seat. 

There  was  a  very  bitter  feud,  traces  of  wliich  remain  still  in  politics, 
between  the  citizens  of  the  north  and  south  sides  of  the  river.  The  north 
side  was  the  stronger  numerically,,  and  finally  it  was  decided  to  move  the 
county  seat  about  four  miles  northeast,  away  from  the  stream  of  water 
courses,  and  the  location  was  made  at  Bedford. 

In  September,  1825.  it  was  reported  that  the  public  well  bad  been  com- 
pleted, the  temporar}^  court  house  erected  at  Bedford,  and  the  county  officers 
removed  their  records'to  the  new  county  seat.  At  the  same  time,  about  three- 
fourths  of  the  population  had  al^ancloned  Palestine  and  moved  to  the  new 
town,  amid  jeers,  recriminations  and  abuse  from  those  who  chose  to  still 
remain  and  occupy  their  old  hi^nes.  It  was  several  years  before  those  who 
remained  in  Palestine  finally  al>andoned  their  houses  and  moved  to  Bedford. 
The  old  county  buildings  were  sold  at  auction.  Moses  Fell  bought  the  old 
court  house  for  forty  dollars. 

Some  citizens  removed  their  dwellings,  taking  down  the  log  1)uildings  in 
Palestine  and  setting  them  up  again  in  Bedford,  which  city  today  contains 
about  a  dozen  of  the  old  log  houses  which  once  formed  a  part  of  Palestine. 

In  less  than  ten  years  the  last  resident  of  Palestine  had  departed,  the 
log  buildings  that  composed  the  town  went  to  deca}-  or  were  sawed  up  for 
fire  wood.  The  lots  were  sold  for  taxes,  and  at  last  all  came  into  the  hands 
of  one  owner,  Thomas  Dodd,  who  lives  near  the  site  of  the  old  town. 

The  Bedford  branch  of  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Southwestern  railway 
skirts   the   hill    on    which    Palestine    once    st.jod.      Gradually    the    wilderness 


encroached  on  the  site  of  the  abandoned  town,  and  it  became  a  forest  of 
Lombardy  poplars.  These  trees  were  finally  cut  down  and  the  original  native 
forest  trees  sprang  up  in  their  place.  Many  of  the  latter  were  also  removed 
and  the  land  turned  into  meadow,  but  a  grove  of  native  trees  crown  the  hill, 
occupying  the  exact  site  of  the  old  court  house  in  the  center  of  the  town, 
whose  inhabitants  once  hoped  to  make  it  the  capital  of  a  great  state.  Not  a 
single  trace  or  vestige  of  human  habitation  remains,  but  if  the  visitor  will  dig 
a  few  inches  in  the  earth  or  on  the  top  of  the  hill  he  will  find  bricks  which 
formed  a  part  of  the  old  court  house  of  this  the  first  seat  of  justice  of  Law- 
rence county. 


From  various  reliable  sources  the  following  has  been  preserved  in  con- 
nection with  the  history  of  old  Palestine : 

John  Brown  was  appointed  the  first  postmaster  there  in  1819  and  prob- 
ably was  the  only  one  who  held  this  office  there,  as  he  was  the  first  man  to 
hold  the  office  at  Bedford.  Robert  M.  Carlton  established  himself  there  as 
the  county  agent  in  1818.  Andrew  Evans  was  another  early  settler,  as  were 
Isaac  Mitchell. and  James  Benefield.  The  latter  furnished  rooms  for  the 
courts.  Samuel  M.  Briggs,  a  tanner  l^y  trade,  was  one  of  the  first  county 
treasurers,  and  worked  in  the  tan  yard  of  Joseph  and  Wier  Glover,  which  shop 
was  built  in  1819.  This  was  the  largest  enterprise  in  Palestine,  giving  em- 
ployment to  six  workmen.  There  were  twenty-five  or  thirty  vats  in  this 
tannery.  The  hides  were  sold  chiefly  in  Louisville.  The  first  store  in  the 
town  was  opened  in  the  fall  of  181 8  by  Samuel  F.  Irwin  and  Isaac  Stewart. 
They  brought  in  about  eight  hundred  dollars  worth  of  general  merchandise, 
which  were  placed  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Irwin,  Stewart  being  a  non-resident. 
In  1 81 9,  Patrick  Callen  also  started  a  small  store,  selling  lots  of  whisky  as 
well.  Dr.  Winthrop  Foote  located  as  the  first  doctor  of  the  new  county 
seat  town.  Later  he  practiced  law  at  Bedford.  The  first  attorney  of  the 
town,  or  county  for  that  matter,  was  Rollin  C.  Dewey,  who  settled  in  1820. 
Winston  Criuse,  who  dug  the  well  on  the  public  square,  was  an  early  resident. 
Henry  Powell  kept  the  first  inn  or  boarding  house  and  sold  whisky.  About 
1820,  possibly  a  year  later,  John  and  Samuel  Lockhart  built  a  large  log  house 
and  installed  a  wool  carding  mill,  which  did  an  extensive  business.  They 
carded  on  shares,  and  did  the  spinning  of  their  share,  which  they  kept  for 
sale.  The  first  cabinet  shop  was  opened  by  Ezekiel  Blackwell.  In  the  spring 
of  1819  the  town  had  about  fifteen  families,  and  they  were  determined  to 
put  on  a  bold  front  and  have  the  village  of  Palestine  incorporated,  as  they 


knew  full  well  that  it  would  sound  bigger  off  East  where  they  sent  their  ad- 
vertising matter.    The  following  election  returns  were  had  in  the  matter : 

"Palestine,  Monday,  March  i,  1819. 

"At  a  meeting  of  the  qualified  voters  of  the  town  of  Palestine,  Lawrence 
county,  Ind.,  agreeably  to  the  first  section  of  an  act  providing  for  the  incor- 
poration of  towns  in  the  State  of  Indiana  approved  January  i,  181 7,  we,  the 
President  and  clerk  of  said  meeting,  do  certify  that  the  polls  stand  thus: 
Eleven  votes  in  favor  and  none  against  being  incorporated. 

"John  Brown,  President. 

"William   Kelsey,  Clerk." 

At  an  election  for  trustees  of  the  town  the  following  were  elected : 
Alexander  Walker.  William  Kelsey.  Lemuel  Barlow.  William  Templeton  and 
Stephen  Shipman. 

One  of  the  early  business  enterprises  of  old  Palestine,  in  her  palmy  days, 
is  seen  by  the  following  certificate : 

"We  the  undersigned  do  certify  that  Nathaniel  Vaughn  is  of  good 
moral  character,  and  do  believe  it  would  be  for  the  benefit  and  convenience 
of  travelers  for  the  said  Vaughn  to  be  licensed  that  he  may  retail  spirituous 
liquors  and  keep  a  house  for  public  entertainment  in  Palestine. 

"Palestine,  September  4,    1819. 
"Vingand  Pound  James  Gregory 

"Isaac  Farris  Thomas  Fulton 

"John  Anderson  John  Sutton 

"William  Templeton  James  Conley 

"Willis  Keithley  Weir  Glover 

"John  J.  Burt  Joseph  Glover 

"Samuel  Dale  G.  G.  Hopkins." 

"Ezekiel  BlackM'ell 

The  number  of  small  streams  in  Lawrence  county  raised  the  necessity 
of  an  easy  and  quick  way  to  transport  goods  across  them,  in  the  commercial 
intercourse  of  one  part  of  the  county  with  another,  and  also  to  facilitate  the 
traveler.  Bridges  were  crude  and  unsafe,  so  numerous  ferries  along  White 
river  and  Salt  creek  were  constructed  and  form  an  interesting  note  in  the 
early  history  of  the  county. 

'  On  White  river,  at  the  eastern  boundary,  Sinclair  Cox  kept  a  ferry  near 


the  present  site  of  Fort  Ritner.  A  man  by  the  name  of  Dixon  came  into 
possession  of  this  ferry  later,  and  it  became  known  for  a  long  time  as  Dixon's 
ferry.  It  was  in  section  22,  township  4  north,  range  2  west.  Loiiden's 
ferry,  at  the  town  of  Bono:  Beck's  ferry,  near  Tunnelton;  one  at  the  mouth 
of  Fish  creek,  near  Lawrenceport ;  William  Fisher's  ferry,  below  Lawrence- 
port ;  Ezekiel  Blackwell's,  at  Palestine,  during  the  time  that  town  was  the 
county  seat;  the  ferry  of  Levi  Nugent,  in  section  3,  township  4  north,  range  I 
west:  Drury  Davis's  ferry,  at  the  mouth  of  Leatherwood  creek  in  1826;  one 
at  the  mouth  of  Salt  creek  owned  by  Robert  Woods  in  1823;  the  Fields 
Feny,  a  short  distance  below  Woods' :  Taylor's,  Dawson's  and  Green's  were 
among  the  important  ferries  established  along  White  x'wtr.  A  bitter  feud 
existed  between  Woods  and  Fields,  caused  by  the  close  proximity  of  their 
ferries.  One  night  Woods'  boat  was  burned,  but  the  owner  immediately 
built  another  and  continued  his  trade.  Two  men.  Lackey  and  Taylor,  were 
sent  to  the  state  prison  for  the  deed. 

On  Salt  creek  there  were  also  many  ferries.  On  the  Levi  Bailey  land  a 
man  named  Lee  kept  a  ferry  for  a  long  time :  another  where  the  Rawlins  mill 
stood:  Dougherty's  ferry  west  of  Bedford:  these  were  perhaps  the  most 

Dougherty's  ferry  was  situated  where  the  bridge  is  on  the  Fayetteville 
road.  There  was  an  Indian  trace  here  in  the  early  days,  crossing  the  western 
part  of  the  countv  to  a  government  supply  store,  kept  by  a  man  named  Bigger. 
This  was  called  Bigger's  trace,  and  passed  near  Davis  Lick  creek  in  the  north- 
ern part,  then  south  a  mile  east  of  Fayetteville,  crossing  the  river  where  Tay- 
lor's fern-  was  afterward  located. 


The  following  are  the  towns  and  hamlets  within  this  county,  at  this  date, 

Armstrong.  Avoca,  Becks,  Bedford,  Bono,  Bosler,  Bryantsville,  Buddha, 
Bartlettsville,  Buff  Ridge,  Carr,  Coxton,  Dark  Hollow,  Dodd,  Fayetteville, 
Flatwood,  Ft.  Ritner,  Georgia,  Guthrie,  Heltonville,  Hoosier,  Huron,  Indiana, 
Keach,  Lehman,  Lawrenceport,  Logan,  Miles  Standish,  Mitchell,  Oolitic, 
Peerless,  Pinhook,  Prosser,  Reed,  Rock  Ledge,  Rivervale,  Sand  Pit,  Shaws- 
wick,  Silverville,  Springville,  Thornton,  Tunnelton,  Wallner,'  Williams, 
Yockey,  Zelma. 

These  towns,  aside  from  Bedford,  Mitchell,  Heltonville,  Oolitic  and 
Tunnelton,  are  under  two  hundred  population,  and  many  are  mere  hamlets  of 
no  consequence  historically. 



On  Friday  night,  January  21,  1904,  occurred  one  of  the  most  brutal 
and  wanton  crimes  ever  committed  in  Lawrence  county.  On  that  night  at 
six-thirty  o'clock,  Sarah  C.  Schafer,  a  talented  and  pretty  teacher  in  the  Bed- 
ford high  school,  left  her  boarding  house  to  return  to  her  room,  a  few  blocks 
distant.  Her  route  lay  north  on  Lincoln  avenue,  and  as  a  cold  drizzle  of  rain 
was  falling,  she  shielded  herself  with  her  umbrella.  At  an  alley  on  the  west 
side  of  the  street,  between  Thirteenth  and  Fourteenth  streets,  she  met  her 
murderer.  Evidence  has  been  conclusive  that  she  was  stunned  by  a  blow  on 
the  head,  the  instrument  being  a  piece  of  brick,  and  then  dragged  nearly  sixty 
feet  up  the  alley  to  a  shed,  a  cab  shelter.  There,  presumably  to  prevent  her 
struggles  and  outcry,  she  was  murdered.  Early  the  next  morning,  the  owner 
of  the  cab  housed  in  the  shed  found  the  young  woman's  body,  but  no  evi- 
dence other  than  her  cast-off  umbrella,  a  few  strands  of  dark  hair  in  her 
clutched  fingers,  and  some  smaller  details,  all  of  which  availed  nothing. 

The  motive,  the  exact  character  of  the  deed,  and  the  identity  of  the 
murderer  have  never  been  learned,  nor  can  the  known  facts  of  Miss  Schafer's 
life  and  her  relations  with  her  fellows  justify  any  tenable  theory.  She  was  a 
religious,  straight-forward,  conscientious  girl,  of  simple  habits,  and  loved 
sincerely  by  all  of  her  acquaintances.  The  truth  will  probably  never  be  un- 
covered, for  had  the  act  been  the  work  of  a  degenerate,  a  transient  madman, 
his  motive  would  have  been  too  clear,  and  with  the  twelve  hours'  time  he 
had  to  escape,  could  have  been  hundreds  of  miles  from  the  spot,  his  conscience 
protected  bv  the  depravity  of  his  mind.  There  was  no  cause,  no  premeditated 
reason,  for  Sarah  Shafer's  murder;  it  was  an  act  conceived  on  the  moment, 
and  any  other  woman  who  might  have  chanced  along  the  alley  entrance  that 
night  instead  of  Miss  Schafer  would  undoubtedly  have  suffered  the  same  fate. 




That  the  reader  may  have  a  general  idea  of  the  surface  and  geological 
formation  of  the  county,  it  will  be  well  to  take  up  such  natural  features  by 
townships  as  follows : 


Perfy  township  affords  the  best  soil  within  the  county.  Clear  creek,  a 
clear,  fine  stream,  having  its  source  in  the  township,  together  with  its  many 
small  branches,  has  heavy  deposits  of  mingled  silica  and  alluvium,  fitted  for 
the  best  production  of  cereals  and  grasses,  especially  for  timothy  and  clover. 
No  better  soil  is  found  for  wheat,  but  corn,  for  the  lack  of  certain  elements, 
does  not  thrive  so  well,  though  parts  of  the  township  have  deep,  black  soil 
stich  as  is  found  in  the  great  corn  belt  (if  Illinois.  Springs  abound  in  the 
township,  some  being  sulphur. 


This  portion  of  Monroe  county  is  rough  and  stony.  Outcroppings  of 
fine  stone  were  discovered  by  pioneers  and  as  the  county  developed  it  was 
found  that  great  wealth  was  their  inheritance.  No  finer  quality  of  lime- 
stone can  be  found  in  Indiana.  This  is  of  the  Warsaw  division  of  the  Lower 
St.  Louis  group,  aftd  has  taken  the  name  of  American  marble,  which  is  sus- 
ceptible of  high  polish.  See  township  history  concerning  this  stone  indus- 
try, as  well  as  the  chapter  on  Stone  Industry. 


This  section  of  the  county  possesses  interesting  features  as  it  came 
from  Mother  Nature.  Here  one  finds  the  bluffs,  with  soil  of  semi-sterility; 

_>|,S  I  AWKIONCl':    AND    MONKOIC    COl' NTI ICS,    INIXANA. 

tlkii  llu'  IdwiT  lands,  wlicri'  llir  lainicr  rcai)s  his  best  har\csts;  there  are  also 
(iml)c'i-  tracts  ol  ,L;irat  \n\uv.  \'\n-  lourr  land  is  a  rich  (.■onihincd  soil  of  sand, 
linio,  clay  and  alhninm.  An  ahundancr  of  excellent  lime  rock  is  I'onnd  near 
the  snrl'ace,  and  has  lor  \ears  heen  a  source  of  mnch  re\enne  to  the  owners 
and  workers  of  the  vast  qnairies.  Many  years  since  the  state  .geologist 
slated  that  "The  oolitic  linn'slone  of  Monroe  connty,  hy  reason  of  its  acces- 
sihilitx  and  other  \alnahle  considerations,  is  oi  vast  importance  to  the  mater- 
ial i)ros])eril\  and  proj^iess  of  the  state  oi  Indiana."  This  stone  extends, 
with  other  i^radi's  of  stone,  from  sixty  liw  to  thri'c  hundred  and  sevenl\-li\e 
I'eet   in  depth   I'roni  the  snrfate. 

\AN      liliRI'lN     TOWNSllll'. 

I  li'ie  the  surface  is  less  rolhn^  than  in  other  portions  of  the  connty. 
It  is  well  watered  and  drained,  howe\er.  Several  small  streams  take  their 
rise  heri',  ,nid  lu'nce  we  find  numerous  cooling'  springs  ihroughont  the  do- 
main, that  make  i;lad  the  heart  i)\  man  and  heast.  Originally  there  were 
found  large  hodii-s  of  limhi'r,  including  holh  species  (^f  walnnt,  hard  and  soft 
maple,  oak,  chestnut,  elm,  hect'h,  sycamore,  all  kinds  of  poplar,  cherry,  gnm, 
sassafras,  dog  wooti,  spice  wood,  etc.,  hut  long  since  this  liinher  has  been 
cut  away  too  n)uch,  in  fact.  In  the  northwestern  ])art  is  a  large  natnral 
ca\e;  its  depth,  which  has  often  heen  tested,  is  yet  not  fully  known.  It 
Covers  at  least  a  nule  in  extent.  Mere  man\  lowrs  o\  nature  and  geologists 
lind  pleasun-  in  maknig  wonderful  explorations,  and  from  its  caxerns  have 
heen  taken  man\'  rare  and  \aluahK'  mineral  collections.  It  is  known  as 
I'uilt's  Cave.  (  )nce  a  party  of  students  hecame  bewildered  and  tlnally  lost 
in  this  ca\e,  and  had  it  not  been  for  the  teams  the\  dro\e  out  there  having 
been  seen  b\-  a  neighbor,  who  rescut'd  them,  no  ti'lling  what  might  ha\e  been 
their   fate. 

IN'niAN    CKKF.K     rOWNSltll'. 

Mere  one  Ihids  one  of  the  richest  sections  for  soil  of  producing  qnalities 
to  be  found  in  Monroe  connty.  There  is  more  loam  in  the  soil  than  is 
usnally  found  in  any  Indian,!  connty.  Indian  creek  and  Clear  creek  water  and 
drain  this  tmvnshii).  ('hester  sandsttMie  appears  at  the  sm-face,  and 
consists  of  gra\-  and  light  red  colored  laminated  stone,  irregularly  imbedded. 
The  iron  deposit  on  section  (»  and  |)arts  of  7  is  unusually  rich  and  heavy,  yet 
hardly  rich  enough  to  vviM'k,  when  there  are  bettei-  mines  to  from.  The 
main  stone  of  the  township  lies  next  nnilerneath  the  sandstone  and  belongs 

I.AWKKNCK    ANP    MDNKOK    COl   N  IIFS.    INHIANA.  J  1 0 

to  llic  I'pivr  Si.    l.ouis  group  oi"  linu-stono.  lliorc  Ih-iul;  a  total  ot"  sixty  six 

foct.     r.oth  saiul  aiul  liiucstouc  arc  t'ouuil  Iuto  in  j^iA-ai  quaiiiiiii-s.  I'lu-  iron 

luriiislu-s    tlio    sprinj^^s   oi    litis   siA-tioii    of    Monroe    wilh    pU-nis    ol  oxci'lK-nt 
blooil  lonii.-. 

CiavAK     OKl-l-K      low  N  still'. 

'riiis,  ai^ricultuiallN  spcaknii;,  is  oiu-,  it'  not  ilio  Ik-si,  t'or  mMicial  use  in 
Monrot.'  county.  It  lias  an  alniiulaiui'  ot  low  laiuls  and  lies  eliu'll\  ni  ilu- 
forks  of  Clear  aiul  Salt  creeks.  The  soil  is  exeelleni  lor  all  kinds  ol'  eiops 
grown  in  this  latitude.  Tlie  geoloi^ical  tonnation  is  re\ealed  in  ipianies 
along-  the  old  .\e\\  All.anv  railway  n-lil-ol  w  av,  \t  llanodslMir-  die  ele 
vation  is  510  t'eel  al»o\e  >ea  lexel,  and  at  .^iimln  ille.  710  t'eet.  X'oriliwesl 
of  BkH)ininglon,  the  iii^hesi  ele\ation  i--  SS ;  ieet.  Near  Snnllnille  the 
Keokuk  group  laps  onto  the  knohstone  -^lrata.  Wondeit'iil  gcologicil  speei 
mens  are  taken  Iroiu  this  section  oi  ilie  coiint\.  \  snip  alonu;  the  west  side 
oi  this  township  is  co\ered  with  the  Si.  1  oiiis  liiiiestone.  Hence  the  town- 
ship has  three  distinct  strata  oi  sione.  all  excellciu   ,iiid  woikahlc, 

w  \siii  xo  rox    row  xsii  ir.  ■         . 

Here  one  originalh  toiind  exeelleni  l;iowi1i  ot'  linihei.  iiincli  ol'  which, 
with  passing  years,  has  heen  ntili/ed  l>\  the  niiineroiis  nulls.  The  surt'ace 
rocks  oi  the  townsliii>  helong  lo  the  knohstone  and  Ixeoknk  groups.  There 
are  faint  traces  of  the  action  t^i  the  glaciers. 

i:r  X  rox    low  xsu  ir. 

'Tins  pan  ol'  Moiiioe  coiint\  is,  generalh  speaking,  longli  j.iid  sion\, 
with  iiKin\-  sleeji  lulls  and  iiiige  hlufls.  .md  is  ciU  l)\  iiiinieroiis  r.i\  iiies,  wlieie 
small  streams  oi  pure  water  liiul  llieir  cool  heds.  i,'Ia\  is  loo  coniinon  lo 
make  it  a  lirst-class  piodiicing  township;  e\  en  on  the  lower  lands  this  holds 
true,  ^'et  within  the  township  max  he  seen  a  goodix  niimher  ni  line  piodnc 
ing  farms,  well  kept  and  paying.  It  is  heller  adapted  to  gra.^mg.  (\oo:\  stone 
is  found  here,  as  nearl\-  e\ei\  place  in  the  county  the  home  ol  siipciior 
stone  for  conimercial  and  hiiilding  purposes  Iraces  oi  more  s.iln.ihle  miiiei 
als,  such  as  copper,  gold  and  iron,  are  also  found,  hiil  iioi  m  pa\  iiig  tpiaii 



Here  there  is  much  good  soil,  but  it  is  scattered  here  and  there  in  small 
tracts.  The  lower  lands  and  slopes  are  best  for  farm  purposes.  Hill- 
side land  is  usually  found  the  best  for  cultivation.  The  higher  lands  are 
usually  seeded  down  to  profitable  pasture  grasses.  Good  springs  of  hard 
water  abound  everywhere,  while  in  the  western  portion  are  seen  fine  sulphur 
springs,  excellent  for  medicinal  uses.  An  abundance  of  good  stone  can  be 
had  easily.  Lime  was  manufactured  in  the  seventies  and  eighties  in  great 
amounts  in  this  township. 


This  portion  of  Monroe  county  is  generally  very  rough  in  its  topog- 
raphy, and  the  soil  none  the  best.  Other  portions  are  more  fertile  and 
rolling,  containing  numerous  springs  of  excellent  water,  with  a  soil  practi- 
cally inexhaustible.  Much  of  the  land  here,  owing  to  its  poor  grade,  was 
not  entered  from  the  government  until  the  seventies.  But  with  sturdy, 
scientific  work  the  domain  has  come  to  be  very  valuable  in  these  days  of  high- 
priced  lands. 


Some  of  the  finest,  most  valtiable  farms  in  the  county  are  to  be  viewed 
here.  It  is  generally  a  rolling  upland,  largely  of  a  clay,  while  along  the 
numerous  streams  there  may  be  seen  rich  alluvial  soil,  mingled  with  sand. 
The  best  source  of  wealth  in  early  years  was  the  fine  timber.  Fine  springs 
everywhere  are  the  rule  here.  They  are  pure  and  almost  ice  cold.  The  for- 
mation is  six  feet  of  clay,  seven  feet  of  dark  blue  limestone,  one  foot  of 
bluish  gray  clay,  and  five  feet  of  light  gray  Keokuk  limestone.  Near  Monroe's 
mills,  on  Hacker's  creek,  the  bed  and  banks  are  thickly  strewn  with  granite 
boulders.  A  mile  east  is  found  knobstone  one  hundred  feet  thick.  On 
Honey  creek  black  sandstone  (magnetic  iron  ore),  similar  to  the  gold-bearing 
sand  of  Bear  creek,  Brown  county,  may  be  seen.  Granite  boulders  strew 
the  ground.  Black  sand  containing  gold  deposits  is  found  in  Wolf  creek, 
which  rises  in  Brown  countv. 



It  IS  not  the  provinct;  of  this  work  to  treat  what  is  termed  the  Pre-his- 
toric  race,  who  possibly  inhabited  this  portion  of  the  country  long  years 
before  the  territory  was  held  by  the  North  American  Indian  tribes,  but  in 
compiling  the  annals  of  any  county,  in  any  state  in  this  Union,  it  is  of  inter- 
est to  the  reader  to  know  something  concerning  the  Indian  occupancy  of  the 
county,  or  group  of  counties,  to  be  written  about,  hence  the  following  brief 
account  of  the  tribes  who  once  held  as  their  own  the  lands  within  what  is 
now  Monroe  county,  Indiana. 

The  territory  now  comprising  Monroe  county  was  formerly  the  rightful 
property  of  the  Miamis.  The  same  is  also  true  of  all  Indiana,  for  at  the 
treaty  of  Greenville,  Ohio,  in  1795,  Little  Turtle,  or  Mish-e-ken-o-quah,  the 
head  chief  of  the  Miamis,  and  one  of  the  most  brainy  and  famous  Americans 
of  any  tribe  that  ever  lived,  stated  to  the  government  commissioners  that  the 
Miamis  formerly  owned  all  the  territory  a\  ithin  the  following  "bounds : 
From  Detroit  south  to  the  Scioto  river  and  down  the  same  to  the  Ohio. 
then  down  the  Ohio  to  the  mouth  of  the  Wabash,  thence  up  the  same  to  near 
Covington,  thence  north  to  Lake  Michigan,  thence  east  to  Detroit.  Soon 
after  the  war  of  the  Revolution,  the  efforts  to  colonize  the  lands  west  'of  the 
Atlantic  coast  were  so  extensive  and  persistent  that  the  natives  inhabiting 
those  regions  were  forced  back  into  the  wilderness  upon  the  territory  of 
their  western  brethren.,  and  thus  the  broad  domain  of  the  Miamis  was  in- 
vaded by  homeless  natives  of  various  trilies.  who  were  given  tracts  of  terri- 
tory upon  which  to  hunt  and  live.  At  what  time  the  Delawares.  Shawnees, 
Wyandots,  Pottawatomies,  Piankeshaws,  ^^'eas,  Kickapoos,  etc..  gained  a 
footing  upon  the  soil  of  Indiana  cannot  be  stated  for  a  certainty,  but  there 
seems  no  doubt  that  Little  Turtle  stated  the  truth  when  he  claimed  all  the 
lands  of  the  above  Ijounded  territory  as  the  former  domain  of  his  people, 
the  Miamis.  It  is  possil)le  that  some  of  the  trilies  named  above  (xxupied 
portions  of  Indiana  before  the  Revolutionary  war.  The  former  home  of  the 
Delaw'ares  was  on  the  Delaware  river,  and  later  in  western  Pennsylvania  and 
eastern  Ohio,  and  still  later  in  Indiana.     The  original  home  of  the  \V'yandots 


was  in  Canada  and  later  in  Michigan  and  northern  Ohio,  and  still  later  in 
southern  Indiana.  The  Shawnees  were  of  Southern  origin,  and  also  occu- 
pied a  section  of  country  on  the  Wabash  about  Lafayette.  The  Pottawat- 
omies  seem  to  ha\e  owned  territory  in  northern  Illinois,  southern  Wiscon- 
sin, and  to  have  gained  from  the  Miamis  at  some  early  period  by  invasion 
or  conquest  much  of  the  land  north  of  the  Wabash.  The  Weas,  Kickapoos, 
Piankeshaws  and  Paincashaws  seem  to  have  owned  lands  along  the  western 
boundary  of  the  state.  At  the  Fort  Wayne  treaty,  September  30,  1809,  the 
second  article  was  made  to  read  as  follows :  "The  Miamis  explicitly  ac- 
knowledge the  ecjual  rights  of  the  Delawares  with  themselves  to  the  country 
watered  by  the  White  river.  But  it  is  also  to  be  clearly  understood  that 
neither  party  shall  have  the  right  of  disposing  of  the  same  without  the  con- 
sent of  the  others,  and  any  improvements  which  shall  be  made  on  the  said 
lands  of  the  Delawares  or  their  friends,  the  Mohicans,  shall  be  theirs  forever." 
As  to  the  territory  of  Monroe  county,  it  seems  to  have  been  on  the 
boundary  line  l^etween  the  lands  of  the  Delawares  and  that  of  the  Pianke- 
shaws, so  tliat  it  was  the  home  and  hunting  ground  of  the  three  tribes  as 
well  as  the  Miamis. 


The  lands  now  composing  Monroe  county  were  not  obtained  from  the 
Indians  wholly  at  one  time.  The  old  Indian  boundary  which  extends  from 
near  Gosport  in  a  southeasterly  direction,  leaving  the  country  on  section  26, 
Benton  township,  divides  two  important  Indian  cessions.  The  territory  of 
Monroe  county  south  of  that  division  was  part  of  Harrison's  Purchase,  ob- 
tained from  the  Indians  by  the  treaty  of  Fort  Wayne,  September  30.  1809, 
and  all  of  Monroe  county  above  that  treaty  line  was  part  of  the  New  Pur- 
chase, obtained  from  the  Indians  by  the  treaty  at  St.  Mary's,  Ohio,  October 
2  to  6,  1 81 8.  As  Monroe  county  was  organized  before  the  last  named  treaty 
was  effected,  it  will  be  seen  that  all  the  present  county  north  of  the  Indian 
boundary  was  not  at  first  a  part  of  the  county.  The  exact  boundary  of  the 
countv  when  first  formed  will  lie  seen  from  the  act  creating  the  county, 
which  act  is  quoted  further  on  in  this  work. 


The  survey  of  lands  in  this  county,  south  of  the  Indian  boundary,  was 
executed  in  the  fall  of  181 2,  with  Arthur  Henrie  and  William  Harris  as 
government  surveyors.     All  that  portion  to  the  north  of  this  Indian  bound- 


ary  was  not  surveyed  until  1819  by  Thomas  Brown  and  J.  Hedges.  There 
was  no  land  thrown  open  to  the  public  until  18 16,  when  many  entries  were 
made.  None  were  entered  before  September,  181 6,  and  all  were  within 
what  is  now  styled  the  civil  townships  of  Clear  Creek,  Indian  Creek,  Van 
Buren,  Richland,  Bloomington  and  Bean  Blossom.  Several  tracts  were 
entered  by  speculators,  but,  generally  speaking,  the  land  was  taken  up  by 
actual  settlers,  or  by  those  who  at  once  sold  to  actual  settlers. 



January  14,  1818,  was  the  date  on  which  the  act  authorizmg  the  or- 
ganization of  Monroe  county  was  signed,  hence  from  that  day  and  date 
ah  legal  matters  within  the  county  must  conform  to  such  period,  for  it  was 
then  that  the  hrst  foundation  stones  of  a  civil  organization  were  laid  by  the 
General  Assembly  of  the  state  of  Indiana.     The  act  reads  as  follows : 

"An  Act  for  the  Formation  of  Monroe  County  Out  of  the  County  of 
Orange : 

"Section  1.  Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  state  of 
Indiana,  that  from  and  after  the  loth  day  of  April  next,  all  that  part  of  the 
county  of  Orange  enclosed  in  the  following  bounds  shall  form  and  constitute 
a  new  county :  Beginning  on  the  line  of  Orange  and  Jackson  counties  where 
the  line  dividing  townships  6  and  7  crosses  the  same;  thence  west  with 
the  last  mentioned  line  to  the  line  dividing  ranges  2  and  3  west  of  the  second 
principal  meridian ;  thence  north  with  said  range  line  to  the  Indian  bound- 
ary; thence  southeastwardly  with  the  said  boundary  line  of  Orange  and 
Jackson  counties ;  thence  south  with  the  same  to  the  beginning — to  be  known 
and  designated  l\v  the  name  and  style  of  Monroe.  And  the  said  county  of 
Monroe  shall  enjoy  all  of  the  rights,  privileges  and  jurisdictions  which  to 
separate  counties  do  or  may  properly  belong  or  appertain. 

"Section  2.  John  Penicks  and  Jonathan  Jones,  of  Orange  county; 
Daniel  Connor,  of  Daviess  county:  David  Fonts,  of  Washington  county, 
and  Samuel  Burcham,  of  Jackson  county,  be,  and  they  are  hereby  ap- 
pointed commissioners  for  the  purpose  of  fixing  the  permanent  seat  of  jus- 
tice in  Monroe  county,  agreeably  to  an  act  of  the  Assembly,  entitled  'An  act 
fixing  the  seat  oi  justice  in  all  new  counties  hereafter  laid  ofif."  The  com- 
missioners aliove  named  shall  convene  at  the  house  of  Abner  Blair,  of  the 
said  new  county,  on  the  first  Monday  of  .April  next,  and  then  proceed  to  dis- 
charge the  duties  assigned  them  by  law. 

"Section  3.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  sheriff  of  the  said  new  county 
to  notify  the  above  named  commissioners,  either  in  person  or  in  writing, 
of  their  said  appointment  and  of  the  time  and  place  at  which  they  are  re- 


quired  by  this  act  to  meet,  at  least  six  days  previous  to  the  day  appointed 
for  their  meeting,  and  the  said  sheriff  shall  be  allowed  a  reasonable  com- 
pensation for  his  services  out  of  the  hrst  money  in  the  treasury  of  the  said 
county  of  Monroe  to  be  paid  as  the  county  claims  usually  are. 

"Section  4.  The  board  of  county  comnnssioners  of  said  new  county 
shall,  within  twelve  months  alter  the  permanent  seat  of  justice  shall  have 
been  established,  proceed  to  erect  the  necessary  public  buildings  thereon. 

"Section  5.  Until  suitable  accunimodations  can  be  had  (in  the  opinion 
of  the  circuit  courtj  at  the  seat  of  justice  for  said  county,  all  the  courts 
which  by  law  become  necessary  to  be  held  at  the  county  seat  shall  be  holden 
at  the  house  of  Abner  Blair  aforesaid,  or  at  any  other  place  in  the  same 
neighborhood  to  which  the  circuit  court  may,  for  the  purpose  of  getting 
better  accommodations,  think  proper  to  adjourn  to,  after  which  time  the 
said  courts  shall  be  adjourned  to  the  seat  of  justice  established  as  aforesaid. 

"Section  6.  The  agent  to  be  appointed  for  the  county  of  Monroe  shall 
reserve  m  his  hands  ten  per  centum  out  of  the  net  proceeds  of  the  sales  of 
lots,  which  may  be  made  at  the  seat  of  justice  of  said  county  for  the  use  of  a 
county  library,  which  sum,  or  sums,  of  money  so  reserved  shall  be  paid  by 
said  agent  or  his  successor  m  office  over  to  such  person  or  persons  as  may 
be  authorized  to  receive  the  same,  in  such  manner  and  \\  ith  such  install- 
ments as  may  be  directed  by  law.  This  act  to  take  effect  from  and  after  its 
publication  in  print."     (Approved  January  14,  181 8.) 

The  first  election  for  the  newly  created  county  was  held  under  super- 
vision of  the  sheriff  who  had  been  appointed,  in  the  person  of  John  W. 
Lee,  commissioned  by  the  governor  of  Indiana.  This  election  took  place  in 
1818,  but  no  records  were  preserved  permanently,  hence  details  cannot  be 
here  made  use  of,  interesting  though  such  records  might  be.  It  is  known 
that  at  this  first  election  the  following  officials  were  elected :  Bartlett  Wood- 
ward. Michael  Buskirk  and  James  Parks,  county  commissioners ;  William 
Love,  county  clerk;  he  was  also  auditor;  Chesley  Bailey,  recorder;  Joseph 
Berry  and  Lewis  Noel,  associate  judges. 

The  first  "court  house"  was  the  residence  of  Abner  Blair,  but  Bloom- 
ington  was  immediately  laid  out  as  the  county  seat  and  a  log  court  house 
was  soon  erected.  The  county  seat  locating  commissioners,  appointed  by  the 
governor  and  Legislature,  met  and  deliberated,  and  finally  submitted  the 
following  report  of  their  work  to  the  first  county  board  of  commissioners : 

"To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Commissioners  for  the  County  of  Monroe: 
We,  the  undersigned  commissioners,  appointed  by  the  act  of  the  last  Gen- 



eral  Assembly,  for  fixing  the  permanent  seat  of  justice  in  and  for  said 
county,  having  met  agreeable  to  the  above  recited  act,  and  after  being  duly 
sworn,  proceeded  to  business  as  the  law  directs  in  such  cases,  to  receive  dona- 
tions from  persons  offering  lands  to  fix  the  county  seat  on.  and  after  exam- 
ining the  same  and  taking  into  contemplation  the  future  as  well  as  the 
present  weight  of  the  population,  together  with  additions  and  divisions  that 
may  take  place  hereafter,  do  agree  that  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  33, 
in  range  i  west,  township  9  north,  is  the  most  eligible  and  convenient  place 
for  the  permanent  seat  of  justice  for  said  county,  and  have  accordingly 
purchased  the  same  of  D.  Rogers,  at  one  thousand  two  hundred  dollars;  also 
have  purchased  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres  out  of  the  northeast  quarter  of 
section  32.  of  Robertson  Graham,  for  nine  hundred  dollars,  in  the  same 
range  and  township  above  mentioned,  the  said  Robertson  Graham  reserving 
the  balance  of  the  above  described  quarter  section  of  land  to  himself  in 
the  northeast  corner  of  said  quarter  section  of  land,  beginning  at  the  north- 
east corner  and  running  south  twenty  poles,  thence  west  eighty  poles, 
thence  north  twenty  poles,  containing  ten  acres. 

"Given  under  our  hands  and  seals  this  irth  day  of  April.  1818. 

"David  Fouts, 
"Samuel   Burcham, 
''Jonathan  Jones, 
"John  Perkins, 

"Locating  Commissioners." 

formation  of  townships. 

At  the  first  session  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  the  following 
townships  were  laid  off  as  civil  sub-divisions  of  Monroe  county  : 

Bloomington  Township.— Beginning  at  the  corner  of  sections  18  and 
19.  where  they  intersect  the  line  dividing  ranges  t  and  2  west:  thence  north 
on  said  range  line  to  the  boundary  line;  thence  southeast  with  said  line  to 
where  the  Jackson  line  intersects  the  same ;  thence  south  of  the  Jackson  line 
to  the  middle  of  fractional  township  8;  thence  through  the  middle  of  town- 
ship 8  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

Bean  Blossom  Township. — Beginning  at  the  line  dividing  ranges  i  and 
2  west,  at  the  corners  of  sections  13  and  14.  where  they  intersect  the  same; 
thence  north  on  said  line  to  the  boundary  line;  thence  northwest  on  the 
boundary'  line  to  the  northwest  corner  of  Monroe  countv ;  thence  south  on 


the  Daviess  county  line  to  the  middle  of  township   8;  thence  through  the 
middle  of  the  township  to  place  of  beginning. 

Indian  Creek  Township. — Beginning  at  the  corner  of  Bean  Blossom 
and  Bloomington  townships,  on  the  line  dividing  ranges  i  and  2  west; 
thence  south  on  said  line  to  the  line  uf  Lawrence  county;  thence  west  on 
said  line  to  where  it  intersects  the  county  line  of  Daviess ;  thence  north  on 
said  line  to  the  corner  of  Bean  Blossom  township;  thence  on  the  line  of  the 
last  mentioned  township  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

Clear  Creek  Township. — Beginning  at  the  corners  of  the  townships  in- 
terlocked on  the  line  dividing  ranges  i  and  2  west;  thence  south  on  said 
line  to  the  countv  line  uf  Lawrence ;  thence  north  on  said  line  to  the  place 
of  beginning. 

Granville  Ward  was  appointed  inspector  of  elections  in  Bloomington 
township :  John  Cutler,  in  Bean  Blossom  township ;  James  Trotter,  in  In- 
dian Creek  township,  and  John  Storm,  in  Clear  Creek  township.  Elections 
were  held  in  the  townships  just  enumerated  on  May  9  for  two  justices  of  the 
peace  in  each,  the  elections  ordered  to  be  held  at  the  following  places :  In 
Bloomington  township,  at  the  house  of  David  Rogers ;  in  Bean  Blossom 
township,  at  the  house  of  Coleman  Peets :  in  Indian  Creek  township,  at  the 
house  of  John  Berry;  in  Clear  Creek  township,  at  the  house  of  Thomas 
Graham.     The  above  were  Monroe  county's  original  tow^nships. 

Lamb  township  was  organized  in  May.  1821.  in  the  New^  Purchase.  Its 
bounds  were  fixed  thus :  Beginning  at  the  old  Indian  lx)undary  line,  where 
the  line  of  township  10  intersects  the  same;  thence  east  on  the  line  of  town- 
ship 10  until  it  intersects  the  meridian  line;  thence  north  with  said  line  to 
the  southeast  corner  of  township  13;  thence  west  on  the  line  between  town- 
ships 12  and  13  until  it  intersects  the  said  boundary  line:  thence  to  the  be- 
ginning. Subsequently,  this  tow-nship  composed  the  southwestern  portion 
of  Morgan  county,  and  derived  its  name  from  old  Mr.  Lamb,  who  settled 
in  Lamb's  Bottoms,  that  county,  in  18 19.  before  it  was  a  county.  At  the 
same  date  Walnut  Creek  township  was  created  or  erected,  as  the  record  has 
it.  Its  bounds  were  fixed  thus :  Beginning  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Lamb 
township  on  the  meridian  line;  thence  north  on  said  line  to  the  northwest 
corner  of  township  15  north;  thence  west  on  the  line  dividing  townships  15 
and  16  until  it  intersects  the  boundary  line;  thence  southeast  on  said  bound- 
ary line  until  it  intersects  the  line  of  Lamb  township.  This  town.ship  com- 
posed the  northwest  portion  of  Morgan  county. 

At  the  same  session  of  the  commissioners'  board,   Raccoon  township 


was  created  and  was  given  the  following  bounds :  All  of  Wabash  county 
north  of  Walnut  Creek  township.  The  Legislature  had  attached  all  this 
territoiy  to  Monroe  county.  Reuben  Fullen  was  appointed  inspector  for 
Lamb  township  and  Samuel  Rogers  the  same  for  Walnut  Creek  township. 

March  i,  1825,  it  was  ordered  that  "'a  township  be  laid  off  in  the  north- 
east corner  of  the  county,  to  be  known  by  the  name  of  Jackson,  and  desig- 
nated by  the  following  bounds,  to-wit :  Beginning  at  the  northeast  corner 
of  said  county,  thence  west  eight  miles  to  the  meridian  line;  thence  south 
to  the  line  dividing  townships  8  and  9,  thence  east  eight  miles  to  the  county 
line;  thence  north  on  said  line  to  the  beginning." 

The  election  was  held  the  last  Saturday  in  April,  1825,  at  the  house  of 
Banner  Brummett.  Then  a  strip  on  the  west  side  of  Brown  county,  three 
miles  in  width,  was  a  part  of  Monroe  county. 

In  May,  1825,  Salt  Creek  township  -wsls  created.  It  began  at  the  south- 
east corner  of  Monroe  county ;  thence  west  to  where  the  meridian  line  inter- 
sects the  same ;  thence  north  on  the  meridian  line  to  where  the  comer  of 
townships  8  and  9  intersects  the  same;  thence  east  on  the  line  dividing  said 
townships  8  and  9  to  wliere  the  same  intersects  the  county  line ;  thence  south 
on  said  line  to  place  of  beginning.  Elections  were  held  at  the  house  of 
Boston  Bails.  John  Pollard  and  Ezekiel  Hendricks  were  appointed  fence 
viewers,  and  George  Todd  and  Solomon  Butcher,  overseers  of  the  poor. 


In  July,  1828,  it  was  ordered  that  all  the  territory  attached  to  Monroe 
county  (on  the  east),  by  an  act  of  the  Legislature  of  1827-28,  should  be  at- 
tached to  the  townships  of  Salt  Creek  and  Jackson,  as  follows :  Beginning  at  a 
point  on  the  line  dividing  townships  7  and  8,  range  3  east,  where  the  line  divid- 
ing sections  31  and  32  intersect  the  same;  thence  north  to  the  line  dividing 
townships  8  and  9 ;  thence  west  to  the  former  county  line  on  Monroe  county ; 
thence  south  to  the  line  dividing  townships  7  and  8;  thence  east  to  the  place 
of  beginning — such  territory  to  form  a  part  of  Salt  Creek  township.  Also, 
beginning  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Salt  Creek  township,  as  above  en- 
larged; thence  north  to  the  line  dividing  Johnson  and  Bartholomew  coun- 
ties ;  thence  west  to  the  northeast  corner  of  Monroe  county ;  thence  south  to 
the  northern  boundary  of  Salt  Creek  township,  thence  east  to  place  of  be- 
ginning. Such  territory  was  to  form  a  part  of  Jackson  township.  The  ter- 
ritory thus  attached  to  Salt  Creek  and  Jackson ,  townships  now  constitutes 
much  of  the  western  half  of  the  present  county  of  Brown. 


Two  new  townships  were  erected  in  Monroe  county  in  July,  1829,  as 
follows : 

Washington  Township.^ — Beginning  at  a  point  on  the  meridian  line  be- 
tween townships  lo  and  ii  north;  thence  west  with  said  line  dividing  town- 
ships ID  and  II  aforesaid  to  the  line  dividing  ranges  i  and  2  aforesaid  to 
Bean  Blossom  creek;  thence  in  an  eastern  direction  with  said  creek  to  the 
meridian  line;  thence  north  with  said  line  to  place  of  beginning. 

Richland  township  (the  other  newly  made). — Beginning  at  a  point 
where  the  line  dividing  ranges  i  and  2  west  intersects  the  line  dividing  town- 
ships 9  and  10  north;  thence  west  with  said  line  last  mentioned  to  the  Owen 
connty  line;  thence  south  with  said  last-mentioned  line  to  a  point  where  the 
line  dividing  sections  18  and  19,  in  township  8  north,  range  2  west,  inter- 
sects the  same;  thence  with  said  line  last  mentioned  to  the  range  line  between 
ranges  i  and  2  west ;  thence  with  said  range  line  to  place  of  beginning. 

At  the  January,  1830.  meeting  of  the  commissioners"  board,  it  was 
ordered  "That  all  territory  attached  by  legislative  enactment  to  the  county 
of  Monroe  subsequent  to  the  original  formation  of  townships  therein  be  and 
is  hereby  attached  to  and  included  and  shallcompose  parts  of  .said  townships 
in  the  following  manner :  By  extending  the  boundary  lines  of  the  town- 
ships which  run  in  a  direction  perpendicular  to  the  county  boundary  entirely 
thereto,  and  thereby  attaching  to  the  respective  townships  all  such  territory 
as  lies  adjoining  thereto." 

By  petition  of  seventy-five  citizens,  the  townships  of  Perry  was  formed 
in  May.  1830.  Its  boundaries  were  fixed  as:  Beginning  at  the  line  dividing 
sections  12  and  13,  township  8  north,  range  i  west;  thence  west  along  said 
line  to  the  west  line  of  said  township  8  north,  range  i  west ;  thence  south  to 
the  line  dividing  sections  6  and  7.  township  7.  range  i  west :  thence  east  on 
.said  line  of  .said  township  to  place  of  beginning.  An  election  was  held  at 
the  old  Clearwater  place  at  the  home  of  Benjamin  Kenton. 

In  May,  1833,  on  petition  of  Jacob  Romans  and  others,  Jackson  town- 
ship was  divided  and  Benton  township  was  organized  from  a  part  thereof  as 
follows :  Jackson  to  be  divided  into  two  portions  by  the  line  dividing  ranges 
I  and  2  east,  the  eastern  portion  to  retain  the  name  of  Jackson  and  the  west- 
ern portion  to  be  known  as  Benton  township,  in  honor  of  Thomas  H.  Benton. 
United  States  senator  from  Missouri. 

Van  Bnren  township  was  formed  in  ^larch.  1837,  and  was  to  comprise 
all  and  no  more  than  congressional  township  8  north,  range  2  west. 

Salt  Creek  township  was  divided  in  September.    1840.  and  Polk  town- 


^ship  created  as  follows:  Commencing  in  the  bed  of  Salt  creek  on  the  line 
dividing  township  7,  range  i  west  and  range  i  east ;  thence  due  south  on  said 
township  line  to  the  count}-  line ;  thence  due  east  to  the  southeast  corner  of 
the  county;  thence  north  on  the  county  line  to  Muddy  Fork  or  Salt  creek, 
or  where  the  same  crosses  the  county  line ;  thence  down  said  stream  to  the 
main  Salt  creek;  thence  down  said  stream  to  place  of  beginning.  An  elec- 
tion was  ordered  held  at  the  house  of  John  Todd,  at  Big  Springs,  with 
Peter  Norman  as  inspector. 


By  legislative  act,  dated  December  31,  1821,  all  of  Monroe  county- 
lying  west  of  White  river  was  attached  to  Owen.  The  second  section  of  this 
act  reads  as  follows ;  "All  that  part  of  Monroe  county  lying  west  of  the 
White  river  be  and  the  same  is  hereby  attached  to  Owen  county,  and  that  all 
suits,  pleas,  plaints,  actions  and  prosecutions  whatsoever  shall  be  conducted 
in  the  same  manner  as  if  no  change  had  taken  place."  Section  3  of  this  act 
reads  as  follows:  "So  much  of  the  New  Purchase  as  is  contained  in  the 
following  boundary,  to-wit:  Beginning  on  \A'hite  river  where  the  line  divid- 
ing the  townships  10  and  11  north  crosses  the  same;  thence  east  with  said 
line  to  the  corners  of  sections  4  and  5,  township  10  north,  range  2  east; 
thence  south  to  the  Monroe  county  line,  shall  form  and  constitute  a  part  of 
Monroe  county."  Jt  will  be  observed  that  this  section  attached  to  the  county 
all  of  the  present  county  north  of  the  old  Indian  boundary,  together  with  a 
strip  three  miles  wide  no\\-  a  part  of  Brown  county.  By  an  act  of  the  Legis- 
lature approved  January  16,  1828,  the  following  territory  was  attached  to 
Monroe  county :  Beginning  at  a  point  on  the  line  dividing  townships  7  and  8, 
where  the  line  dividing  sections  31  and  32  intersect  the  same;  thence  north 
with  the  last  mentioned  line  to  the  line  dividing  the  counties  of  Johnson  and 
Bartholomew ;  thence  west  with  said  line  to  the  northeast  corner  of  Monroe 
county ;  thence  south  to  the  line  dividing  townships  7  and  8 ;  thence  east  with 
the  last  mentioned  line  to  the  place  of  beginning." 



The  Statement  of  old  Colonel  Ketchum,  who  settled  in  the  northwest 
corner  of  Clear  Creek  township  in  1817,  shows  that  he  believed  the  first  white 
settler  within  Monroe  county  to  have  been  David  McHolland.  Mr.  Mc- 
Holland's  wife,  who  was  still  living,  at  a  very  advanced  age,  in  the  eighties, 
says  her  husband  came  to  the  county  when  Indiana  was  yet  a  territory,  in 
1 81 5.  Mr.  Ketchum,  just  mentioned,  came  two  years  later  and  was  well 
acquainted  with  the  tirst  settler,  as  it  appears  from  many  incidents.  Of 
course  prior  to  the  settlement  of  David  McHolland,  there  had  been  transient 
hunters  and  trappers,  but,  so  far  as  is  known,  no  white  family  had  ever  be- 
fore invaded  this  county  for  the  purpose  of  making  permanent  settlement. 
He  was  also  a  famous  hunter  and  it  is  said  supported  his  little  family  chiefly 
with  his  trusty  rifle.  He  killed  many  bears  at  different  points  within  what 
is  now  Monroe  county,  often  under  great  difiiculty  and  personal  danger. 
His  wife  was  frequently  heard  to  boast  of  baking  the  first  corn  pone  in  Mon- 
roe county,  and  doubtless  she  was  correct.  The  McHoUands  cultivated  a 
few  acres  of  land  in  Clear  Creek  township  upon  which  they  squatted,  and 
after  a  few  years  weflt  to  the  northwestern  part  of  the  county,  where  they 
continued  to  reside  many  years. 

Settler  number  two  has  slipped  from  the  records  and  from  the  memory 
of  anyone  now  living  here.  Bartlett  Woodward  came  to  Clear  Creek  town- 
ship in  1 816  and  entered  a  large  amount  of  go\ernment  land.  He  built  a 
log  house  for  himself  and  family.  He  reported  several  families  as  being  in 
Clear  Creek  township  when  he  came.  Pioneer  Woodward  was  a  prominent 
citizen  and  was  elected  one  of  the  county  commissioners  in  1818. 

Colonel  Ketchum  built  a  grist  mill  on  Clear  creek  as  early  as  18 18,  which 
was  for  many  years  famous  in  all  the  surrounding  scope  of  country.  Other 
mills  were  Greene's  and  Chambers'  and  Shirley's,  each  being  waterpower 
mills.  The  Taylors  sent  the  first  fiat-boat  loaded  with  pork  and  grain  down 
the  stream  of  either  Clear  or  Salt  creeks  from  Monroe  county. 

By  the  time  of  the  first  land  sales  in  the  county,  there  had  come  to  what 
is   now    Bloomington    township    more    than    a    dozen    families.      During   the 


first  four  years  after  the  land  sale  in  181 6,  the  persons  who  entered  land 
were  inclusive  of  these:  David  Rogers,  section  33,  in  1816;  Joseph  Taylor, 
section  33,  1816;  George  Ritchey,  section  t,t..  1816;  George  Hendrick,  sec- 
tion 33,  1816:  John  Ketchum,  section  6,  181 6;  Henry  Wampler,  section  6, 
1816;  Adam  Bower,  section  (),  181 6;  Thomas  Smith,  section  7,  1816;  William 
Julian,  section  7,  1816;  William  J.  Adair,  section  7,  1816;  John  Griffith,  sec- 
tion 15,  1817:  James  Matlock,  section  18,  1817:  James  Wood,  section  19, 
1817;  John  Buskirk,  section  25,  1817;  William  Goodwin,  section  13.  1818; 
Thomas  Barker,  section  19,  1818;  Abraham  Buskirk,  section  24,  1818; 
Stephen  P.  Seal'ls,  section  26,  1818;  George  Whisenand,  section  6.  1820; 
Thomas  Hardy,  section  24,  1821.  These  and  a  few  more  were  the  only 
ones  who  entered  lands  in  Bloomington  township  before  1822. 

In  Bean  Blossom  township  the  first  settler  is  not  now  fully  known, 
but  certain  it  is  that  John  Fullen  and  Nathaniel  Gilbert  located  in  1816. 
Other  early  settlers  of  the  county  are  given  as  from  this  township,  in  the 
township  history  in  this  volume. 

In  Richland,  township,  many  land  entries  were  made  in  1816,  and  it  is 
usually  believed  that  the  first  family  to  locate  permanently  was  that  of  Will- 
iam Edmunson,  near  Ellettsville,  where  he  built  a  small  log  cabin.  It  is 
not  believed  that  he  was  a  land  owner  at  that  date — simply  a  squatter.  Later 
he  bought  his  claim  from  George  Cutler  on  section  9. 

In  1S15  there  were  a  few  white  settlers  in  what  is  now  Van  Buren  town- 
ship, but  just  who  is  entitled  to  first  place  among  the  pioneer  band  is  now 
unknown.     The  chief  settlement  and  land  entries  here  were  made  in  1816. 

In  Indian  Creek  township  the  first  settlers  were  the  Lambs  and  Walkers. 
The  first  settlers  were  scattered  here  and  there  throughout  the  entire  town- 
ship, living  in  rude  log  huts,  many  miles  apart,  though  all  did  their  part  to- 
ward developing  the  country. 

In  Clear  Creek  township,  the  first  settler  was  also  the  first  in  the  county, 
as  before  stated — David  McHolland.  who  came  in  1815. 

In  Washington  township  the  first  to  enter  land  and  effect  his  settlement 
was  James  Bennington,  who  entered  at  the  land  office  at  Vincerines,  Septem- 
ber 12.  1817.  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  30,  township  to  north,  range 
I  west.      The  next  settler  was  John  Patterson  in  1823,  on  section  31. 

In  Benton  township  the  first  land  entry  was  made  by  Elisha  Pollard,  on 
section  34,  September  27,  1822. 

In  Salt  Creek  township,  Moses  Williams  purchased  the  first  land  on 
Se])tember  9,  1817,  in  section  7. 


In  Polk  township  the  first  to  enter  land  was  Elijah  Elliott,  who  iDought 
ninety  odd  (fractional)  acres  in  congressional  township  7  north,  range  1 
east,  on  section  4. 

In  ^Marion  township,  the  first  to  enter  land  was  Osborn  &  Brown, 
merchants,  who  claimed  land  on  section  6,  but  not  with  the  view  of  becoming 
actual  settlers.  This  was  in  1823.  This  township  was  among  the  last  to 
be  settled. 

The  various  township  histories,  found  elsewhere  in  this  work,  will  give 
more  in  detail  of  the  settlement  of  the  county,  hence  need  not  here  be  men- 
tioned further.  This  county  has  been  settled  almost  one  hundred  years,  and 
has  made  a  wonderful  history  and  its  development  will  rank  high  among 
the  sister  sub-divisions  of  the  great  state  of  Indiana. 



After  the  organization  of  Monroe  county,  the  locating  of  the  county  seat 
at  Bloomington,  by  the  locating  commissioners  appointed  by  the  governor 
of  Indiana,  and  the  holding  of  the  original  general  election,  at  which  officers, 
including  the  first  board  of  county  commissioners,  were  chosen,  the  real 
machinery  of  the  county  government  commenced  to  do  active  service.  The 
first  meeting  of  the  first  board  was  held  at  the  house  of  Abner  Blair  on  April 
lo,  1818.  The  board  consisted  of  Bartlett  Woodward,  Michael  Buskirk  and 
James  Parks.  The  time  which  each  was  to  serve  was  determined  by  the 
number  of  votes  each  had  received  when  elected — a  very  fair  manner  of  dis- 
posing of  such  choice,  instead  of  drawing  lots,  as  is  the  usual  modern-day 
process  for  choice  of  long  and  short  terms.  Mr.  Woodward  received  the 
highest  number  of  votes  and  hence  served  three  years;  Mr.  Buskirk  had  the 
next  highest  number  and  served  two  years ;  Mr.  Peck,  having  the  lowest  num- 
ber of  votes,  received  the  shortest  term,  or  one  year  as  member  of  the  county 

The  first  official  act  of  the  newly  elected  board  was  the  appointment  of 
William  Lowe  as  county  clerk,  pro  tempore,  and  the  second  was  the  appoint- 
ment of  Capt.  James  Bigger  as  lister  or  assessor  of  the  county  for  the  year 
1818,  his  bond  being  fixed  at  one  thousand  five  hundred  dollars.  Roderick 
Rawlings  was  then  appointed  by  the  commissioners  as  county  treasurer,  and 
he  was  required  to  put  up  bonds  in  the  sum  of  twenty  thousand  dollars. 

The  second  day  of  the  board's  meeting,  they  adopted  a  county  seal, 
which  was  only  intended  to  be  temporary,  and  was  simply  a  scrawl  enclosing 
the  words  "Temporary  Seal  of  Monroe  County." 

William  Milliken  was  appointed  superintendent  of  the  sixteenth  section 
(school  section)  in  township  10  north,  range  2  west;  George  Parks  the  same 
in  township  8  north,  range  2  west;  John  Storm,  the  same  in  township  7 
north,  range  i  west :  William  Matlock,  the  same  in  township  9  north,  range 
I  west. 

Benjamin  Parks  was  appointed  county  agent,  with  bond  fixed  at  twenty 
thousand  dollars.     By  order  of  the  board,  the  county  seat  was  to  be  styled 


and  known  as  "Bloomington."  The  locating  commissioners,  who  had  served 
by  appointment  of  the  governor,  were  allowed  the  sum  of  thirty-three  dollars 
to  David  Fonts;  thirty  dollars  to  John  Pernicks ;  thirty  dollars  to  Jonathan 
Jones;  thirty  dollars  to  Samuel  Burcham. 

The  first  road  petition  in  the  county  was  headed  by  William  Hardin, 
and  the  highway  sought  was  to  extend  from  Bloomington  to  Scott's  Ferry 
on  Salt  creek,  and  thence  on  to  the  Lawrence  county  line.  The  viewers  ap- 
pointed were  William  Jackson,  John  Scott  and  William  Craig.  This  wagon 
road  was  ordered  constructed  and  was  the  first  wholly  built  by  Monroe 

The  town  of  Bloomington  was  then  ordered  to  be  surveyed  and  laid  off 
into  lots,  the  whole  matter  being  left  in  the  hands  of  the  county  agent. 

On  the  third  day  of  the  first  session  of  the  board  of  county  commis- 
sioners, a  log  house  was  ordered  constructed  known  as  a  "double-log  house," 
which  was  to  be  used  as  a  court  house,  and  it  was  specified  that  it  was  only 
for  temporary  use. 

The  board  also,  on  the  third  day  of  its  first  session,  selected  the  first 
grand  jury  of  Monroe  county,  which  was  composed  of  the  following  gentle- 
men:  Dudley  Carl,  William  Chambers,  David  Chambers,  John  Scott,  John 
Mercer,  Thomas  Grimes,  John  Berry,  William  Newcomb,  Jesse  Tarkington, 
Solomon  Green,  Jonathan  Nichols,  George  Sharp,  William  Millikan,  George 
Parks,  Sr.,  Coleman  Puitt,  Eli  Lee,  William  Hadin  and  Henry  Wampler. 

The  sheriff  in  attendance,  John  W.  Lee,  was  ordered  to  notify  these 
grand  jurymen  to  meet  for  action  at  the  house  of  Abner  Blair.  The  traverse 
jury  was  then  selected  as  follows :  William  Matlock,  George  Burdrick, 
John  Thompson.  Samuel  Scott,  Thomas  Clark,  Jonathan  Rains,  John  Storm, 
Jr.,  John  Couch,  John  Matlock,  John  Cutler,  Joseph  Peeshaw,  David  Sears, 
Elijah  Morgan,  James  Wright  and  James  Matlock. 

Jonathan  Rogers,  Robert  Russell  and  Samuel  Scott  were  appointed  first 
road  supervisors.  John  W.  Lee,  sheriff,  was  paid  eighteen  dollars  for  notify- 
ing the  locating  commissioners  of  their  appointment,  and  was  also  allowed 
seven  dollars  for  making  returns  of  the  first  election  held  in  the  cnunty. 


A  full  report  of  the  sale  of  town  lots  in  the  newly  located  seat  of  justice 
will  be  found  in  the  chapter  on  the  township  and  cit\  of  Bloomington.  In 
passing  it  may  be  said,  however,  that  the  monev  recei\e(l  from  the  lot  sales 


was  the  chief  source  of  revenue  to  the  county  for  a  number  of  years.  From 
the  start  the  county  board  were  compelled  to  issue  warrants  or  orders  at  a 
discount,  which  were  later  ordered  received  for  county  dues.  Wild-cat  bank 
issues  were  the  only  paper  money  then,  and  almost  every  report  of  the 
treasurer  of  the  county  exhibits  an  entry  of  certain  def>reciation  on  the  bank 
bills  in  possession  of  the  county.  A  holder  of  a  "bank  note"  those  days  was 
not  sure  in  the  morning  that  it  was  worth  anywhere  near  as  much  as  the  night 
before.  The  contrast  with  today  is  indeed  marked — now  every  bill,  and 
every  coin,  whether  copper,  silver  or  gold,  is  worth  what  it  carries  in  denom- 
ination upon  its  face. 


When  the  county  was  first  organized  the  rate  of  taxes  on  various  ar- 
ticles was  as  follows:  On  each  horse,  thirty-seven  and  a  half  cents;  on  each 
hundred  acres  of  first  class  land,  fifty  cents;  on  each  hundred  acres  of  second 
class  land,  forty  cents;  on  each  hundred  acres  of  third  class  land,  twenty-five 
cents;  and  many  other  items  in  like  proportion. 

The  license  fixed  on  tavern  keepers  in  February,  1819.  was  seven  dollars 
and  fifty  cents  in  Bloomington  and  five  dollars  in  the  country.  The  board 
also  fixed  the  charges  of  tavern  keepers  (a  thing  that  now  might  be  considered 
"unconstitutional"  by  landlords)  which  run  thus:  For  breakfast,  twenty-five 
cents;  for  dinner,  twenty-five  cents;  for  supper,  eighteen  and  three-fourths 
cents ;  lodging,  six  and  one-fourth  cents ;  corn  or  oats,  per  gallon,  twelve  and 
a  half  cents;  horse  at  fodder  or  hay,  twenty-five  cents;  one  half  pint  of 
whisky,  twelve  and  a  half  cents;  same  quantity  of  brandy,  eighteen  and 
three-fourths  cents;  one  half  pint  of  French  brandy,  thirty-seven  and  one- 
half  cents ;  same  amount  of  wine,  same  price. 

In  the  summer  of  1820  County  Agent  Benjamin  Parks  reported  the  total 
sales  and  rents  of  town  lots  and  other  donated  lands  amounted  to  the  sum 
of  $27,874.58.  He  had  paid  over,  $9,383.73;  discounts  on  bad  cur- 
rency, $98.80:  balance  on  hand,  $32.51.  A  fine  financial  showing  for  early- 
day  Bloomington,  indeed. 

Addison  Smith  succeeded  Benjamin  Parks  as  county  agent,  in  August, 
1820,  and  later  in  that  year  James  Boreland  succeeded  Roderick  Rawlins 
as  countv  treasurer.     The  census  enumerator  in  1820  was  Addison  Smith. 



As  has  been  shown,  the  first  business  of  the  county  was  transacted  at 
the  private  residence  of  Abner  Blair,  where  the  first  courts  assembled,  but 
the  order  of  the  commissioners  was  carried  out,  in  the  erection  of  the  double- 
log  coui't  house — two  cabins,  one  being  twenty  by  twenty  feet  and  the  other 
twelve  by  twenty  feet  in  size.  These  structures  were  ten  feet  apart,  with  a 
covered  "entry"  connecting  the  two  buildings^ — really  the  two  houses  and 
entry- way  were  all  under  one  roof.  The  houses  were  to  be  built  of  round 
logs  and  later  to  be  hewed  down  flat.  Each  was  to  be  ten  feet  high  to  the 
eaves,  each  to  contain  one  door  and  one  window.  The  contractor  was 
Samuel  Elliott,  and  the  price  paid  was  about  four  hundred  dollars. 

Mr.  Elliott  also  contracted  to  clear  away  the  trees  and  bushes  from 
around  the  pioneer  court  house.  The  work  was  pushed  along  so  rapidly 
that  the  building  was  occupied  in  August.  1818. 


Monroe  county's  second  court  house  was  planned  for  in  February,  1819. 
The  specifications  as  prepared  by  William  Low  stated  that  the  structure  was 
to  be  of  brick  with  a  stone  foundation.  It  was  to  be  two  stories  high  and 
forty-five  feet  long,  east  and  west,  and  forty  feet  wide,  north  and  south.  It 
was  in  May,  181 9,  when  Rol>ert  Stafford  took  the  contract,  but  failing  to  put 
up  security — the  bond  being  fixed  at  twenty  thousand  dollars — the  contract 
was  re-awarded  to  John  Ketchum,  for  seven  thousand  nine  hundred  and 
sixty-five  dollars.  Work  was  commenced  in  June,  and  in  August  the  first 
installment  of  one  thousand  dollars  was  paid  the  contractor.  At  this  date 
posts  and  railings  were  placed  around  the  old  court  house.  Samuel  Harry- 
man  was  one  of  the  brick-layers  on  the  court  house.  In  February,  1820, 
County  Treasurer  Rawlins  donated  certain  commissions  due  him  on  receipts 
for  lot  sales,  provided  such  donation  should  go  toward  the  purchase  of  a 
clock  for  the  new  court  house.  His  offer  was  thankfully  received  and  ac- 
cepted by  the  county  commissioners  and  taxpayers  of  the  county.  It  was  not 
until  1824  that  all  the  trees  had  been  cleared  from  the  public  square,  and 
such  work  was  finally  completed  by  David  Teague.  who  received  for  such 
work  the  sum  of  twenty-four  dollars.  In  February,  1820,  the  plans  for  the 
court  house  were  somewhat  changed,  but  the  main  work  went  forward.  In 
August,  1821,  Mr.  Ketchum  was  paid  four  thousand  dollars  on  his  contract, 


the  rough  work  having  aU  been  completed  at  that  date.  David  Armstrong 
was  contracted  with  to  build  what  the  county  clerk  wrote  in  record  as  a 
■"cubola"  to  the  building.  For  three  years  prior  to  December,  1822,  the 
clerk's  office  was  maintained  at  the  house  of  Jacob  B.  Lowe,  and  he  was  paid 
sixty  dollars  as  rental  money.  Early  in  1823  the  court  house  was  nearly 
completed  and  ready  for  occupancy.  But  as  it  was  not  fully  finished  it  was 
not  occupied  for  a  long  time  afterwards,  notwithstanding  the  county  had 
paid  the  contractor  for  all  the  work.  In  1824  Edward  Borland  was  paid 
three  hundred  fifty-two  dollars  and  twenty  cents  for  additional  work  on  this 
building,  and  David  Armstrong  the  sum  of  one  thousand  five  hundred  five 
dollars  and  twenty  cents;  Benjamin  Neeld,  twenty-four  dollars  and  other 
parties  eighty-one  dollars.  Mr.  Ketchum  was  never  paid  quite  his  full  con- 
tract price,  but  nearly  that  amount.  The  court  house  was  not  completed, 
inside  and  out,  before  ]826,  and  its  cost  was  eight  thousand  three  hundred 

Lightning  rods  were  then  termed  "Franklin  rods,"  in  honor  of  Benjamin 
Franklin,  inventor  of  the  lightning  rod.  The  county  board  had  great  faith 
in  such  electric  conductors  and  purchased  rods  for  the  new  court  house,  and 
by  this  act  they  had  an  endless  amount  of  trouble.  Austin  Seward  was  en- 
gaged to  paint  the  building  a  fire  red  and  to  pencil  it  of¥  in  white,  and  such 
work  was  all  to  be  finished  before  September,  1826.  In  1825  Samuel  Dun- 
ning engaged  to  build  a  county  clerk's  office  and  county  library  room,  which 
work  was  performed  before  November  that  year.  At  that  date  the  public 
square  was  neatly  fenced.  Z.  Williams  executed  the  wood  work  on  the 
clerk's  office,  while  Ewing  &  Montgomery  did  the  plastering.  The  finished 
building  was  occupied  in  May,  1826,  and  occupied  for  the  first  time  that  same 
month.  Z.  Williams  was  handed  the  ke_MS  to  the  court  house  and  instructed 
by  the  board  to  keep  it  locked,  permitting  it  to  be  occupied  only  by  the  courts, 
county  commissioners,  taking  of  depositions.  Fourth  of  July  celebrations, 
elections,  "when  any  person  shall  want  admittance  for  the  purpose  of  acquir- 
ing agricultural  knowledge,  and  in  the  discretion  of  the  keeper  to  any  preacher 
of  the  gospel." 

This  court  house  was  a  fine  structure  for  that  early  day  and  was  the 
pride  of  Bloomington  and  this  portion  of  Indiana.  Bloomington,  the  county 
seat,  was  looked  upon  as  one  of  the  most  promising  towns  in  all  the  Hoosier 



In  March,  1827,  the  citizens  petitioned  the  county  board  as  follows: 
"To  the  Honorable  Board  of  Justices  of  Monroe  County :  The  undersigned 
petitioners  respectfully  represent  that  they  conceive  that  the  honor  of  the 
county  and  the  future  interests  and  importance  of  Bloomington,  which  now 
ranks  among  the  best  villages  in  the  state,  imperiously  requires  that  the  court 
house  should  be  surrounded  b}-  a  permanent  inclosure,  which  would  add  to 
the  convenience  and  beauty  of  our  public  square,  and  at  the  same  time  hold 
forth  a  powerful  inducement  to  the  citizens  of  the  town  to  make  correspond- 
ing improvements  in  the  streets  and  alleys."  The  long  lot  of  suggestions  as 
to  how  such  fence  should  be  constructed  wound  up  b\-  sa}ing  the  same  "should 
be  built  of  brick  on  a  stone  foundation."  The  petition  was  heard  and  granted. 
The  honorable  petitioners  were  as  follows,  names  still  familiar  in  Monroe 
county :  Thomas  Graham,  William  Alexander,  Edward  Borland,  John 
Hight,  George  Henry,  James  Whitcomb,  Edmund  Wyman,  Granville  \\'ard, 
Richard  Hardesty,  William  S.  W^right.  James  Slocum,  Robinson  Farmer, 
George  H.  Johnson,  Frederick  Butler,  Jacob  Harsh,  John  S.  Barnes,  "and 
others."  William  Bannister  and  John  Robinson  did  the  work  of  fencing 
the  square.  The  final  settlement  with  contractor  Armstrong,  builder  of  the 
court  house,  was  not  made  until  1829. 

In  1856-58  this  court  house  was  remodeled,  the  work  being  performed 
by  John  F.  Rogers,  who  built  the  two  brick  wings  at  a  cost  of  about  seven 
thousand  dollars.  A  few  more  changes  were  made  on  the  property  up  to 
1884.  when  it  was  stated  that  it  was  in  as  solid  a  condition  as  when  first  built, 
sixty  years  before.  It  served  the  purpose  of  Monroe  county  as  a  temple 
of  justice  until  the  erection  of  the  present  magnificent  stone  court  house. 


The  following  tablet  adorns  the  wall  of  the  lower  story  (]>asement) 
of  the  present  court  house,  and  it  gi\es  much  history  in  a  condensed  form: 

Building  ordered  March  6,  1906. 

Completed  June  i,  1908. 

County  Commissioners — igo6,  James  W.  Davis,  Isaac  Mitchell,  Jacob  Miller; 

1907,  Jacob  Miller,  Isaac  Mitchell.  Benjamin  F.  Cooter. 

Isaac  C.   Batman,  County  Attorney. 

Auditor,  Samuel  M.  Kerr. 


Citizens'  Advisory  Board — Fred  Matthews,  M.  H.  Bogemann,  J.  D.  Showers, 

S.  C.  Freese,  P.  K.  Buskirk. 

Architects — Marshall  S.  Mahurin,  Guy  M.  Mahurin,  Ft.  Wayne,  Indiana. 

Contractors — George  W.  Caldwell  and  Lester  Drake,  Columbus,  Indiana. 

Secretary — August  H.  Knosman;  Superintendent,  Herman  Vergin. 

The  cost  of  the  above  structure  was  two  hundred  and  hfty  thousand 
dollars.  Its  corner  stone  was  laid  with  impressive  Masonic  ceremonies  on 
the  loth  day  of  May,  1907.  It  stands  in  the  center  of  a  beautifully  kept  pub- 
lic square,  with  stone  and  cement  walks  running  to  all  the  entrances.  A  rest 
room  is  found  for  ladies  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the  cool  basement.  The 
room  opposite  is  used  by  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic.  The  county 
officers  are  found  on  the  second  floor,  while  the  law  library,  jury  rooms  and 
court  room  are  found  on  the  third  floor,  as  well  as  many  of  the  county 
officers'  rooms,  such  as  school  superintendent,  etc.  A  fine  tower  surmounts 
this  massive  stone  building,  in  which  is  hung  a  great  bell  and  clock,  that 
sounds  the  hours  as  they  go  by,  year  in  and  year  out.  The  dials  of  this 
clock  are  illuminated  and  face  each  direction,  and  may  be  seen  at  a  great 


In  October,  1818,  it  was  deemed  a  necessity  to  provide  this  county  with 
a  suitable  and  safe  jail.  Roderick  Rawlins  was  engaged  to  draw  plans  for 
such  a  building.  It  was  to  be  built  of  oak  timbers,  one  foot  thick,  and  was 
to  stand  north  of  the  court  house;  was  to  be  twenty  by  thirty  feet  in  size;  to 
be  provided  with  a  dungeon  and  a  criminal's  room,  and  a  jailor's  room,  the 
latter  to  be  constructed  on  the  east  side  of  the  jail  proper.  Roderick  Rawlins 
took  the  contract  and  hurried  the  building  along  to  completion.  John 
Rawlins  built  a  "stray  pen"  for  the  town,  for  which  he  was  paid  the  sum 
of  twenty-three  dollars.  Joel  Woodward  and  others  dug  a  well  on  the  public 
square.  Early  in  18 19  it  was  ordered  that  the  square  be  fenced  in,  but  this 
work  was  delayed  some  time. 

The  jail  was  reported  finished  in  February,  1820,  luit  the  inspecting 
committee  found  that  the  debtor's  room  was  incomplete,  and  David  H.  Max- 
well was  employed  to  remedy  the  objections.  So  be  it  remembered  that 
Monroe's  first  jail  had  a  debtor's  room,  and  that,  too.  in  Bloomington,  only 
ninety  years  ago! 

The  first  jailor  was  Enos  Blair.     We  have  no  records  of  the  men  and 


women  who  were  from  time  to  time  placed  in  this  jail;  however,  it  matters 
not  now,  for  long  years  since  they  have  been  numbered  among  the  dead ! 

In  1837  the  county  concluded  to  build  a  new  jail  and  appointed  John 
Bowland,  E.  T.  Butler,  William  S.  Wright,  Samuel  Hardesty,  Joseph  Baugh 
and  John  W.  Lee  a  committee  tu  remo\e  the  old  wooden  jail  and  build  on 
the  same  lot  a  new  one.  The  contract  was  awarded  to  Hardesty,  Graham 
and  Chapman,  but  the  price  is  not  now  known.  The  new  jail  was  a  strong 
brick  structure,  costing  hve  thousand  dollars,  and  was  ncjt  fully  completed 
until  early  in  the  forties.  That  jail  did  duty  until  1869-70,  when  bids  were 
invited  looking  towards  the  erection  of  a  new  jail,  which  had  really  been 
needed  since  1856.  Four  bids  were  received,  and  that  of  George  Finley  & 
Company  being  the  best,  it  was  accepted,  the  same  being  to  erect  a  jail  and 
sheriff's  residence,  all  of  stone  work,  for  the  sum  of  six  thousand  nine  hun- 
dred and  ninety-eight  dollars.  That  prison  house  was  thirty- four  by  forty- 
one  feet;  the  residence  was  to  be  twenty  by  forty- four  feet,  with  a  kitchen 
and  guard-room  fourteen  by  thirty-three  feet.  It  was  to  be  brick,  on  stone 

The  next  jail  was  the  present  one,  on  Walnut  street,  it  has  a  jailer's 
residence  and  jail  proper.  The  former  is  a  three-story  brick  structure,  while 
the  remodeled  prison,  or  jail,  in  its  rear,  is  constructed  of  stone,  the  chief 
product  of  the  county.  Its  walls  are  veiw  thick  and  heavy  steel  grating,  set 
back  to  the  back  sides  of  the  deep  window  openings,  affords  a  safe  retention 
of  prisoners  there  incarcerated. 


Nothing  speaks  better  for  any  county  or  state  than  tu  note  that  the  un- 
fortunate poor  within  their  boundaries  are  well  and  humanely  cared  for. 
Of  this  one  thing  Monroe  county  may  justly  boast.  No  sooner  had  this 
county  been  organized  than  it  commenced  to  look  toward  the  care  of  the 
poor  and  distressed  within  its  bounds.  In  every  township  overseers  were 
appointed  to  look  after  the  wants  of  the  poor — those  claiming  citizenship. 
These  officers  reported  to  the  county  board  and  the  commissioners  allowed 
the  necessary  bills,  same  as  any  other  claims  against  the  count)-.  It  is  now 
seldom  that  children  are  "farmed  out."  l)ut  in  an  early  day  this  practice 
was  quite  frequent.  The  keeping  of  helpless  children  was  put  up  at  auction, 
and  he  who  would  provide  for  their  necessary  wants  for  the  least  money  was 
burdened   with   the   responsibility.      Much   care    had    to   be   exercised,    other- 



wise  children  would  fall  into  the  hands  of  cruel  and  hard-hearted  men  and 
women,  who  might  half  clothe  and  feed  the  little  innocents.  The  whole 
system  was  bad,  and  but  little  comfort  ever  came  to  the  children  thus  put  into 
strange  hands.  It  was,  however,  more  humane  than  to  let  them  die  for  lack 
of  any  care  whatever.  Much  temi^orary  and  sometimes  permanent  relief  was 
furnished  by  the  townships,  and  no  call  made  on  the  county  board  for  reim- 
bursement. Among  the  first  orders  for  such  relief  for  the  poor  reads  as 
follows : 
"State  of  Indiana,  Marion  County. 

"Monroe  County,  Debtor  to  Solomon  Green  for  an  allowance  for  an 
injury  sustained  to  his  bedding  in  keeping,  laying  out  and  burying  Louis  Lee, 
a  poor  person. 

"February  5,  1824. 

"David  Sears, 
"William  Moore, 

"Overseer  of  the  Poor." 

As  the  population  of  the  county  began  to  increase,  naturally  the  expense 
of  keeping  the  poor  became  larger.  In  1827,  the  county  paid  $46.20  and 
in  1830.  $75.  Later  in  the  thirties  the  expense  was  $200  annually.  In  1836, 
it  amounted  to  $204.63.  These  amounts  did  not  include  cases  cared  for  by 
the  individual  townships.  Some  extreme  years  the  county's  expense  ran  as 
high  as  $500.  It  ran  so  high  that  in  1836  the  project  of  establishing  a  county 
poor  farm  was  agitated.  A  petition  was  presented  to  the  county  board  in 
November,  1836,  praying  for  a  poor  farm,  and,  in  response  to  this,  John 
Hite,  John  Owens,  and  Jesse  Davar  were  appointed  a  committee  to  inspect 
various  farms  with  a  view  of  purchasing.  Nothing  further  was  done  until 
1838  and  in  May  of  that  year  another  committee,  consisting  of  John  Owens, 
Edward  Borland  and  John  Hite,  were  appointed  for  the  same  purpose,  the 
farm  to  cost  not  less  than  fi\e  hundred  dollars  nor  more  than  one  thousand 
five  hundred  dollars.  The  purchase  price  was  to  be  paid  in  three  equal  an- 
nual payments.  But  for  some  unknown  reason,  the  matter  was  allowed  to 
rest  until  1846,  when  another  committee  was  appointed  in  the  persons  of 
Elias  Abel,  Henry  Tanner  and  another,  to  inspect  some  half  dozen  farms  for 
sale.  The  one  owned  bv  John  Acuff  w^as  selected  and  bought  at  nine  hun- 
dred dollars,  half  down  and  balance  in  one  year.  It  was  situated  five  miles 
from  Bloomington  and  consisted  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  acres.     Upon 


the  farm  was  an  ordinar\-  dwelling  house,  and  the  county  lioard  ordered  an 
additional  log  house.  Mr.  AcutT  was  appointed  superintendent  and  allowed 
one  hundred  dollars  to  look  after  the  farm  and  care  for  the  unfortunate  poor 
that  might  there  be  assembled.  The  first  pauper.  Crazy  Betsey,  was  taken 
to  the  asylum  in  June,  1846.  Acuff  continued  superintendent  until  1849  and 
was  succeeded  by  Robert  Ray.  John  N.  York  was-  the  third  superintendent 
and  he  found  only  three  inmates  to  care  for.  During  the  fifties,  some  years 
the  expense  to  this  county  at  the  farm  was  upwards  of  three  thousand  dol- 
lars. As  high  as  eight  inmates  were  at  the  place  at  one  time.  The  greater 
expense,  however,  fell  upon  the  several  townships.  Later  in  the  fifties  it  was 
found  that  some  better  system  must  obtain  to  care  successfully  for  the  pauper 
element  in  the  county.  In  1862,  a  new  farm  of  one  hundred  and  sixty-eight 
acres  was  bought  from  Samuel  A.  Smith  for  six  thousand  dollars.  It  was 
parts  of  sections  30  and  31,  township  8  north,  range  i  west.  One  member 
of  the  board,  Mr.  Small,  protested  against  the  purchase,  for  various  reasons, 
but  his  objection  was  of  no  avail  and  the  land  was  bought.  A  building 
known  as  the  Asylum,  was  constructed  by  Milburn  &  Phetridge,  for  one  thou- 
sand six  hundred  and  eighty-eight  dollars.  It  was  a  frame  structure,  about 
thirty-five  by  seventy-five  feet,  and  contained  nine  rooms  on  each  side.  The 
property  was  paid  for  on  the  installment  plan  and  not  seriously  burdensome  to 
the  tax-payers.  After  three  or  four  years  the  objections  made  by  Mr.  Small, 
member  of  the  county  Ix^ard,  were  felt  with  much  force.  That  the  board 
made  a  mistake  was  then  acknowledged  by  the  people  generally.  In  Decem- 
ber. 1865.  the  farm  was  advertised  for  sale  and  soon  sold  to  JohnTv  May  for 
nine  thousand  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars.  ^Ir.  May  became  superin- 
tendent, he  agreeing  to  keep  the  paupers  for  two  dollars  a  week  each.  Samuel 
A.  Smith  had  just  preceded  him  as  superintendent.  A  new  poor  farm  must 
now  be  purchased  and  in  March.  1866,  the  board  bought  of  Peter  Bollen- 
backer  six  seminary  lots  known  as  the  Cuff  farm,  a  mile  and  a  half  west  of 
Bloomington,  each  lot  containing  ten  acres,  for  three  thousand  dollars.  In 
May,  1867,  sealed  bids  were  received  to  build  a  brick  as\lum  on  this  land. 
Samuel  A.  Smith's  bid  of  five  thousand  eight  hundred  dollars  seeming  the 
best  bid  of  the  lot  offered,  it  was  accepted.  :\  fine  building  was  constructed 
within  about  two  years. 

The  present  county  asylum,  or  i;)Oor  house,  ^^as  erected  on  the  one  hun- 
dred and  sixty-acre  tract  of  land  owmed  by  the  county,  four  miles  out  from 
Bloomington,  in  Van  Buren  township,  in  1892.     It  is  a  brick  structure,  with 


a  deep  stone  basement.  The  work  and  kitchen  affairs,  etc.,  are  in  the  large 
basement,  while  the  tw'o  upper  floors  are  used  for  the  convenience  of  the 
unfortunate  poor,  who  in  1913  amounted  to  about  thirty-six,  divided  about 
equally  between  the  two  sexes  and  nearly  all  aged  persons.  Thomas  A. 
Cunningham,  the  present  efficient  superintendent,  has  been  in  office  since  1907, 
and  during  his  incumbency  the  average  number  of  inmates  has  been  about 
thirty-six  yearl)-.  The  farm  is  well  tilled  and  produces  much  of  the  meat 
and  vegetables  consumed  by  the  inmates  and  the  superintendent's  family  and 
hired  help.  About  five  hundred  dollars  surplus  each  year,  after  keeping  the 
superintendent  and  family,  is  turned  over  for  the  maintenance  of  the  institu- 
tion, the  balance  having  to  be  made  up  by  the  county  fund  set  apart  for  such 
purpose.      Here  the  poor  are  well  cared  for. 


The  records  show  the  following  concerning  the  finances  of  Monroe 
county  from  its  organization,  in  1818,  to  February,  1819,  the  first  year: 
Total  expenses  of  the  county,  $3,685.  In  1827  the  expenses  amounted  to 
$858;  in  1836,  $1,364;  in  1839-40.  $2,450;  in  1842-43,  $3,411;  in  1846, 
$3>955;  in  1852-53.  $6,446;  in  1860-61,  $15,612;  in  1864-65,  $106,054.  Of 
this  latter  amount,  the  poor  cost  $5,693 ;  county  officers,  $3,023 ;  military 
bounties,  $81,000.  This  left  the  county  in  debt  about  $88,250.  In  1872-73 
the  expense  was  $49,000.  In  1876  the  county  owed,  in  round  figures, 
$10,000.  In  1883  the  county  issued  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $50,000  to  aid 
in  building  a  university  building.  Each  bond  was  for  $500,  and  it  ran  six  per 
cent,  redeemable  in  ten  years. 

Thirty  years  ago — 1883 — the  total  state  taxes  of  this  county  were 
$8,525;  the  state  school  tax  was  $10,945;  the  county  tax  was  $32,785;  town- 
ship taxes  $3.863 ;.  tuition  tax,  $3,294.  all  of  which  shows  a  lively  interest 
taken  in  educational  matters. 

On  January  i.  19 12.  there  was  on  hand  in  the  county  treasury  the  sum 
of  $63,334.85.  The  receipts  for  the  year  1912  amounted  to  $310,274.74, 
making  a  total  in  receipts  up  to  December  31,  1912,  of  $373,609.59.  The 
disbursements  of  the  county  for  that  year  were  $344,693,  leaving  a  net  bal- 
ance of  $28,916.38,  January  i,  1913. 



The  subjoined  shows  the  taxable  property  of  all  kinds,  in  the  county, 
.  by  townships  and  incorporations  : 

Bean   Blossom  to\vnship__$    489,080      Polk   township I35'3i5 

Washington  township 228,020      Clear  Creek  township 526,515 

Marion  township 109,150     Indian  Creek  township 302,410 

Benton  township    223,120  Part  of  Bloomington  city_   3,469,000 

Bloomington    township 738,850  Part  of  city  in  Perry  twp._    1,187,755 

Richland  township 608,545      Kllettsville,   town   of 198,455 

Van    Buren    township 469,265      Stinesville,  town  of 58.350 

Perry   township    i,2/^,it,^  

Salt  Creek  townshi]) -1-355              Total    $10,181,430 


When  the  Legislature  authorized  the  organization  of  Monroe  county, 
one  of  the  considerations  was  that  ten  per  cent,  of  the  proceeds  of  the  town 
lots  at  the  county  seat  to  be  located  was  to  be  used  to  found  and  maintain  a 
county  library.  A  treasurer  was  appointed  to  take  care  of  the  funds  thus 
derived.  In  1821  the  first  books  were  bought,  when  sixty  dollars  was  spent 
for  a  few  dozen  standard  books  (not  cheap  yellow-covered  books),  which 
laid  the  foundation  for  a  good  library  in  later  years.  In  July,  1830,  $2,428.14 
had  been  paid  to  the  library  treasurer,  the  most  of  which  had  gone  toward  the 
purchase  of  good  books,  and  the  library  then  boasted  of  eight  hundred  vol- 
umes. The  ten  per  centum  on  the  receipts  of  town  lot  sales  in  Bloomington 
proved  a  munificent  fund  for  library  purposes  in  those  early  days.  In  1884, 
there  were  over  two  thousand  volumes  (some  having  been  rebound  several 
times )  of  standard  works,  and  they  occupied  the  old  office  building  that  was 
erected  in  the  twenties.  At  present  there  is  a  small  circulating  library  in 
one  of  the  basement  rooms  of  the  new  court  house. 



While  it  is  not  intended  by  the  author  of  this  work  to  attempt  to  give 
any  extended  poHtical  history  of  the  county,  yet  there  are  several  matters 
that  must  of  necessity  be  mentioned,  as  showing  the  general  political  trend  of 
the  people  from  the  time  of  the  organization  down  to  the  present  day.  All 
good  forms  of  government  have  their  political  parties  and  every  good  citizen 
is  allied  with  some  one  of  these  parties.  ^Vhile  it  is  not  practical  to  give  a 
full  and  complete  return  of  all  local  and  general  elections  in  Monroe  county, 
a  list  of  the  men  who  have  represented  the  county  in  some  official  capacity 
will  be  given  and  the  general  political  complexion  of  the  county  wall  be  thus 
indicated,  especially  will  the  Presidential  vote  show  how  the  voters  have 
stood  on  national  issues. 


But  little  attention  was  paid  to  political  parties  here  until  1840 — that 
memorable  Presidential  campaign — because  almost  everyone  was  a  Demo- 
crat until  that  date.  Only  three  townships  can  be  reported  at  the  1840  elec- 
tion, on  account  of  the  loss  of  the  records.  These  townships  are  Blooming- 
ton,  which  gave  the  Democratic  nominees,  Van  Buren  and  Johnson,  587 
votes,  against  541  for  the  Whig  nominees,  Harrison  and  Tyler.  Salt  Creek 
gave  the  Democratic  candidates  eleven  votes,  all  that  were  cast  in  the  town- 
ship. Bean  Blossom  township  gave  the  Democratic  candidate  117  votes,  as 
against  50  for  the  Whig  candidates.  This  made  715  votes  for  Van  Buren 
and  Johnson,  and  591  for  Harrison  and  Tyler. 

This  was  a  memorable  political  campaign,  in  which  Indiana  put  forth 
her  idol.  Gen.  William  Henry  Harrison,  the  hero  of  the  famous  battle  of 
Tippecanoe.  The  whole  new  West  united  their  forces  to  make  him  the 
country's  chief  executive,  and  in  this  were  triumphant,  and  for  the  first  time 
the  East  had  to  bow  to  the  power  and  opinion  of  the  W^est.  Monroe  county, 
however,  gave  Van  Buren  a  majority  of  her  votes  and,  as  usual,  went  Demo- 
cratic.    It  was  about  this  time  that  the  question  of  slavery  began  to  attract 


much  general  attention.  Anti-slavery  societies  were  formed  all  over  the 
Northern  states  and  the  struggle  to  maintain  or  overthrow  slavery  was  fully 
in  operation.  This  was  enhanced  by  the  new  territories  seeking  admission 
to  the  Union,  Nebraska  and  Kansas  included,  which  were  tlie  scene  of  much 
violent  strife  just  a  little  later  on.  In  1844  the  campaign  opened  just  after 
Texas  had  gained  her  independence  from  Mexico,  and  that  territory  asked 
admission;  this  pleased  the  slave  states  of  the  South,  knowing  that  it  would 
strengthen  their  cause  to  have  annexed  another  slave  state  of  such  .great  terri- 
torial proportions.  This,  of  course,  was  not  relished  upon  the  part  of  the 
Northern  anti-slavery  element.  The  Democrats  put  in  nomination  James 
K.  Polk  and  the  Whigs,  Henry  Clay.  Much  enthusiasm  prevailed  at  this  elec- 
tion in  Monroe  county,  the  first  of  much  note,  politically,  in  the  county's 
history.  The  election  resulted  as  follows :  Polk  and  Dallas,  Democrats, 
1,118;  Clay  and  Frelinghuysen,  Whig,  721;  Democratic  majority,  397. 

The  records  for  the  elections  of  1848  and  1852  are  not  in  existence. 

1856 — Buchanan  and  Breckenridge,  Democrats,  1,191:  Fremont  and 
Dayton,  Republicans,  498;  iMllmore  and  I)(jnalson,  American,  392. 

During  the  next  four  years,  people,  even  in  the  North,  were  almost  on 
the  threshold  of  civil  war.  In  1858  the  South  began  to  prepare  for  the 
great  struggle  that  was  ine\i table  and  which  came  in  1861. 

i860 — Douglas  and  Johnson,  Northern  Democrats,  716;  Breckenridge 
and  Lane,  Southern  Democrats,  395;  Lincoln  and  Hamlin,  Republican,  1,198; 
Bell  and  Everett,  American,  64.  It  will  be  observed  that  the  Southern  wing 
of  the  Democratic  party  was  very  strong,  thus  showing  that  there  was  in  this 
county  a  very  strong  sentiment  in  favor  of  slavery  and  the  position  taken  by 
the  South.  The  Democratic  strength  was  broken  down  between  1856  and 
i860,  but  during  the  Civil  war  it  regained  much  of  its  former  strength. 

.  1864 — McClellan  and  Pendleton,  Democratic,  1,210;  Lincoln  and  John- 
son, Republican,  1,202. 

In  1866  this  county  iDecame  Republican  l)y  a  large  majority,  which  has 
been  hard  for  Democracy  to  overcome  ever  since.  It  was  in  1868  that  M.  C. 
Hunter  defeated  H.  W.  Harrison,  Democratic,  for  Congress;  and  Conrad 
Baker,  Republican,  was  elected  over  Thomas  A.  Hendricks,  Democratic,  for 
•  Governor  of  Indiana.  The  following  is  a  synopsis  of  the  vote  at  subsequent 
presidential  elections : 

1868 — Grant  and   Colfax    (Rep.) 1,496 

Seymour  and  Blair  (Dem.) 1'369 


1872 — Grant  and  Wilson    (Rep.j •  1.597 

Greeley  and  Brown  (Dem.) 1.359 

Bourbon   (Dem.)    5 

1876 — Hayes  and  Wheeler  (Rep.) 1,667 

Tilden  and  Hendricks  (Dem.) 1.559 

1880 — Garfield  and  Arthur  (Rep.) 1,780 

Hancock  and  English  (Dem.) 1,682 

WeaA-er  and  Chambers   (Ind.) 165 

1884 — Cleveland  and  Hendricks  (D) 1,732 

Blaine  and  Logan  (Rep.) 1,896 

1888 — Cleveland  and  Thurman  (Dem.) 1,825 

Harrison  and  Morton  (Rep.) 2,055 

1892 — Harrison  and   Reed    (Rep.) 2,000 

Cleveland  and  Stevenson   (Dem.) 1,910 

Fisk  (Prohib. ) 93 

Union    Labor    344 

1896 — McKinley  and  Hobart  (Rep.) 2,570 

Bryan  and  Sewall  (Dem.) 2,396 

Prohibition    27 

1900 — McKinley  and  Roosevelt  (Rep.) 2,750  n 

Bryan  and  Stevenson  (Dem.) 2,348 

People's   Party   20 

1904 — Roosevelt  and   Fairbanks    (Rep.) 2,990 

Parker  and  Davis  (Dem.) 2.286 

Prohibition    92 

1908 — Taft  and  Sherman  (Rep.) 2,986 

Br\'an  and  Kern   (Dem.) 2,704 

1912 — Taft   (Rep.)   1,342 

Wilson  and  Marshall   (Dem.) 2.334 

Roosevelt  and  Johnson   (Progressive) T.448 

The  political  campaigns  in  the  county  during  the  war  were  hotly  con- 
tested, and  were  generally  in  doubt  until  the  returns  had  been  counted.  The 
question  of  the  success  of  the  Uhion  cause  depended  greatly  on  the  men  in 
public  office,  and  consequently  the  people  were  careful  to  select  the  man  who 
favored  the  continuation  of  hostilities  until  the  country  was  once  more  united. 
In  1863  the  two  parties  were  divided  on  the  question  of  continuing  the  war, 
and  public  meetings  were  held  everywhere  for  both  sides.      The  result  was  a 


Democratic  victory  by  a  majority  of  170,  in  a  total  vote  of  2,050.  In  Febru- 
ary, 1864,  a  Unionist  mass  meeting  was  held  to  elect  delegates  to  the  Union 
state  convention  at.  Indianapolis,  and  they  also  passed  a  series  of  resolutions 
indorsing  Lincoln  for  the  Presidency  of  the  United  States  and  Morton  for 
governor  of  Indiana.  September  15th,  the  congressional  candidates  of  both 
parties  spoke  at  the  court  house.  Mr.  Harrington,  the  Democratic  candi- 
date, was  unable  to  be  present,  and  David  Sheeks  spoke  in  his  place.  Mr.  Hill, 
the  Union  candidate,  spoke  with  much  eloquence ;  also  a  Mr.  Gunii.  of  Ken- 
tucky, spoke.  The  October  and  November  campaigns,  however,  were  des- 
tined to  be  the  fiercest  and  longest  of  any  during  the  war.  Each  party  knew 
that  the  balance  of  the  war  depended  in  large  measure  on  the  outcome  of  the 
election  and  each  faction  exerted  every  means  within  its  power  to  win. 
Prominent  speakers  from  over  the  country  were  brought  to  Monroe  county, 
and  every  means  was  used  to  carrv  the  voters  to  one  side  or  the  other.  The 
October  election  showed  a  Republican  gain  over  1863.  and  Governor  Morton 
ran  ahead  of  his  ticket,  receiving  a  majority  of  four  votes.  The  retention 
of  Indiana's  famous  "war  governor"  was  great  news  for  the  people  in  favor 
of  continuing  the  fight  against  the  South,  and  they  increased  their  efforts  in 
order  that  thev  might  follow  up  their  advantage  in  the  November  elections. 
Major  Popp.  of  the  Eighteenth  Regiment.  Hon.  Henry  S.  Lane,  General  Kim- 
ball. Colonel  Anderson,  of  the  Twelfth  Cavalry.  Hon.  M.  R.  Hull  of  Wayne 
county,  and  P.  C.  Dunning  came  to  Monroe  county  and  expounded  political 
theories  before  the  citizens.  After  the  ballots  had  been  counted  it  was  found 
that  the  Democratic  electors  had  a  majority  of  eight  votes,  a  gain  of  forty  on 
the  October  elections,  and  one  hundred  and  sixty  on  the  election  of  1863. 
The  result  was  most  satisfactory  to  the  l^nion  adherents,  and  they  rejoiced  in 
noisy  and  patriotic  manner. 

The  subjoined  is  as  complete  a  record  of  the  various  county  officers  as 
can  be  secured : 


r84i_William  C  Tarkington.  1888— William  Blair. 

1855— Robert  C.  Foster.  1 892— Jonathan  M.  Hinkle. 

1863 — Milton  McPhetridge.  1896 — Fred  Matthews. 

I867 — Henry  F.  Perry.  1900 — Samuel  Kerr. 

1870 — James  F.  Manley.  1904 — Samuel  Kerr. 

1878— R.  A.  Fulk.  1908— Horace  Blakely. 

1882^ — W.  M.  Alexander.  1912— \V.  F.  Kinser. 
1886 — Simeon  Pedigo. 




1818 — William  Lowe. 
1820 — Jacob  B.  Lowe. 
1838 — W.  F.  Browning. 
1844 — David  Browning. 
1846— M.  McPhetridge. 
i860 — David  Carson. 
1862 — David  Sheeks. 
1866 — Robert  C.  Foster. 
1870 — John  R.  East. 

1874 — William  F.  Browning. 

1882 — D.  W.  Browning. 

1886— E.  Fuller. 

1890 — J.  W.  Craven. 

1894 — John  T.  Woodward. 

1898— Ed.  F.  Hall. 

1902 — Joseph  H.  Campbell. 

1906 — J.  H.  Campbell. 

1 9 10 — T-  P-  Fowler. 


1818— John  W.  Lee. 
1 8 19 — Jesse  Wright. 
1822 — Enos  Blair. 
1830 — ^James  Alexander. 
1834 — Elias  Blair. 
1838— John  M.  Sluss. 
1842 — ^John  Eller. 
1846 — William  F.  Browning. 
1850 — ^James  Kelley. 
1854— P.  L.  D.  Mitchell. 
1858 — Andrew  W.  Reeves. 
1862 — Acquilla  W.  Rogers. 
1866 — Lawson  E.  McKenney. 
1870 — Richard  A.  Fulk. 
1872 — L.  E.  McKenney. 
1876— W.  M.  Alexander. 

1880 — Silas  Grinies. 
1884 — Marion  Hinkle. 
1888— Marion  Hinkle. 
1888— T.  J.  Farr. 
1890 — T.  J.  Farr. 
1892 — Wilson  Adams. 
1894 — Wilson  Adams. 
1896 — George  D.  Thornton. 
1898— W.  F.  Kinser. 
1900 — Peter  Thrasher. 
1902 — Peter  Thrasher. 
1904 — B.  J.  Hough. 
1906— J.  W.  Ratliff. 
1908— J.  W.  Ratliff. 
1910-J.  W.  Ratliff. 
191 2 — Tames  G.  Browning. 


1818— Charles  Bailey. 
1 83 1 — James  J.  King. 
1839 — David  Browning. 
1844 — Samuel   Buskirk. 
1845 — Robert  Acuff. 

i860 — James  M.  Beatley. 
1863— P.  W.  Richeson. 
1867 — William  H.  Jones. 
1871— D.  J.  Hodges. 
1875 — Thomas  Howard. 



1876 — I.  Milt  Rogers. 
1877 — Oliver  McLahlan. 
1877 — L.  McKunney. 
1878 — Robert  Gilmore. 
1880— W.  N.  Hall. 
1886— Dillion  Talbott. 

1890 — J.  W.  Jackson. 
1894— J.  W.  Jackson. 
1898 — Andrew  J.  Lampkins. 
1902 — -Thomas  Golliver. 
1906— C.  T.  A.  Burch. 
1910 — Frank  W.  Lamkins. 


1 8 18 — Roderick  Rawlins. 
1820 — James  Borland. 
1826 — William  Alexander. 
1840 — Stephen  P.  Seall. 
1 841 — Elias  Abel. 
1853— Charles  Abel. 
1855 — Samuel  Gentry. 
1858— P.  L.  D.  Mitchell. 
i860 — Johnson  McCoUough. 
1862— P.  L.  D.  Mitchell. 
1866— David  B.  Buskirk. 
1870— J.  M.  Rogers. 
1874 — John  A.  Reeves. 
1878 — L.  E.  McKenney. 
1882 — Isaac  Clayman. 

1884 — Isaac   Clayman. 
i88^-Dr.  Gaston. 
1888— Dr.  Gaston. 
1890 — T.  PI.  Sudbury. 
1892— T.  H.  Sudbury. 
1894— T.  H.  Sudbury. 
1896 — J.  S.  Woodward. 
1898 — James  S.  Williams. 
1900 — John  P.  Harrell. 
1902 — Peter  B.  Martin. 
1904 — ^James  T.  Clark. 
1906— Frank  Regester. 
1908 — William  W.  Weaver. 
19 10 — \A'.  W.  Weaver. 
191 2 — Joseph  D.  Hensley. 

1 81 8 — Purnal  Chane. 
1822 — William  Jackson. 
1827 — James  Slocum. 
1828— Richard  Hardesty. 
1832 — John  M.   Sluss. 
1834 — John  Hardesty. 
1836 — John  Deaman. 
1838 — James  Slocum. 
1844 — Samuel  Kirk. 
i85C^Y.  B.  Pullen. 
i8s2 — Tames  McBride. 

1854 — John  S.  Moore. 

1856 — Alexander  McClelland. 

1858— Elbert  Johnson. 

1859 J.    R.   Sluss.  ': 

1862— J.  W.  Pullen. 
1863 — John  C.  Hook. 
1865 — William  Adams. 
1867— W.  A.  Legg. 
1868— W.  H.  Slerum. 
1870 — W.  L.  Adams.       :. 
1872— G.  P.  Hines*.     ' 



1876— A.  J.  Axtell. 
1878 — James  Dodd. 
1880— C.  D.  McLehlen. 
1882— J.  H.  Gaston. 
"1890— J.  D.  Maxwell. 
1892 — J.  M.  Rogers. 
1896- — Robert  C  Rogers. 
1898— C.  E.  Harris. 

1900 — O.  F.  Rogers. 
1902 — Charles  F.  Wier. 
1904 — O.  K.  Harris. 
1906 — O.  K.  Harris. 
1908 — R.  C.  Rogers. 
19 10 — J.  Kentling. 
191 2 — Chas.  E.  Harris. 


1818 — Jonathan  Nichols. 

T 820— William  D.  McCulloch. 

1826 — James  Borland. 

*  *  *  *  ^ 

1846 — Henry  Farmer. 
1 849 — James  Woodlxirn. 
1852 — J.  W.  Spencer. 
1854 — John  J.   Poynter. 
1855 — J-  ^^^-  Silencer. 
1859 — I.  S.  Buskirk. 
1863 — J.  W.  Spencer. 
1864— J.  W.  Alexander. 
1867— E.  P.  Cole. 
1870 — A.  C.  Spencer. 
1872 — Henry  Henley. 

1876— M.  H.  Buskirk. 
1878— G.  W.  Varroy. 
1880— M.  H.  Buskirk. 
1882— M.  Buskirk. 
1890 — George  B.  Rader. 
1892 — E.  E.  Buskirk. 
1896 — Charles  Bowers. 
1898— Frank  P.  Wood. 
1900 — Lewis  Deckard. 
1902 — Charles  M.   Bowers. 
1904 — E.  Buskirk. 
1906 — Charles   Bowers. 
191  o — Charles  M.  Bowers. 
191 2— C.  R.  Wittaker. 


1818— William  Lowe. 
18 It) — William  Jackson. 
1820 — J.  Greg(M-y. 
1 820 — William   Newcomh. 
182T — Samuel  lr\-in. 

1823 — Samuel  W.  Moore. 
1824 — William  Lowe. 
1829— P.  M.  Doty. 
1830— F.  T.  Butler. 
1 83 1— Benjamin  Rogers. 


1 8,cj— William  1).  McCuUoch.  1838— Stephen  P.  Sealls. 

1833 — Aquilla  Rogers.  1840 — Henry  Filer.- 



1840 — William    Edmundson. 
1 841 — Aquilla  Rogers. 
1847 — J-  B.  Lowe. 
1847— E.  T.  Butler. 

1852-33 — The  jurisdiction  of  probate 
matters  was  transfered  to  the  court  of 
common  pleas,  and  the  probate  judge 
was  aboli.shed. 


1 81 8— Thomas  H.  Blake. 

1 8 19 — Gen.  Washington  Johnson. 

1819 — Jonathan  Doty. 

1822— \V.  ^^'.  Wick. 

1824 — John  E.  Ross. 

1825— B.  F.  Morris. 

1830 — John  Law. 

1830 — Gen.   Washington  Johnson. 

1832 — Amory  Kenney. 
1837 — Elisha  AT.  Huntington. 
1839— David  AIcDonald. 
1852 — James  Hughes. 
185^-A.  B.  Carlton. 
1856 — James  M.  Hanna. 
1858 — Solomon  Claypool. 
1865— D.  R.  Eckles. 

Since  the  last  date  the  courts  have  been  presided  over  by  judges  includ- 
ing Hons.  Martin,  Robert  W.  Myers,  of  Bloomington,  and  James  B.  Wilson, 
of  Bloomington.  Judge  Myers  was  a  member  of  Congress  from  this  dis- 
trict, and  is  now  engaged  in  legal  practice  at  Bloomington. 


1818 — Joseph  Berry. 
1818— Lewis  Noel. 
1 82 1 — John  Sedwick. 
1823— William  Matlock. 
1825— Michael    Buskirk. 
182  s — William  Edmundson. 

1832 — Abram  Buskirk. 
1832 — Stephen  Sealls. 
1839 — Joseph  Reeves. 
1839 — John  M.  Berry. 
1846 — Conrad  Koons. 


1818 — George  C.  Sullivan. 
1818 — John  Law. 
1819 — Addison  C.  Smith. 
1820 — ^John  F.  Ross. 
1825— W.  W.  Wick. 
1825 — Calvin  Fletcher. 
1826 — John  Kingsbury. 

1827 — James  Whitcomb. 
1829 — E.   M.   Huntington. 
1832 — John  P.  Dowden. 
1833 — Paris  C.  Dunning. 

1833 Mcjunkin. 

1835 — David  McDonald. 
1838— D.   R.    Eckles. 


1839 — John  S.  Watts.  1854 — A.  B.  Carlton. 

1843— W.  G.  Quick.  1855— Theodore  Reed. 

1844— C.  P.  Hester.  1855— Francis  L.  Neff. 

1849 — Jolm  S.  Watts.  1857 — Martin  A.  Osborn. 

1850 — James  S.   Hester.  1858^ — Issac  N.  Pierce. 

1 85 1— Samuel  H.  Buskirk.  1 861— Willis   G.    Neff. 

1852— William  M.  Franklin.  1865— M.  A.  Malott. 

1853— William  F.  McLean.  186^-Jacob  A.  Broadwell. 

1853— A.  B.  Carlton.  1868 — John  C.   Robinson. 
1854 — G.  A.  Buskirk. 


Milton  McPhetridge  was  school  commissioner  during  the  thirties  and 
forties,  and  the  examiners  were  Robert  A.  Milligan,  James  Woodburn  and 
John  J.  Poynter,  in  1853:  James  Woodburn,  Ranson  W.  Akin,  and  Benjamin 
Wolfe,  1855;  James  Woodburn,  M.  C.  Campbell  and  Theophilus  A.  Wylie, 
1856;  James  Woodburn,  T.  A.  Wylie  and  Elisha  Ballentine,  1857;  E.  P. 
Cole,  D.  J.  Shaw  and  W.  C.  Foster,  1859;  E.  P.  Cole.  1859-63;  D.  E.  Hunter, 
1863;  James  H.  Rogers.  1865;  T.  M.  Hopkins,  1867;  Edward  Wright,  1869; 
James  H.  Rogers,  1871  ;  M.  M.  Campbell.  1872;  G.  W.  Rumage,  1877;  John 
H.  McGee,  1879;  Frank  Axtell,  1884;  John  Hazel.  1885;  John  H.  Cravens, 
1887;  A.  K.  Dowden,  1891  :  Frank  T.  Tourner.  1893;  Thomas  J.  King,  1897; 
A.  C.  Fan-.  i8q8:  W.  V.  Payne.  1899:  B.  O.  Buzzaird,  1903:  W.  H.  Jones, 


As  near  as  can  be  learned  from  the  records  the  following  served  as 
justices  of  the  peace  in  Monroe  county,  down  to  1836: 

1 818 — James  Bigger,  William  Matlock,  William  Edmundson,  John 
Barnes,  William  Chambers.  Jonathan  Nichols,  James  Wright,  John  Matlock. 

1819 — William  Hardin,  James  Borland. 

1820 — Joseph  Baugh  and  Joshua  H.  Ludes. 

1 82 1 — Daniel  Hawkins,  Fllery  Woodward  and  Samuel  Dodd. 

1823 — John  Swift,  James  Mitchell.  Isaac  Pauley.  Samuel  Hartsock, 
David  Kellough.  Elisha  Pollard.  James  Crane.  Joseph  Reeves. 

1824 — William  Hardin. 

1825 — Michael  Buskirk.  John  Bowland.  Mr.  Banner.  Mr.  Brunnett, 
William  Jones.  Joseph  Baugh,  Acquilla  Rogers. 


1826 — Elzy  Woodward. 

1827 — James  Mitchell,  David  Kellough,  Elisha  Pollard,  Benjamin  Chan- 
dler, Jacob  Mosser.  David  Borrow,  James  Wright. 

1828 — William  Hite,  Alexander  Buchanan. 

1829 — James  Crane,  Joseph  Reeves,  G.  H.  Johnson,  Isaac  Buskirk.  Isaac 
Gillaspi,  David  Byers. 

1830 — George  Parks,  Henry  Burkett,  Acquilla  Rogers. 

183 1 — W.  B.  Mars,  James  Kippe,  Jesse  Renow. 

1832 — John  W.  Lee,  James  Snodgrass,  Jonathan  Rogers. 

1833 — David  Kellough.  David  Paddock,  David  Barrow,  James  Brum- 
mett,  John  Davis,  Benjamin  Chandler.  Samuel  Mart^ck,  John  C.  Marshall, 
Jacob  Hudsonkiller,  Ezekiel  Hendrickson. 

1834 — Henry  Berkley,  D.  G.  Weddell.  Alexander  Buchanan,  James 
Crane,  G.  H.  Johnson,  Joseph  Baugh. 

1835— Alexander  Johnson,  Hugh  McClung,  Isaac  Buskirk,  Robert  Hicks, 
John  McPhetridge.  Emsley  Wood,  Joseph  Mitchell. 

183^-F.  T.  Butler.  Andrew  Wampler,  John  N.  Berry,  William  Hite, 
Elmon  Walker,  \\'illiam  S.  Wright.  David  Byers,  Enos  Blair. 


1818 — Bartlett  Woodward,  Michael  Buskirk.  James  Parks. 

1 81 9 — Elijah  Morgan,  vice  Parks. 

1820 — William  Lowe,  vice  Buskirk. 

1821 — Henry  Batterton,  Micliael  Buskirk. 

1822 — Elijah  Morgan. 

1823 — Joshua  A.  Lucas. 

1824 — Henry  Batterton.  vice  Lucas.  In  September.  1824,  the  justices 
of  the  peace  were  em]:)Owered  by  law  to  transact  the  business  previously  done 
by  the  county  commissioners.  In  183 1  the  law  was  changed  and  three  county 
commissioners  were  in  charge  of  the  affairs  of  this  county. 

1831 — Joseph  Reeves,  Samuel  Patten,  \^'illiam  Jackson. 

1832 — Isaac  W.  Young,  vice  Jackson. 

1833 — Elijah  Morgan,  vice  Patten.  In  1834  county  business  again 
passed  to  the  board  of  justices  and  so  continued  until  1839.  since  which  time 
three  county  commissioners  have  without  interruption  done  the  business. 

In  1838  and  1839  as  high  as  nineteen  justices  assembled  to  do  the  work 
which  has  since  been  transacted  by  three  men.  Gideon  \\^alker,  1830,  for  one 
year;  George  Finley,  1839.  for  two  years;  Benjamin  Rogers,  1839,  for  three 


years;  Isaac  Buskirk,  1840;  James  Finley,  1841 ;  Benjamin  Rogers,  1842; 
Benjamin  Neeld,  1843;  Isaac  Buskirk,  1844;  George  Finley,  1845;  Benja- 
min Neeld,  1846;  David  Barrow,  1847;  George  Finley,  1848;  John  Graham, 
1849;  I-  S.  Buskirk,  1850;  Joseph  S.  Walker,  1851;  Henry  Filer,  1852; 
David  Barrow,  1853;  Benjamin  Rogers.  1854;  Henry  Eller,  1855,  David 
Barrow,  1856;  James  Carmichael,  1857;  Rueben  Ward,  1858;  Thomas  Y. 
Rader,  1859;  James  Carmichael,  i860;  James  Small,  1861 ;  David  Barrow, 
1862;  Thomas  Oliphant,  1863;  George  Eller,  1864;  David  Barrow,  1865; 
Clelland  F.  Doods,  i860;  James  Small,  1867;  T.  Y.  Rader  1868;  Samuel  H. 
Phillips,  1869;  George  Eller,  1870;  John  Hupp,  1871  ;  F.  M.  Oliphant,  1872; 
John  Waldron,  1872;  ^J/.  E.  Wood,  1874;  R.  M.  Wylie,  1875;  George  Eller, 
1876;  William  Peterson,  1877;  J.  D.  Handy,  1878;  John  Huntington,  1879; 
W.  S.  Walker,  1880;  J.  D.  Handy,  1881  ;  William  B.  Baker,  1882;  B.  P. 
Burton,  1883;  Gilmore  and  McCulla,  1886;  Patterson  and  Clay;  Gilmore  and 
Walker;  Welch,  Huntington  and  Sherlock,  1888;  George  W.  Fletcher,  James 
M.  Miller,  1896;  James  F.  Eller,  John  Sure,  1898;  James  Davis,  George  East, 
1900;  James  W.  Davis,  J.  W.  Miller,  1902;  Jacob  Miller,  Samuel  Bennett, 
1904;  B.  F.  Cooter,  O.  W.  Butcher,  1906;  O.  L.  Fletcher,  L.  Dunlap,  1908; 
John  C.  Clay,  L.  Dunlap,  1910;  W.  S.  Walker,  S.  Nisely,  1912. 


At  the  local  option  election  held  in  Monroe  county.  May  25,  1909,  the 
number  of  votes  for  local  option  cast  in  the  county  was  2,619  and  those  cast 
against  the  proposition  was  2,200,  giving  a  majority  for  local  option  of  419. 



While  the  stone  industry  is,  perhaps,  of  more  financial  importance  than 
that  of  agriculture  in  Monroe  county,  yet  as  the  early  and  manv  of  the  later 
years  were  blessed  with  the  products  of  the  soil  in  greater  or  less  abundance, 
this  branch  of  industry  should  find  a  place  in  the  annals  of  the  county. 
As  will  be  observed  later  on  in  this  chapter,  the  pioneers  were  enthusiastic 
in  the  organization  and  maintainance  of  agricultural  societies  and  county  fair 

In  1836.  from  the  county  auditor's  reports  it  is  gleaned  that  the  county 
then  had  1,252  voters  who  paid  poll  tax ;  it  had  72.480  acres  of  cultivated  land, 
valued  at  $699,383. 

The  following  statistical  table  will  be  admissible  in  this  connection : 

Townships.  Polls. 

Richland 181 

Jackson   55 

Perry 128 

Bean  Blossom 123 

Clear  Creek 76 

Indian  Creek 175 

Salt  Creek 85 

Washington 60 

Benton 66 

Bloomington .  303 

1.252  72,480  $  699.383 

In  1909  the  state  reports  gave  Monroe  county  the  following  array  of 
agricultural  statistics,  which  bespeak  much  for  this  branch  of  industry.  The 
corn  crop  was  36,860  acres,  producing  in  round  numbers  one  million  bushels, 
or  an  average  of  about  twenty-five  bushels  per  acre :  its  value  was  placed  at 

(17)  _  : 
























The  wheat  crop  was  placed  at  16,444  acres,  yielding  188,220  bushels, 
the  value  of  which  was  one  dollar  per  bushel. 

The  oat  crop  was  listed  at  7,923  acres,  with  a  total  number  of  bushels 
of  156,000,  valued  at  $62,540. 

The  rye  crop  was  only  72  acres,  with  a  total  of  826  bushels. 

The  barley  crop  was  in  1909  one  acre,  producing  25  bushels,  valued  at 

The  buckwheat  cro])  amounted  to  25  acres,  with  a  yield  of  2^  bushels, 
valued  at  $19. 

The  Irish  potato  crop  was  348  acres,  yielding  27,942  bushels,  valued 
at  $14,000 

The  onion  crop  was  five  acres,  yielding  616  bushels,  valued  at  $370. 

The  tobacco  cro])  was  confined  to  three  acres,  vielding  375  pounds,  valued 
at  $2(). 

The  tomato  crop  was  thirteen  acres,  yielding  31  tons,  valued  at  $248. 

Timothy  hay,  11,000  tons;  alfalfa,  72  tons;  clover,  2,491  tons. 

The  number  of  horses  on  hand  December  31.  1909,  was  placed  at  3,998. 

The  number  of  mules  and  asses  was  651 ,  valued  at  $73,000. 

The  inimber  of  gallons  of  milk  ])roduccd  was  2,228,000:  butter,  in  pounds 
353.40] . 

The  beef  and  stock  cattle  sold  was  2,514,  valued  at  $73,000. 

The  number  of  hogs  over  three  months  old  was  5,375  ;  died  of  disease, 

The  sheep  numbered  5.143:  sold.  3,059:  wool,  24,525  pounds,  valued 
at  $4,764. 

The  number  of  hens  and  other  fowls  sold  was  3,455  dozen;  the  average 
number  of  laying  hens  was  4,524:  dozens  of  eggs  produced,  405,294. 


May,  1835,  seems  to  have  been  the  date  of  the  first  attempt  to  form  an 
agricultural  society  in  Monroe  county.  By  petition  the  county  board  of  com- 
missoners  ordered  that  three  hundred  copies  of  a  notice  be  published  of  a 
meeting  to  be  held  at  the  old  court  house  on  the  last  Saturday  in  May,  in  pur- 
suance of  an  act  of  the  state  Legislature,  entitled  "An  Act  for  the  Encourage- 
ment of  Agriculture,"  approved  February  7,  1835.  This  call  was  for  the  pur- 
pose of  organizing  an  agricultural  society.  This  meeting  was  held  and  there 
was  an  excellent  attendance,  the  result  being  the  formation  of  a  society,  as 
will  be  observed  bv  the  following  certificate:  "We.  Michael  Buskirk,  chair- 


man,  and  Craven  P.  Hester,  secretary,  of  the  Agricultural  Society  of  Monroe 
County  aforesaid,  certify  that  we  were  elected  according  to  law  for  the  offices 
above  mentioned,  and  that  said  society  has  elected  its  officers  and  organized 
itself  agreeably  to  the  act  of  the  Legislature  entitled  'An  Act  for  the  En- 
couragement of  Agriculture.'  appro\ed  h'el:)ruar\-  7,  1835.  Done  on  the  last 
Saturday  of  May,   1835.      *>iven  under  our  hands  June  4,   1835. 

"Michael  Buskirk, 
"C.  P.  Hester." 

There  appears  no  record,  ur  even  a  trace  uf  an  intimation,  that  any- 
thing further  was  done  toward  carrying  out  the  original  plans. 

But  about  1850  a  society  was  formed  here  and  one  or  possibly  more  an- 
nual fairs  were  held,  but  no  positive  record  appears  of  even  these  exhibits  of 
agriailtural  products  in  the  county.  In  1855  the  society  was  revived  and  it 
is  known  that  Austin  Seward  was  its  first  president  and  Lewis  Bollman  its 
secretary.  The  directors  of  this  society  were  Henry  Eller,  Asher  Labertew. 
Austin  Seward.  W.  S.  Stormont,  Joshua  Shreve,  Luke  Sanders,  Joseph 
Bunger,  James  Givens,  Edward  Blakely,  Richard  Moore.  Willis  Spencer. 
Monroe  Houston.  Thomas  Payne  and  Lewis  Bollman. 

The  first  fair  of  this  society  was  held  at  Bloomington.  Wednesday  and 
Thursdav.  Octol:)er  10  and  11.  1855.  There  were  jiremiums  offered  on  one 
hundred  and  sixty-nine  articles,  covering  all  farm  i)roducts.  household  ar- 
ticles, implements  of  agriculture,  live  stock,  fruits,  vegetables  and  garden 
products.  No  premiums  ran  higher  than  three  dollars  and  none  less  than 
fifty  cents.  The  terms  of  admission  were,  per  day,  twenty  cents ;  each  horse 
and  buggv.  twentv  cents ;  single  horse,  ten  cents ;  children  under  ten  years  of 
age.  free. 

The  fair  held  in  1856  had  receipts  amounting  to  $333.20  and  the  deficit 
at  the  close  of  the  fair  was  recorded  as  $61.55. 

equestrian  fairs. 

In  1857  ^  popular  organization  known  as  the  Union  Equestrian  Society 
was  established.  It  was  a  district  society,  and  was  very  well  received  and  at- 
tended for  many  years.  It  was  alternately  held  at  Gosport,  Bloomington 
and  Bedford.  A  Miss  Jackson  won  the  first  prizes  for  a  number  of  years, 
despite  all  opposers.  The  1858  program  read  as  follows: 

"Open  to-  the  World — Second  annual  fair  of  the  Union  Equestrian 
Society,  composed  of  Lawrence.  Owen  and  Monroe  counties,  to  be  held  at 


the  District  Fair  Grounds,  near  Gosport,  Indiana,  on  Thursday  and  Friday, 
the  2 1  St  and  22d  of  October,  next,  1858.  The  exhibition  grounds,  contain- 
ing thirteen  acres,  are  the  most  beautiful  in  the  state,  well  fenced  in,  with 
two  wells  of  water  within  the  inclosure,  and  a  splendid  track  for  gaited 
horses — three  times  around  for  one  mile.  Two  hujidred  and  sixty-five 
dollars  in  cash  premiums!  So  bring  on  all  your  tine  saddle  horses,  harness 
and  match  horses.  The  premiums  are  worth  competing  for.  A  magnificent 
premium  will  be  awarded  to  the  best  and  second  best  female  equestrian.  Also 
to  the  best  male  equestrian.  Young  ladies  and  gentlemen  from  every  sec- 
tion are  invited  to  be  present  and  make  an  exhibition  of  their  proficiency  in 
the  art  of  horse  management  and  equestrian  merit.  Certainly  no  art  is 
more  desii"able  than  that  of  complete  horsemanship,  and  every  young  lady 
and  gentleman  in  our  proud  Hoosier  state  can  lay  some  just  claim  to  profi- 
ciency in  the  art.  Come  on,  then;  if  you  cannot  make  the  display  that  5'our 
friends  can,  come  and  do  your  best,  which  is  laudable."' 

In  these  latter  days  of  fast  spinning  automobiles  and  motorcycles,  the 
art  of  horse-back  riding  has  been  cast  aside  by  both  men  and  women  except 
in  the  larger  cities,  where  it  is  still  considered  a  great  accomplishment  and 
excellent  as  a  health  giver  to  both  sexes. 

These  earlier  fairs  were  all  held  just  to  the  east  of  Bloomington  on 
land  owned  at  one  time  by  Mr.  Dunn,  where  a  small  yard  was  leased  and 
enclosed,  but  it  was  too  small  to  admit  of  racing.  Here  annual  fairs  were 
held  until  the  opening  of  the  Civil  war,  when  all  such  matters  were  aban- 
doned, men  and  women  being  all  too  busy  in  aiding  the  general  government 
in  putting  down  the  unholy  Rebellion.  In  1868,  however,  these  county 
fairs  were  resumed,  and  continued  to  be  held,  with  few  exceptions,  each 
year  until  in  the  eighties,  when  they  went  down  again.  The  later  fairs 
were  held  on  new  grounds,  west  of  Bloomington. 

For  various  reasons,  among  which  is  the  lack  of  interest,  generally, 
and  more  especially  on  account  of  the  growing  interest  and  magnitude  of  the 
state  fair,  the  county  fair  in  more  than  sixty  per  cent,  of  the  counties  in 
Indiana  has  ceased  to  exist,  so  far  as  practical  utility  and  annual  exhibitions 
of  stock,  grain,  fruits,  grasses  and  the  arts  and  domestic  affairs  is  concerned. 
It  has  been  a  number  of  years  since  a  county  fair  in  Monroe  county  has  been 
in  the  minds  of  the  people,  who  really  should  have  such  things  at  heart. 



The  pioneers  were  not  so  much  absorbed  in  land  entries  and  clearing 
up  farms  that  they  neglected  the  education  of  their  children,  for  it  is  found 
that  in  the  winter  of  1 818-19,  the  same  season  that  the  town  began  its 
existence,  school  was  taught  in  the  log  court  house.  The  first  teacher  was 
probably  Addison  Smith.  The  next  school  was  taught  in  a  building  erected 
in  the  summer  of  1819,  at  a  point  where  later  stood  the  old  seminary.  Two 
years  later  another  log  school  house  had  to  be  built  in  order  to  accommo- 
date the  rapidly  growing  village,  it  being  located  in  the  eastern  portion  of  the 
town.  In  1822,  or  possibly  1823.  the  first  brick  building  was  erected  for 
school  purposes,  which,  with  the  two  log  cabin  buildings  and  other  schools 
taught  at  pri\ate  homes,  supplied  the  place  with  suitable  schools  for  a  num- 
ber of  years.  In  the  thirties,  forties  and  fifties  other  houses  were  provided 
for  schools,  mostly,  however,  for  the  younger  scholars.  These  schools  were 
all  of  the  old  style  subscription  order,  that  being  before  there  was  a  free 
school  system  in  Indiana  worthy  of  mention.  Churches  were  frequently 
used  for  school  purposes,  and  the  second  stories  of  business  blocks  on  the 
Square  w'ere  rented  for  a  series  of  vears  Iw  educators,  who.  in  time,  trans- 
formed them  into  seats  of  learning.  These  schools  were  largely  ior  the 
younger  pupils,  too  young  to  enter  the  seminary  or  uni\ersity.  Prof.  D.  E. 
Hunter  was  prominent  as  a  teacher  in  the  fifties  and  on  into  the  sixties.  The 
teachers  of  the  schools  were  mostly  young  ladies,  who  were  scattered 
throughout  the  town  in  various  improvised  school  houses.  Xo  grading  was 
attempted :  scholars,  large  and  small,  attended  the  school  nearest  to  their 
residence,  or  where  the  "'school-mam"'  or  "master"  was  best  liked  by  the 
parents.  Manv  of  these  schools  were  of  the  highest  excellence,  l>eing  taught 
by  graduates  of  the  seminary  or  some  unixersity  from  abroad.  Not  until 
1863 — middle  of  the  Ci\il  war  period — was  there  any  attemj)!  at  grading 
the  schools  here  in  Bloomington.  Profess(^r  Hunter  being  the  first  to  lead 
off  in  this  important  feature  of  education.  A  \mh\k  meeting  was  held  in 
July.  1863.  a  large  number  being  present.  Professor  Hunter  explained  the 
character  of  a  high  school.     Other  meetings  were  held  and  the  first  term  of  a 


graded  school  in  the  countv  was  opened  early  in  September,  with  Professor 
Hunter  as  principal :  assistants  in  the  old  Baptist  church  were  Miss  Mattie 
Cherry.  Miss  Lizzie  Anderson  and  Miss  Laura  Verbryke;  assistants  in  the 
new  building,  Miss  M.  McCalla ;  assistant  in  the  Second  Presbyterian  church, 
Miss  Mary  Anderson,  Professor  .Hunter  held  sway  in  the  "new  building," 
which  was  none  other  than  the  old  tannery,  then  standing  on  the  site  of 
what  was  later  the  high  school  building.  Milton  Hite  was  trustee  and  an- 
nounced that  the  school  system  was  "free  to  all  in  the  incorporation.'"  It 
was  necessary  to  increase  the  school  fund  by  several  hundred  dollars,  which 
amount  was  secured  by  subscription  among  the  citizens. 

Soon  after  the  school  started,  another  primary  department  was  estab- 
lished with  Mrs.  S.  S.  Getzendanner  as  teacher.  The  old  Center  school 
house,  as  it  was  so  long  styled,  was  used,  also  a  frame  building  on  Seventh 
street,  between  Lincoln  and  Grant  streets.  The  old  tannery  building  was 
thoroughly  titted  up  and  four  departments  were  instituted  in  1864.  This 
seems  to  have  been  about  the  state  of  affairs  until  the  high  school  building 
was  begun  in  1871  and  completed  in  1875.  costing  fifty  thousand  dollars. 
Here  should  be  mentioned  such  principals  and  superintendents  as  Profs.  D. 
E.  Hunter,  E.  P.  Cole,  G.  W.  Lee,  James  M.  Wilson,  W.  R.  Houghton  and 
Miss  M.  H.  McCalla. 


In  Perry  township,  where  the  schools  were  reported  forty  years  ago  as 
being  superior  to  any  other  in  the  country  districts  of  Monroe  county, 
schools  were  commenced  in  the  twentie.s — one  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 
Pauleys  and  one  in  the  southwestern  corner  of  the  township.  By  1854  not 
less  than  five  houses  were  standing  in  which  school  was  taught,  all  being 
log  structures.  In  e\'ery  advancement.  Perry  was  first  to  adopt  advanced 
methods,  and  in  1883  there  were  eight  school  houses,  and  more  of  them 
brick  than  in  any  other  section  of  the  county.  The  six  brick  buildings  in  1883 
in  one  township  in  this  county  w  as  indeed  a  monument  to  the  good  sense  of 
Perry's  people  in  educational  matters.  These  buildings  were  mostly  twenty- 
four  by  thirty  feet  in  size. 

In  Bean  Blossom  township  the  first  school  was  taught  in  the  Putnam 
neighborhood,  about  1828,  by  a  Mr.  Taylor.  The  house  was  a  log  cabin, 
vacated  by  some  pioneer  settler.  A  school  was,  about  that  date,  started  in 
the  Buskirk  vicinity.  In  1836  there  were  four  schools  established — one  east 
of  Mt.  Tabor,  one  west  of  that  place,  one  a  mile  and  a  half  south  of  Stines- 


ville,  and  the  fourth  three  miles  west  of  the  last  named  \illagc.  In  1846 
there  were  six  schools  in  the  township.  Three  famous  teachers  during  the 
decade  of  the  thirties  were  Eusel>ius,  Euraneus  and  Ambrose  Hinkle,  broth- 
ers, who  were  sons  of  wealthy  slave-holders  of  'i'ennessee.  All  were  fine 
young  men.  The  elder  of  these  was  a  Lutheran  minister  and  used  to  preach 
the  Word  of  Life  to  German  members  of  his  cinn-ch,  who  could  not  well 
understand  English.  Clinton  C.  Owens  was  another  well  educated  and 
polished  teacher  of  pronounced  success.  In  1880  this  townshi])  had  nine 
good  frame  school  houses,  all  about  twenty  b\  twent\"-f()ur   feet. 

In  Richland  township  the  first  school  was  taught  during  the  winter  of 
1822-23,  in  a  log  cabin  which  stood  about  where  later  was  Ijuilt  the  residence 
of  William  Draper.  The  building  was  of  round  logs  and  a  huge  fireplace 
graced  its  enclosure.  It  took  in  logs  six  feet  long  and  as  big  as  could  well 
be  rolled  into  place.  A  log  of  the  walls  was  cut  out  on  the  south  side,  over 
which  greased  paper  was  placed  instead  of  window  glass,  which  was  then 
but  little  in  use  in  this  part  of  the  West.  The  first  teacher,  William  Raw- 
lins, was  also  the  county's  first  treasurer.  The  term  of  school  was  three 
months.  Manv  prominent  men  there  learned  the  rudiments  of  their  later 
higher  education.  The  building  referred  to  was  used  about  five  years.  Porter 
Edmundson  built  at  his  (^wn  expense  the  next  building  and  in  it  he  taught 
school.  Benjamin  Reeves  taught  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  township 
in  1823-24.  In  1856  the  township  had  eight  school  buildings,  some  being 
good  frame  structures.  In  1880  the  reports  show  that  the  township  had  five 
frame  and  two  good  brick  buildings.  In  Ellettsville.  prior  to  1855,  variovis 
buildings  were  used  for  school  purposes,  and  at  that  time  a  new  building  of 
frame,  with  two  rooms,  was  erected,  and  used  till  the  brick  building  was 
built  at  a  cost  of  seven  thousand  dollars.  It  was  built  by  the  township  a'nd 
was  occupied  by  five  good  instructors. 

In  Van  Buren  township  the  first  school  was  taught  about  1824.  at  what 
afterwards  Ix^came  known  as  Harmony,  Jonathan  Nichols  I)eing  the  first 
teacher.  The  building  was  a  vacated  log  cabin  of  a  pioneer,  who  had  moved 
away  from  the  county.  Probably  the  next  schools  were  held  at  the  \illage 
of  Harmony,  under  the  supervision  of  the  "Blue  Springs  Community"  (see 
account  of  this  community  elsewhere).  In  1828  a  school  was  started  in  the 
southeast  part  of  the  township,  and  one  al)out  1830  in  the  north  ])arl.  In 
1847  there  were  eight  schools  in  this  township.  With  the  enacting  of  the 
1853  school  laws,  new  buildings  went  up  here  and  there  in  this  township, 
and  delighted  were  both  pupils  and  patrons,  and  teachers  as  well.      In   1880 


81  the  reijorts  show  the  township  to  have  had  eight  good  frame  school 
houses,  all  twenty-two  by  twenty-eight  feet  in  size. 

In  Indian  Creek  township  it  is  believed  the  first  school  was  taught  near 
the  cabin  home  of  Elmore  Walker,  about  1824.  and  it  is  certain  that  another 
was  taught  in  the  Burch  neighborhood  and  one  in  the  Dick  neighborhood 
about  that  date.  Two  of  these  schools  were  held  in  vacated  log  cabins. 
Winter  schools  were  the  rule  then.  The  Burches  were  among  the  earliest 
teachers.  In  1846  the  township  had  five  school  houses  and  ten  years  later 
eight  were  found,  all  prosperous  for  the  day  in  which  they  existed.  In 
1880-81  the  township  had  nine  excellent  frame  school  houses  and  nine 
school  districts.  From  that  date  on  the  schools  have  kept  pace  with  the 
advancement  in  state  educational  and  public  school  afifairs. 

In  Clear  Creek  township  the  first  school  was  probably  taught  in  1822 
near  the  old  Woodward  homestead,  a  short  distance  south  of  present  Smith- 
ville.  It  was  held  in  a  vacated  log  cabin.  Another  early  school  was  near 
Fairfax,  and  still  another  in  the  Rogers  settlement.  The  Chambers  were  the 
founders  of  a  school  about  1830.  In  1840  the  old  log  school  house  at  Har- 
rodsburg  was  erected  and  used  for  both  school  and  church  purposes.  A 
school  was  taught  at  F'airfax  in  1838.  The  Harrodsburg  building  was 
burned  in  1851,  when  a  small  frame  store  building  took  its  place.  Dr. 
James  Beatley,  who  was  a  l>etter  teacher  than  physician,  was  among  the 
pioneer  instructors.  A  l^etter,  larger  two-stor}"  frame  building  was  pro- 
vided at  Harrodsburg,  at  a  cost  of  one  thousand  dollars,  in  Civil  war  days. 
In  1881  the  township  had  nine  frame  school  houses,  twent)-  bv  twenty-six 
feet  in  size,  and  there  were  nine  districts. 

In  Washington  township,  during  the  thirties,  in  the  Colier  and  Bales 
neighborhoods,  there  were  probably  the  first  schools  of  the  township.  These 
schools  were  taught  in  the  rudest  of  rude  school  buildings — simply  pole 
cabins,  and  in  which  the  children  of  two.  or  sometimes  three  families  as- 
sembled for  instruction.  Then  it  was  that  children  in  this  part  of  the  coun- 
try went  to  school  w^inter  and  summer  barefooted.  The  child  would  get 
so  used  to  going  without  foot  protection  that  the  foot  became  hard  and 
calloused.  Sometimes,  on  severe  winter  mornings  the  child  might  heat  a  sea- 
soned hickory  board  by  the  fire  at  home  and  fasten  it  to  his  foot,  then  start 
on  the  run  for  the  school  house.  These  incidents  actually  happened  in  sev- 
eral neighborhoods  in  Washington  township  in  the  pioneer  days.  By  1880 
the  township  had  become  fully  equipped  with  good  school  houses,  of  which 
the  reports  say  there  were  eight,  all  frame  structures.     Today  one  visiting 


this  section  of  the  county  would  scarce  beheve  that  such  hardships  as  have 
been  recited  could  ever  have  transpired  in  the  township. 

In  Benton  township  the  first  school  was  taught  near  the  residence  of 
Hugh  McClung  about  1838.  The  next  was  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
township,  and  the  third  near  what  is  now  the  village  of  Unionville.  In  the 
first  school  named  were  the  children  of  early  settlers — the  Coxes,  Richard- 
sons,  Robinsons,  Youngs,  Mosiers,  McClungs.  Alexanders  and  others.  By 
1856  the  township  had  been  provided  with  five  fairly  constructed  school 
buildings.  In  1881  there  were  eight  good  frame  buildings  and  an  average 
attendance  of  about  thirty-six  in  each  district.  Since  then  the  school  system 
here,  in  common  with  all  other  Monroe  townships,  has  materially  improved. 

In  Polk  township  the  first  school  was  taught  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Todds,  early  in  the  forties ;  the  name  of  the  teacher  has  long  since  passed 
from  the  memory  of  those  now  living  there.  The  house  was  of  unhewed 
logs,  and  had  been  built  by  some  squatter  who  had  sickened  of  the  country 
and  left  for  greener  pastures — to  do  better,  or  perchance  worse!  In  1856 
the  township  had  only  four  school  buildings.  Mr.  Todd  donated  the  land  on 
section  26  for  a  school  house,  and  William  Hunter  the  land  for  a  school  on 
section  31,  range  2  east;  the  latter  included  the  fine  spring  of  water  near  by. 
Early  in  the  fifties  the  Methodist  church,  called  Chapel  Hill,  was  organized 
in  this  neighborhood.  In  1880  the  township  had  seven  frame  and  two  poor 
log  school  houses,  with  an  average  attendance  of  thirty-seven  pupils. 

In  Marion  township  schools  were  not  established  until  late  in  the  forties, 
and  even  then  thev  were  few  and  poorly  conducted  anil  attended.  The 
first  houses  were  of  logs,  rudely  built,  and  were  indeed  uninviting  places 
until  cold  weather  came  on.  when  the  huge  fireplaces  were  filled  with  roaring 
logs  of  hipkory  and  birch,  casting  a  deep,  dark  red  glow  on  the  dingy  walls. 
Early  in  the  fifties  a  good  school  was  opened  in  the  Hendrickson  neighbor- 
hood, and  for  a  time  was  the  onl}-  really  good  common  school  conducted  in 
the  township.  Later,  one  equally  as  good  was  opened  in  the  northern  part 
of  the  township,  in  the  Stepp  neighborhood.  In  1879  there  were  five  fairly 
good  schools  within  this  township.  The  early  residents  in  the  southern  por- 
tion were  compelled  to  attend  school  at  Unionville,  in  order  to  get  the  relig- 
ious instruction  desired  by  the  parents. 


This  institution  was  organized  as  soon  as  the  county  itself  was,  though 
no  building  was  erected  until   1835.   The   funds   from  fines,   penalties,   etc.. 


had  continued  to  accumulate  until  at  the  time  of  the  erection  of  the  house 
ihey  amounted  to  about  two  thousand  dollars.  The  building  was  commenced 
in  1832  or  1833,  and  finished  in  1835.  Before  that,  however,  aside  from 
the  Indiana  College  (now  the  University),  Professor  Pering  had  estab- 
lished in  Bloomington  a  female  institute,  which  grew  into  a  considerable 
school.  It  will  be  remembered  that  at  that  date  no  females  were  admitted 
into  the'i Indiana  University  (College),  hence  the  demand  upon  the  part  of 
women  for  a  schooling  place  for  their  sex. 

It  was  this  sentiment  that  caused  the  Legislature  to  establish  the  Mon- 
roe County  Female  Seminary,  with  the  following  persons  as  incorporators; 
John  Borland,  John  Hight,  William  Alexander,  James  D.  Robertson,  Fred- 
erick T.  Butler,  Austin  Seward.  Richard  Hardesty,  Fllis  Stone  and  John 
Graham.  The  building  erected  in  1835  was  a  brick  structure  thirty  by  fifty 
feet,  two  stories  high,  containing  two  large  halls,  and  four  smaller  rooms. 
The  trustees  ordered  that  all  doors  and  windows  be  thrown  open  at  inter- 
mission for  proper  ventilation.  Single  desks  were  ordered  to  take  the  place 
of  the  long  benches.  The  first  principal  was  Prof.  Cornelius  Pering,  A.  M., 
a  professional  teacher  direct  from  London,  England.  He  had  been  well 
educated  at  the  Royal  Academy  of  London,  and  was  thoroughly  qualified 
for  the  duties  he  was  called  to  perform  here  in  Bloomington.  From  the 
summer  of  1835  to  1842  nearly  four  hundred  young  ladies  finished  this 
seminarv  course.  In  all,  eight  hundred  girls  and  misses  attended  this  in- 
stitution.    The  average  attendance  each  term  was  about  sixty. 

Following  Professor  Pering  came,  in  1849,  Mrs.  E.  J.  McFerson.  under 
whom  the  school  was  greatly  improved  in  many  ways  peculiar  to  a  woman's 
instruction  of  ladies.  The  school  was  the  pride  of  the  town  and  the  faithful 
instructor  was  fairly  .idolized  by  all  in  the  community.  In  1857  Mrs.  Mc- 
Ferson was  succeeded  by  Prof.  E.  P.  Cole,  who  had  charge  until  1863.  when 
the  high  school  system  obtained  for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  this  county. 
A  few  years  more  and  the  old  seminary  building  was  converted  into  a  dwell- 
ing house  and  the  history  of  the  institution  was  ready  to  be  written. 


The  law  of  1852-53  provided  for  the  sale  of  county  seminaries  and  the 
transfer  of  the  proceeds  to  the  common  school  fund.  The  Methodists  of 
Bloomington  had  talked  some  time  of  founding  an  academy  or  seminary 
of  their  denomniation  at  Bloomington,  and  purchased  the  old  seminary  at 


auction,  but  before  the  deed  was  signed  it  was  learned  that  the  title  possibly 
might  be  defective,  hence  the  sale  fell  through,  but  the  church  went  ahead 
and  organized  the  Bloomington  Female  College,  using  their  church  building 
for  the  purpose.  Rev.  T.  H.  Sinex  was  the  first  president,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded in  1856  by  Rev.  M.  M.  Tooks.  A  large  college  boarding  hall  was 
kept  on  Sixth  street  between  Walnut  and  \\'ashington.  In  1858  Rev.  A.  D. 
Lynch  succeeded  Rev.  Tooks  as  president  of  the  college.  He  remained 
until  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil  war,  when  the  institution  closed   forever. 


Strange  as  it  seems  to  us  today,  the  truth  is  that  the  people  of  Indiana, 
generally,  including  the  citizens  of  Monroe  county,  did  not  favor  the  adop- 
tion of  the  new  cherished  free  school  s\steni,  as  is  seen  by  the  following  re- 
turns of  the  election  held  over  that  issue  in  1849  • 

»  For  Free     Against  Free 

Townships.  Schools.  Schools. 

Bean  Blossom 59  112 

Benton    44  41 

Bloomington 128  307 

Clear  Creek 76  85 

Indian  Creek 40  loi 

Marion 16  35 

Richland 59  128 

Perry   127  20 

Salt  Creek 39  60 

Van    Buren ~ 1  43  113 

W^ashingron    36  38 

(y6~  1 .040 

Majority  against iy2> 

Not  until  the  close  of  the  Civil  war  did  educational  interests  make  any 
marked  headway  under  the  new  school  laws  of  the  state.  But  when  once 
understood  and  tested  out,  the  system  of  free  schools  was  greatly  appre- 
ciated, notwithstanding  there  had  been  many  "Doubting  Thomases"  in  the 
county,  as  has  been  indicated  by  the  above  \ote  b)-  townships. 


SCHOOLS    OF    1 91 3. 

According  to  a  digest  from  the  annual  report  of  the  county  school  su- 
perintendent, the  following  showing  was  made  at  the  end  of  the  school  year 
in  1913: 

Pupils  of 
Elementary     Teachers 
and  High     below  High 
Corporation.  School.        School.       Buildings. 

Bean    Blossom    400  15  10 

Benton 207  9  9 

Bloomington 370  10    ,  9 

Clear    Creek    417  12  8 

Indian   Creek    212  9  9 

Marion    74  5.5 

Perry 385  10  8 

Polk 265  9  9 

Richland    187  8  8 

Salt   Creek   229  8  8 

Van   Buren   322  10  9 

Washington 173  9  9 

Total    3-241  114  loi 

Ellettsville  (town) 177  5  2 

Bloomington   (city)    2,226  42  7 

Grand  total 5.664  161  no 

Perhaps  no  more  fitting  estimate  of  the  Bloomington  schools  of  this 
date  can  l)e  had  than  to  quote  the  language  of  the  Commercial  Club  in  its 
beautiful,  well  compiled  souvenir  issued  in  1912,  which  reads  as  follows: 

The  city  of  Bloomington  believes  in  supporting  well  its  public  school 
system.  The  history  of  the  school  from  the  time  of  its  organization  up  to 
the  present  reveals  this  fact.  Aside  from  supplying  the  schools  with  a 
maximum  support  from  taxation,  the  community  has  on  various  occasions 
made  individual  donations  for  special  purposes,  such  as  decorating  play- 
grounds and  e(|uipping  the  same,  also  furnishing  pictures.     In  addition  to  all 


this  the  patrons  by  their  visits  and  encouragement  ha\e  evidenced  their 
interest  and  their  faith  in  the  schools. 

It  is  this  interest  and  this  faith  that  has  helped  to  build  up  and  maintain 
the  present  educational  standards  here  that  demand  well  qualified  school 
officials  and  teachers.  The  high  school  qualifications  of  school  board  mem- 
bers, and  of  teachers  throughout  the  history  of  the  schools,  has  been  no  acci- 
dent. At  present  seventy  per  cent,  of  the  teaching  corps  throughout  the 
whole  system  are  graduates  of  universities,  colleges  or  normal  schools.  The 
high  school  faculty  of  sixteen  members  is  composed  entirely  of  graduates. 
A  minimum  requirement  for  appointment  in  the  grades  is  successful  ex- 
perience and  two  years'  academic  w  ork  in  addition  to  gratluation  from  high 

Another  factor  that  has  figured  in  the  maintenance  of  a  good  school 
spirit  and  standard  in  Bloomington  is  the  presence  of  the  State  University, 
where  all  connected  with  the  public  schools  have  access  to  the  university 
library  and  can  frequently  arrange  to  attend  lectures.  There  has  been  at 
work,  too,  for  many  years,  a  spirit  of  co-operation  between  the  department 
of  education  in  the  university  and  the  public  schools  of  the  city,  which  has 
resulted  in  mutual  benefit.  In  connection  with  the  university  a  plan  has 
been  worked  out  wherebv  pupils  who  need  special  attention  more  than  the 
teacher  of  the  room  is  al^le  to  give,  can  receive  outside  individual  help,  free 
of  charge.  Each  summer,  too.  from  seventy-five  to  one  hundred  of  the  city's 
two  thousand  pupils  are  in  school  from  six  to  eight  weeks,  strengthening 
themselves  in  weak  places,  or  getting  assistance  in  making  up  a  part  or  all  of 
a  grade.  In  this  way  Blooinington  has  been  able  to  do  a  great  deal  toward 
adapting  its  schools  to  the  special  needs  and  opportunities  connected  with 
this  particular  community.  This  adaptation  is  further  seen  in  the  provision  for 
promotion  for  subjects  instead  of  by  grades  in  the  eighth  year,  by  the  intro- 
duction of  commercial  subjects  in  the  high  school,  of  manual  training  in 
grades,  and  of  Latin,  with  special  groups,  in  the  grades. 

In  t|ie  matter  of  supervision  of  work,  things  are  so  organized  that  the 
principals  of  the  buildings  give  from  one-fourth  to  one-half  of  their  time 
in  the  general  oversight  of  the  work.  Drawing,  music  and  manual  training 
are  in  charge  of  special  supervisors. 

The  buildings,  though  not  all  of  recent  construction,  are  supplied  with 
modern  heating  plants  and  are  in  a  satisfactory  sanitary  condition.  With 
only  one  exception,  each  building  is  on  a  lot  large  enough  to  afford  ample 
play-ground,  the  grounds  ranging  from  a  quarter  of  a  block  to  ten  acres  in 


extent.  These  grounds  are  being  rapidly  equipped  with  play  ground  appara- 
tus. Supplementary  material  in  way  of  readers,  text-books,  reference  books, 
maps,  globes,  etc.,  have  been  generously  supplied. 

The  fine  spirit  of  support  that  the  community  is  giving  its  school  sys- 
tem makes  the  new  undertaking  of  new  educational  problems  promising. 
More  than  that,  it  provides  teachers  capable  of  and  willing  to  cope  with  new 
conditions  and  new  problems.  It  accounts  also  for  the  excellent  spirit  of 
the  pupils,  a  spirit  of  co-operation  and  of  work.  Bloomington  feels,  there- 
fore, that  she  has  in  her  schools  an  inducement  to  offer  to  those  that  are  con- 
sidering a  change  of  location. 


CHAPTER  IX.  •    •    • ! 


Bloomington,  Alonroe  count}-,  is  the  seat  of  the  Indiana  State  Univer- 
sity. Much  has  been  written  concerning  this  great  educational  institution 
which  has  sent  out  and  is  from  year  to  year  continuing  to  send  forth  to  the 
world  many  men  who  ha\e  and  will  in  the  future  become  potent  factors  for 
great  good  to  the  world  at  large,  perforce  of  the  training  they  have  received 
at  this  place.  For  the  purpose  of  making  a  proper  record  of  the  university 
in  the  annals  of  the  county  in  which  it  is  situated,  the  following  is  deemed 

In  1838  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Legislature  to  establish  a  university 
in  the  state  and  John  Law.  of  Knox  county.  Robert  Dale  Owen,  of  Posey 
county,  Richard  W.  Thompson,  of  Lawrence  county,  Samuel  R.  Hosovuer, 
of  Wayne  county,  P.  C.  Dunning,  James  Blair,  Joshua  O.  Howe,  Chesley  D. 
Baile}-.  A\'illiam  Turner  and  Lero}-  Mayfield,  of  Monroe  county,  were  ap- 
pointed trustees  to  make  the  change  from  the  Indiana  College  to  the  Indiana 
University.  The  history  of  the  old  seminary  and  college  that  preceded  it 
will  be  found  later  on  in  this  chapter. 

The  above  board  of  trustees  met  May  24,  1838.  elected  Paris  C.  Dun- 
ning president  of  the  board,  and  James  D.  Maxwell,  secretary,  and  made 
such  changes  as  they  deemed  necessary.  A  new  building  was  erected  of 
brick  and  the  course  of  study  was  widened.  Andrew  Wylie.  D.  D..  served 
as  president  until  his  death  in  1851.  when  for  two  years  Theophilus  A. 
Wylie,  Daniel  Reed  and  Alfred  Ryors  acted  as  such.  In  1853  William  M. 
Daily  was  appointed  president,  serving  until  1858,  when  serious  trouble 
arose  and  he  resigned.  On  All  Fool's  day^  1854,  the  college  Imilding  was 
destroyed  by  fire,  which  loss  embarrassed  the  institution  very  materially,  as 
not  only  were  the  recitation  rooms  gone,  but  a  ^'aluable  library  of  rare  works 
was  burned.  It  is  supposed  this  fire  was  caused  by  an  incendiary.  The 
citizens  at  once  went  to  work  to  funds  for  a  new  buildidig.  They  re- 
ceived a  meager  sum  from  the  state,  and  in  1859  completed  the  building  that 
was  still  standing  in  1883,  and  used  by  the  university  of  that  date.  It  stood 
on  the  old  campus  south  of  town. 


After  the  resignation  of  President  Daily,  in  1858,  T.  A.  Wylie  acted 
as  such  for  a  year,  and  John  H.  Lathrop  for  a  year,  or  until  i860,  when 
Cyrus  Nutt  was  appointed,  the  latter  serving  from  i860  to  1875.  ^^  the 
year  last  named  Lemuel  Moss,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  was  chosen  president,  in  which 
capacity  he  served  until  1884  and  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  David  Starr  Jordan. 
,  The  fine  brick  building,  erected  on  the  old  campus  late  in  the  seventies 
for  the  use  of  the  scientific  department,  was  destroyed  by  lightning  in  July, 
1883,  incurring  a  loss  of  about  three  hundred  thousand  dollars.  The  library, 
of  twelve  thousand  volumes,  the  Owen  collection  of  fossils,  etc.,  and  other 
valuable  articles  were  also  destroyed.  In  1883  the  trustees  of  the  university 
purchased  a  tract  of  twenty  acres  in  Dunn's  woods,  fronting  Fifth  street, 
and  made  preparations  to  erect  thereon  two  brick  buildings,  one  for  the  main 
university  edifice  and  another  for  the  scientific  department.  This  twenty- 
acre  tract  cost  six  thousand  dollars.  This  appears  to  have  been  the  brief  his- 
tory up  to  the  autumn  of  1883. 

From  year  books,  historical  accounts,  and  various  information  pub- 
lished by  authority  of  the  state,  and  from  personal  interviews  with  those  in 
authority  at  the  university  in  the  summer  of  1913,  the  following  is  the  con- 
densed history  of  this  institution,  of  which  Bloomington,  Monroe  county 
and  all  the  great  commonwealth  of  Indiana  take  a  just  pride : 


The  legislation  which  led  to  the  founding  of  Indiana  University  begins 
M'ith  t\\  o  acts  of  Congress  setting  aside  portions  of  the  public  domain,  within 
the  limits  of  the  present  state  of  Indiana,  for  the  endowment  of  an  institution 
of  higher  learning.  The  first  of  these  is  an  act,  approved  March  26,  1804, 
for  the  disposal  of  the  public  lands  in  the  Indiana  territory ;  in  it  provision 
is  made  for  the  reservation  '"of  an  entire  township  in  each  of  the  three 
described  tracts  of  country  or  districts  [Detroit.  Kaskaskia.  and  Vincennes], 
to  be  located  by  the  secretary  of  the  treasury,  for  the  use  of  a  seminary  of 
learning."  The  second  is  the  act  of  April  16,  1816,  which  provides  for  the 
admission  into  the  Union  of  the  district  of  Vincennes  as  the  state  of  In- 
diana; in  this  an  additional  township  is  set  aside  "for  the  use  of  a  seminary 
of  learning,  and  vested  in  the  Legislature  of  said  state,  to  be  appropriated 
solely  to  the  uses  of  such  seminary  by  the  said  Legislature."  These  two 
seminary  townships  for  Indiana  were  chosen  as  follows :  One  in  what  is 
now  Gibson  county,  October  10,  1806,  by  Albert  Gallatin  as  secretary  of  the 


treasury;  the  other  by  President  Madison,  in  i8i6,  in  wliat  is  now  Monroe 


The  first  act  of  local  legislation  looking  toward  a  university  in  Indiana 
was  the  act  of  the  Territorial  Legislature,' approved  November  9,  1806.  estab- 
lishing in  the  borough  of  Vincennes  "an  university  *  *  *  to  be  known 
by  the  name  and  style  of  The  Vincennes  University."'  and  appropriating  to 
its  use  the  township  of  land  reserved  by  the  act  of  Congress  of  1804.  Owing 
to  a  number  of  causes  the  institution  thus  founded  did  not  prosper,  so  that 
when  the  Indiana  Seminary,  which  was  later  to  become  the  Indiana  Univer- 
sity, was  established,  the  General  Assembly  turned  over  to  it  the  Gibson 
county  lands,  together  with  the  township  of  land  in  Monroe  county.  This 
action  led  to  a  long  and  tedious  litigation,  which  resulted  finallv  in  a  verdict 
of  the  supreme  court  of  the  United  States,  in  1852,  in  favor  of  Vincennes 
University.  To  compensate  the  urliversity  for  the  loss  of  endowment  thus 
sustained.  Congress  granted  to  the  state  nineteen  thousand  and  forty  acres 
of  public  land  in  Indiana  "for  the  use  of  the  Indiana  University.''  (Act  of 
February  23,  1854.) 

In  the  Constitution  of  the  state,  adopted  in  1816  upon  its  admission  to 
the  Union,  the  following  provisions  occur  with  respect  to  education : 

,      ARTICLE    IX. 

Section  i.  Kjiowledge  and  learning,  generally  diffused  through  a  com- 
munity, being  essential  to  the  preservation  of  a  free  government,  and  spread- 
ing the  opportunities  and  advantages  of  education  through  the  various  parts 
of  the  country  being  highly  conducive  to  this  end,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
General  Assembly  to  provide  by  law,  for  the  improvement  of  such  lands  as 
are,  or  hereafter  may  be  granted  by  the  United  States  to  this  state  for  the 
use  of  schools,  and  to  apply  any  funds  which  may  be  raised  from  such  lands, 
or  from  any  other  quarter,  to  the  accomplishment  of  the  grand  object  for 
which  they  are  or  may  be  intended :  But  no  lands  granted  for  the  use  of 
schools  or  seminaries  of  learning,  shall  be  sold  by  authority  of  this  state,  prior 
to  the  year  eighteen  hundred  and  twenty ;  and  the  monies  which  may  be  raised 
out  of  the  sale  of  any  such  lands  or  otherwise  obtained  for  the  purpose 
aforesaid,  shall  be  and  remain  a  fund  for  the  exclusive  purpose  of  promoting 
the  interest  of  literature  and  the  sciences,  and  for  the  support  of  seminaries 


and  public  scliools.  The  General  Assembly  shall,  from  time  to  time,  pass 
such  laws  as  shall  be  calculated  to  encourage  Intellectual,  scientific,  and  agri- 
cultural improvement,  by  allowing  rewards  and  immunities  for  the  promo- 
tion and  improvement  of  arts,  sciences,  commerce,  manufactures,  and  natural 
history;  and  to  countenance  and  encourage  the  principles  of  humanity,  in- 
dustry and  morality. 

Sec.  2.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  General  Assembly,  as  soon  as  cir- 
cumstances will  i>ermit,  to  provide  by  law,  for  a  general  system  of  education, 
ascending  in  a  regular  graduation  from  township  schools  to  a  state  university, 
wherein  tuition  shall  be  gratis,  and  equally  open  to  all. 


In  accordance  with  this  provision  of  the  Constitution,  the  General  As- 
sembly, by  an  act  passed  and  approved  January  20,  1820,  took  the  first  defi- 
nite step  toward  the  establishing  of  the  Indiana  University.  The  act  is  as 
follows :  . 

AN  ACT  to  establish  a  State  Seininary.  and  for  other  purposes. 

[Appro\ed  January  20,   1820.] 

Section  i.  Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Indiana, 
that  Charles  Dewey,  Jonathan  Lindley,  David  H.  Maxwell.  John  M.  Jenkins, 
Jonathan  Nichols  and  William  Lowe  be,  and  they  are  hereby  appointed  trus- 
tees of  the  State  Seminary,  for  the  state  of  Indiana,  and  shall  be  known  by 
the  name  and  style  of  the  trustees  of  the  State  Seminary  of  the  State  of  In- 
diana, and  they,  and  their  successors  in  office,  shall  have  perpetual  succession, 
and  by  the  name  and  style  aforesaid,  shall  be  able  and  capable  in  law,  to  sue, 
and  be  sued,  plead  and  be  impleaded,  answer,  and  be  answered  unto,  as  a 
bod}-  corporate  and  politic,  in  any  court  of  justice:  and  the  trustees  hereby 
appointed  shall  continue  in  office  until  the  first  day  of  January,  one  thousand' 
eight  hundred  and  twentv-one,  and  until  their  successors  are  chosen  and 

Sec.  2.  The  trustees  aforesaid,  or  a  majority  of  them,  shall  meet  at 
Bloomington,  in  the  county  of  Monroe,  on  the  first  Monday  in  June  next,  or 
so  soon  thereafter  as  may  be  convenient,  and  being  first  duly  sworn  to  dis- 
charge the  duties  of  their  office,  shall  repair  to  the  reserved  township  of  land 
in  said  county,  which  was  granted  by  Congress  to  this  state  for  the  use  of  a 


seminary  of  learning,  and  proceed  to  select  an  eligible  and  convenient  site  for 
a  state  seminary. 

Sec.  3.  It  shall  be  lawful  for  the  trustees  hereby  appointed  to  appoint 
an  agent,  who  shall  give  bond  with  security  to  be  approved  of  by  the  trustees 
aforesaid,  payable  to  the  governor  and  his  successors  in  office,  for  the  use 
of  the  State  Seminary  aforesaid,  in  the  sum  of  twenty  thousand  dollars, 
conditioned  for  the  faithful  performance  of  the  duties  of  his  office;  and  it 
shall  be  the  duty  of  the  agent  aforesaid,  after  taking  an  oath  of  office,  to 
proceed  to  lay  off  and  expose  to  sale,  under  the  sanction  of  the  trustees 
aforesaid,  any  number  of  lots,  or  quantity  of  land,  within  the  reserved  town- 
ship, aforesaid,  and  contiguous  to  Bloomington,  not  exceeding  one  section, 
or  six  hundred  and  forty  acres  thereof. 

Sec.  4.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  agent  aforesaid,  first  to  expose  to 
sale,  such  lots  as  may  be  selected  most  contiguous  to  the  site  which  mav  be 
selected  for  the  seminary  aforesaid,  and  take  of  the  purchase  of  any  lots  of 
lands  which  he  may  sell,  under  the  provisions  of  this  act,  such  pavments  and 
security  therefor,  as  may  be  directed  by  the  trustees  as  aforesaid. 

Sec.  5.  The  trustees  aforesaid,  shall,  so  soon  as  they  deem  it  expedient, 
proceed  to  the  erection  of  a  suitable  building  for  a  state  seminarv,  as  also 
a  suitable  and  commodious  house  for  a  jirofessor,  on  the  site  which  mav  be 
selected  by  them  for  that  purpose. 

Sec.  6.  The  trustees  aforesaid,  shall  within  ten  (ia\'s  after  tiie  meeting 
of  the  next  General  Assemljly,  lav  before  them  a  true  and  perfect  statement 
of  their  proceedings  so  far  as  thev  ]ia\'e  ])rogressed  under  the  provisions  of 
this  act.  and  a  plat  of  the  lots  or  lands  laid  (iff  and  sold,  and  the  amount  of 
the  proceeds  of  such  sales,  and  also  a  plan  of  buildings,  by  them  erected,  or 
proposed  to  be  erected. 

Sec.  7.  The  trustees  herebv  appointed,  shall  before  the\'  enter  upon 
the  duties  of  their  office,  give  bond  and  security,  to  be  a])proved  of  b}-  the 
governor,  in  the  sum  of  five  thousand  dollars,  ])ayable  to  the  governor  and 
his  successors  in  office,  for  the  use  of  the  State  Seminary,  conditioned  for 
the  faithful  performance  of  the  duties  of  their  office;  and  if  any  vacancy 
shall  happen  in  the  office  of  trustees,  the  governor  shall  fill  such  vacancy 
bv  an  appointment  which  shall  expire  on  the  first  da}"  of  January  next. 


As  a  result  of  this  legislation  the  new  seminary  was  opened  in  May, 
1824..     "^Vithin  three  years  it  had  made  such  progress  in  number  of  students 


and  the  general  character  of  its  work  that  a  board  of  visitors,  appointed  by 
the  General  Assembly  in  1827,  recommended  that  the  Indiana  Seminarv-  be 
raised  to  the  dignity  of  a  college.  This  recommendation,  approved  b\-  Gov- 
ernor Ray  in  his  annual  message,  induced  the  General  Assembly  to  pass  the 
following  act : 

AN  ACT  to  establish  a  College  in  the  State  of  Indiana. 
[Approved  January  24.  1828.] 

Sectiun  I .  Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Indiana, 
that  there  shall  be,  and  hereby  is  created  and  established  a  college,  adjacent 
to  the  town  of  Bloomington,  in  the  count}^  of  Monroe,  for  the  education  of 
youth  in  the  American,  learned,  and  foreign  languages,  the  useful  arts, 
sciences,  and  literature,  to  be  known  by  the  name  and  style  of  the  Indiana 
College,  and  to  be  governed  and  regulated  as  hereinafter  directed. 

Sec.  2.  There  shall  be  a  board  of  trustees  appointed,  consisting  of 
fifteen  persons,  residents  of  this  state,  who  shall  be.  and  hereby  are  con- 
stituted a  body  corporate  and  politic,  by  the  name  of  "The  trustees  of  the 
Indiana  College,"  and  in  their  said  corporate  name  and  capacity  may  sue  and 
be  sued,  plead  and  be  impleaded,  in  any  court  of  record,  and  by  that  name 
shall  have  perpetual  succession. 

Sec.  3.  The  said  trustees  shall  till  all  vacancies  which  may  happen  in 
their  own  body,  elect  a  president  of  the  board,  secretary,  treasurer,  and  such 
other  officers  as  mav  be  necessarv  for  the  good  order  and  government  of  said 
corporation,  and  shall  be  competent  at  law  and  in  equity  to  take  to  them- 
selves and  their  successors,  in  their  said  corporate  name,  any  estate,  real, 
personal,  or  mixed  bv  the  .gift,  grant,  bargain,  sale,  conveyance.  wiU.  devise 
or  bequest  of  any  person  or  persons  whomsoever,  and  the  same  estate,  whether 
real  or  personal,  to  grant,  bargain,  sell,  convey,  devise,  let.  place  out  on  inter- 
est, or  otherwise  dispose  of,  for  the  use  of  said  college,  in  such  man- 
ner as  to  them  shall  seem  most  beneficial  to  the  institution,  and  to  receive  the 
rents,  issues,  profits,  income  and  interest  thereon,  and  apply  the  same  to  the 
proper  use  and  support  of  the  said  college,  and  generally,  in  their  said  cor- 
porate name,  shall  have  full  power  to  do  and  transact  all  and  ever\-  business 
touching  or  concerning  the  premises,  or  which  shall  be  incidentally  neces- 
sary thereto,  as  fully  and  effectually  as  any  natural  person,  body  politic  or 
corporate  may  or  can  do.  in  the  management  of  their  own  concerns,  and  to 
hold,  enjoy,  exercise  and  use  the  rights,  powers  and  privileges  incident  to 
bodies  politic  or  corporate,  in  law  and  in  equity. 


Sec.  4.  The  said  trustees  shall  cause  to  be  made  for  their  use,  one 
common  seal,  with  such  devices  and  inscriptions  thereon  as  they  shall  think 
proper,  under  and  by  which  all  deeds,  diplomas,  certificates  and  acts  of  the  said 
corporation  shall  pass  and  be  authenticated. 

Sec.  7.  The  said  board  of  trustes  shall,  from  time  to  time,  as  the  in- 
terests of  tlie  institution  may  require,  elect  a  president  of  said  college,  and 
such  professors,  tutors,  instructors,  and  other  officers  of  the  same,  as  they 
may  judge  necessary  for  the  interests  thereof,  and  shall  determine  the  duties, 
salaries,  emoluments,  responsibilities,  and  tenures  of  their  several  offices,  and 
designate  the  course  of  instruction  in  said  college. 

Sec.  9.  The  president,  professors,  and  tutors,  shall  be  styled  the  faculty 
of  said  college;  which  faculty  shall  have  the  power  of  enforcing  the  rules  and 
regulations  adopted  by  the  said  trustees  for  the  goxernment  of  the  students, 
by  rewarding  or  censuring  them,  and  finally  by  suspending  such  as,  after 
repeated  admonition,  shall  continue  refractory,  until  a  determination  of  a 
quorum  of  the  trustees  can  be  had  thereon;  and  of  granting  and  conferring, 
by  and  with  the  approbation  and  consent  of  the  board  of  trustees,  such  de- 
grees in  the  liberal  arts  and  sciences  as  are  usually  granted  and  conferred  in 
other  colleges  in  America,  to  the  students  of  the  college,  or  others  who  by 
their  proficiency  in  learning  or  other  meritorious  distinction  may  be  entitled 
to  the  same,  and  to  grant  unto  such  graduates,  diplomas,  or  certificates, 
under  their  common  seal,  and  signed  by  the  faculty  to  authenticate  and  per- 
petuate the  memory  of  such  graduations. 

Sec.  10.  No  president,  professor,  or  other  officer  of  the  college,  shall, 
whilst  acting  in  that  capacity,  be  a  trustee,  nor  shall  any  president,  professor, 
tutor,  instructor,  or  other  officer  of  the  college  e\er  be  required  by  the  trus- 
tees to  profess  any  particular  religious  opinions,  and  no  student  shall  be 
denied  admission,  or  refused  any  of  the  privileges,  honors,  or  degrees  of  the 
college,  on  account  of  the  religious  opinions  he  may  entertain,  nor  shall  any 
sectarian  tenets  or  principles  be  taught,  instructed  or  inculcated  at  said  col- 
lege by  any  president,  professor,  student,  tutor  or  instructor  thereof. 

Sec.  12.  That  all  moneys  arising  from  the  sale  of  the  seminary  town- 
ships, in  the  counties  of  Monroe  and  Gibson,  shall  be  and  forever  remain  a 
permanent  fund,  for  the  support  of  said  college,  and  the  interest  arising  from 
the  amount  of  said  sales,  together  with  the  three  resented  sections  in  the 
seminary  township,  situated  in  the  county  of  Monroe,  and  all  the  buildings 
which  have  been  erected  adjacent  to  the  town  of  Bloomington,  in  said  coun- 
tv  of  Monroe,  for  the  use  of  the  State  Seminary,  with  all  the  real  and  per- 


soiial  property  of  every  description  belonging  to  or  connected  Avith  the  said 
State  Seminary,  as  the  property  of  the  state,  and  all  gifts,  grants  and  dona- 
tions which  have  been  or  hereafter  may  be  made  for  the  support  of  the  col- 
lege, shall  be,  and  hereby  are  forever  vested  in  the  aforesaid  trustees  and 
their  successors,  to  be  controlled,  regulated  and  appropriated  by  them  in 
such  manner  as  they  shall  deem  most  conducive  to  the  best  interests  and  pros- 
perity of  the  institution  :  Provided,  That  the  said  trustees  shall  conform  to 
the  will  of  any  donor  or  donors  in  the  application  of  any  estate  which  may  be 
given,  de\'ised  or  bequeathed  for  any  particular  object  connected  with  the 
institution,  and  that  the  real  estate  hereby  vested  in  the  said  trustees  and  their 
successors,  shall  be  by  them  held  forever  for  the  use  of  the  said  college,  and 
shall  not  be  sold  or  converted  by  them  to  any  other  use  whatsoever. 

Sec.  1 6.  That  the  constitution  of  the  said  college  herein  and  hereby 
declared  and  established,  shall  lie  and  remain  the  in\-iolal)le  constitution  of 
said  college,  and  the  same  shall  not  be  changed,  altered  or  amended  by  any 
law  or  ordinance  of  the  said  trustees,  nor  in  any  other  manner  than  by  the 
Legislature  of  this  state. 


The  continued  growth  and  increasing  importance  of  the  institution  led 
the  General  Assembly,  in  1838,  to  confer  upon  it  the  name  and  style  of  the 
Indiana  University.  The  material  portions  of  this,  the  third  charter  of  the 
University,  are  as  follows  : 

AN  ACT  to  establish  a  University  in  the  State  of  Indiana. 
[Approved  February  15,  1838.] 

Section  i.  Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  In- 
diana, that  there  shall  be,  and  hereby  is  created  and  established  a  university 
adjacent  to  the  town  of  Bloomington,  in  the  county  of  Monroe,  for  the  edu- 
cation of  youth  in  the  American,  learned  and  foreign  languages,  the  useful 
arts,  sciences  (including  law  and  medicine)  and  literature,  to  be  known  by 
the  name  and  style  of  the  "Indiana  University,"  and  to  be  governed  and 
directed  as  hereinafter  directed. 

Sec.  2.  There  shall  be  a  Iward  of  trustees  appointed,  consisting  of 
twenty-one  persons,  residents  of  the  state,  who  shall  be,  and  hereby  are  cori- 
stituted  a  body  corporate  and  politic,  by  the  name  of  "the  trustees  of  the  In- 
diana University,"  and  in  their  corporate  name  and  capacity,  may  sue  and 


be  sued,  plead  and  be  impleaded,  in  any  ccjurt  of  record,  and  by  that  name 
shall  have  perpetual  succession. 

Sec.  12.  That  all  moneys  which  ha\e  heretofore  or  which  may  herein- 
after arise  from  the  sales  of  the  seminary  townships  of  land  in  the  counties 
of  Monroe  and  Gibson,  shall  be  and  forever  remain  a  permanent  fund  for  the 
support  of  said  university,  and  the  interest  arising  from  the  amount  of  said 
sales,  together  with  the  amiount  of  the  sales  of  the  three  reserved  sections  in 
the  seminary  township,  situated  in  the  county  of  Monroe,  the  residue  of  the 
unsold  sections  aforesaid,  and  in  all  the  buildings  which  have  been  erected 
adjacent  to  the  town  of  Bloomington,  in  said  county  of  Monroe,  and  which 
are  now  used  by  and  belong  to  the  Indiana  College,  together  with  all  the  es- 
tate, whether  real,  personal,  or  of  any  description  whatever,  belonging  to, 
or  in  any  wise  connected  with  the  Indiana  College,  as  the  property  of  the 
state,  and  all  gifts,  grants  and  donations  which  have  been  or  may  hereafter 
be  made,  previous  to  the  taking  effect  of  this  act,  for  the  support  of  the 
Indiana  College,  shall  be  and  hereby  are  forever  \ested  in  the  aforesaid  trus- 
tees, and  their  successors,  to  be  controlled,  regulated,  and  appropriated  by 
them  in  such  manner  as  they  shall  deem  most  conducive  to  the  best  interest 
and  prosperity  of  the  institution:  Provided,  that  the  said  trustees  shall  con- 
form to  the  will  of  any  donor  or  donors  in  the  application  of  any  estate  which 
may  be  given,  devised  or  bequeathed  for  any  particular  object  connected  with 
the  institution,  and  that  the  real  estate  hereby  vested  in  the  said  trustees,  and 
their  successors,  shall  be  by  them  held  forever  for  the  use  of  said  university, 
and  shall  not  be  sold  or  convertefl  by  them  to  any  other  use  whatsoever. 

Sec.  15.  That  the  power  and  authority  of  the  present  trustees  of  the 
Indiana  College,  over  and  concerning  the  said  institution,  the  funds,  estate, 
property,  rights  and  demands  thereof  shall  forever  cease  and  determine, 
from  and  after  the  organization  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  [the]  Indiana 
University  named  in  this  act ;  and  all  the  funds,  estate,  property,  rights, 
demands,  privileges  and  immunities,  of  what  kind  or  nature  so  ever,  be- 
longing or  any  wise  pertaining"  to  said  Indiana  College,  shall  be  and  the 
same  are  hereby  invested  in  the  trustees  of  [the[  Indiana  University  ap- 
pointed by  this  act,  and  their  successors  in  office,  for  the  uses  and  pur- 
poses only  of  said  university,  and  the  said  trustees  and  their  successors  in 
office  shall  have,  hold  and  possess,  and  exercise  all  the  powers  and  authority 


over  the  said  institution  and  tlie  estate  and  concerns  thereof  in  the  manner 
hereinbefore  prescribed. 

Between  the  years  1838  and  185 1  a  number  of  acts  relating  to  the  uni- 
versity were  passed  by  the  General  Assembly.  Of  these  most  are  concerned 
with  the  sale  of  the  seminary  lands  and  with  similar  matters;  but  one,  the 
act  of  February  15,  1841,  reduces  the  number  of  trustees  to  nine,  exempts 
students  at  the  university  from  military  duty  and  road  taxes,  and  denies  to 
the  civil  courts  of  the  state  jurisdiction  of  "trivial  breaches  of  the  peace  com- 
mitled  by  the  students  of  said  university  within  the  college  campus." 

CHARTER    OF    1 852. 

In  the  constitutional  convention  of  1851  the  question  of  the  relation  of 
the  state  to  the  Indiana  University  had  arisen,  but  no  explicit  statement  was 
incorporated  in  the  constitution  as  adopted.  At  the  first  session  of  the  General 
Assembly,  after  the  adjournment  of  the  convention,  it  was  therefore  thought 
desirable  to  have  an  explicit  statement  concerning  the  matter.  To  this  end 
the  following  act  was  passed,  which  may  be  regarded  as  the  fourth  charter 
of  the  university,  and  the  one  by  which  in  the  main  the  university  is  still 
governed : 

AN  ACT  providing  for  the  yovcrnuient  of  the  State  University,  the  manage- 
ment of  its  Funds  and  for  the  disposition  of  the  Lands  thereof. 

[Approved  June  17,  1852.] 

Section  1.   Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  In- 
diana, tliat  the  institution  established  by  an  act  entitled  "an  act  to  establish  a 
college  in  the  State  of  Indiana,"  approved  January  28.  1828,  is  hereby  rec- 
ognized as  the  universitv  of  the  state. 
^  -.\:  ^  ^  *  *  ^  *  * 

Sec.  5.     The  trustees  of  the  said  university  shall  receive  the  proceeds  of 
the  sales  and  rents  of  the  three  reserved  sections  in  the  seminary  township  in 
xVIonroe  county,  and  the  same  shall  be  paid  to  the  treasurer  of  said  trustees, 
on  their  order. 
*  *  *  *•*  *  *  *  * 

Sec.  7.  The  president,  professors  and  instructors  shall  be  styled  "The 
Faculty''  of  said  university,  and  shall  have  power : 

First.  To  enforce  the  regulations  adopted  by  the  trustees  for  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  students. 


Second.  To  which  end  they  may  reward  and  censure,  and  may  suspend 
those  who  continue  refractory,  until  a  determination  of  the  board  of  trustees 
can  be  had  thereon. 

Third.  To  confer,  with  the  consent  of  the  trustees,  such  hterary  de- 
grees as  are  usuaUy  conferred  in  other  universities,  and  in  testimony  thereof 
to  give  suitable  diplomas,  under  the  seal  of  the  university  and  signature  of 
the  faculty. 

Sec.  8.  Nu  religious  qualihcations  shall  be  , required  for  any  student, 
trustee,  president,  professor,  or  other  officer  of  such  university,  or  as  a  con- 
dition for  admission  to  any  privilege  in  the  same. 

Sec.  13.  The  governor,  lieutenant-governor,  speaker  of  the  House  of 
Representatives,  judges  of  the  supreme  court,  and  superintendent  of  common 
schools,  shall  constitute  a  board  of  visitors  of  the  university,  and  any  three 
thereof  a  quorum. 

Sec.  14.  In  case  the  members  of  such  board  of  visitors  fail  to  attend 
the  annual  commencement  exercises  of  the  university,  the  president  of  the 
board  of  trustees  shall  report  such  of  them  as  are  absent  to  the  next  General 
Assembly  in  their  annual  report. 


The  funds  of  the  university,  in  its  earlier  days,  were  derived  almost 
v^'holly  from  the  proceeds  of  the  seminary  lands,  from  gifts,  and  from  fees 
paid  by  students.  In  1867,  by  an  act  approved  March  8,  the  General  Assem- 
bly provided  for  the  increase  of  these  funds  by  an  annual  appropriation. 
"Whereas,"  the  act  reads,  "the  endowment  fund  of  the  State  University, 
located  at  Bloomington,  Monroe  county,  is  no  longer  sufficient  to  meet  the 
growing  wants  of  education  and  make  said  university  efficient  and  useful; 
and  whereas,  it  should  be  the  pride  of  every  citizen  of  Indiana  to  place  the 
State  Universitv  in  the  highest  condition  of  usefulness  and  make  it  the  crown- 
ing glory  of  our  present  great  common  school  system,  where  education  shall 
be  free,"  therefore  eight  thousand  dollars  annually  were  appropriated  out 
of  the  state  treasur^■  to  the  use  of  the  university.  This  amount  was  found  to 
be  insufficient,  so  that  from  time  to  time  the  amount  of  the  annual  appropria- 
tion was  increased. 

In  1883,  by  an  act  approved  March  8,  provision  was  made  for  a  per- 
manent endowment  fund  to  be  raised  by  the  levy  for  thirteen  years  of  a  tax 


of  "one-half  of  one  cent  on  each  one  hundred  dollars"  worth  of  taxable  prop- 
erty in  this  state."  to  be  paid  into  the  state  treasury  to  the  credit  of  Indiana 

In  1895  'I"  ^^"t  was  passed  (approved  March  8)  levying  an  annual  tax 
of  "one-sixth  of  one  mill  on  every  dollar  of  taxable  property  in  Indiana," 
the  proceeds  to  be  divided  among  the  Indiana  University,  Purdue  University 
and  the  Indiana  State  Normal  School.  Of  this  amount  the  Indiana  Univer- 
sity received  two-fifths,  or  a  levy  of  one-fifteenth  of  a  mill  on  the  taxable 
property  in  the  state.  By  an  act  approved  March  5,  1903,  this  law  was 
amended  to  read  as  follows : 

Section  i.  That  there  shall  be  assessed  and  levied  upon  the  taxable 
property  of  the  state  of  Indiana  in  the  year  1903.  and  in  each  year  there- 
after, for  the  use  and  benefit  of  the  Indiana  University,  Purdue  University, 
and  the  Indiana  State  Normal  School,  to  be  apportioned  as  hereinafter  in 
this  act  pro\ided,  a  tax  of  two  and  three-fourths  cents  on  every  one  hiin- 
dred  dollars  of  taxable  property  in  Indiana,  to  be  levied,  assessed,  collected 
and  paid  into  the  treasury  of  the  state  of  Indiana,  in  like  manner  as  other 
state  taxes  are  levied,  assessed,  collected  and  paid.  And  so  much  of  the 
proceeds  of  said  levy  as  may  be  in  the  state  treasury  on  the  first  day  of 
July  and  the  first  day  of  January  of  each  year  shall  be  immediately  there- 
after paid  over  to  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  respective  institution  for 
which  the  tax  was  levied,  to  be  distrilnited  and  apportioned  among  them 
severally  upon  the  basis  as  follows,  viz. :  To  the  said  trustees  of  the  Indi- 
ana University  upon  the  basis  of  four-elevenths  (4-11)  of  the  total  proceeds 
of  this  tax :  to  the  trustees  of  Purdue  University  upon  the  basis  of  four- 
elevenths  (4-1 1  )  of  the  total  proceeds  of  this  tax.  and  to  the  trustees  of  the 
Indiana  State  Normal  School  upon  the  basis  of  three-elevenths  (3-1 1)  of  the 
total  proceeds  of  this  tax ;  and  the  auditor  of  state  of  Indiana  is  hereby 
directed  to  draw  proper  warrants  therefor,  and  on  or  before  the  tenth  day 
of  January  and  July  of  each  year  the  trustees  of  the  Indiana  University,  Pur- 
due University,  and  the  Indiana  State  Normal  School  shall  file,  or  cause  to  be 
filed,  with  the  auditor  of  state,  a  sworn  and  itemized  statement  of  their  re- 
ceipts from  all  sources,  including  all  tuition  fees,  and  other  revenues  derived 
from  students,  contingent  fees,  interest  from  permanent  endowment  fund, 
the  proceeds  of  the  tax  provided  in  this  act.  and  all  other  receipts  of  every 
kind,  character  and  description,  together  with  a  full,  detailed,  itemized  and 
sworn  statement  of  their  expenditures  for  all  purposes,  including  mainte- 
nance and  permanent  improvements,  the  amount  paid  each  member  of  the 


faculty,  trustees,  all  officers  of  the  institution,  and  file  with  such  report  a 
copy  of  the  receipts  for  each  separate  item  of  the  expenditures,  it  being  the 
intention  of  this  act  that  the  reports  hereinbefore  provided  for  shall  set  out 
in  full  and  in  detail  all  expenditures  of  every  kind,  character,  and  descrip- 
tion ;  and  from  and  after  this  act  is  in  force  it  shall  be  unlawful  for  the  auditor 
of  state  to  issue  any  warrants  to  the  Indiana  University,  Purdue  University 
or  the  Indiana  State  Normal  School  until  they  have  filed  their  reports  as 
required  by  this  act. 


A  School  of  Law  has  been  maintained  continuouslv  in  the  university, 
at  Bloomington,  since  1889. 

A  School  of  Education,  for  the  professional  training  of  teachers,  was 
established  by  the  trustees  in  1908. 

A  School  <)f  Aledicine  was  established  in  1903.  when  the  first  two  vears' 
instruction  in  medicine  was  provided  for  at  Bloomington.  In  1905,  pro- 
vision was  made,  by  affiliation,  for  the  last  two  years  at  Indianapolis,  and  in 
1908  this  arrangement  was  strengthened  by  the  union  of  the  Indiana  Medical 
College  at  Indianapolis  with  the  Indiana  Uni^'ersitv  School  of  Medicine. 
The  last  step  in  the  process  of  evolution  was  taken  in  the  passage,  by  the 
General  Assembly,  of  the  following  act  concerning  the  School  of  Medicine 
(approved  March  2.  1909)  : 

Section  I.  Be  it  enacted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of 
Indiana,  That  the  trustees  of  Indiana  University  are  hereby  autliorized  to 
conduct  a  medical  school  in  Marion  County,  Indiana,  and  to  receive  gifts 
of  real  estate  and  other  property  on  behalf  of  the  state  of  Indiana  for  the 
maintenance  of  medical  education  in  said  county,  conditioned  that  said 
trustees  shall  conduct  as  an  integral  part  of  the  Indiana  University  School  of 
Medicine  a  full  four  years"  course  in  medicine  in  said  Marion  county,  Indi- 
ana :  Provided,  That  there  shall  be  no  discrimination  for  or  against  any 
school  or  system  of  medicine  in  the  university,  and  that  all  or  each  of  the 
schools  or  systems  of  medicine  now  recognized  by  the  state  shall  liave  ade- 
quate opportunity  to  teach  the  practice  of  medicine  in  the  uni\ersity  accord- 
ing to  the  principles  advocated  by  them  respectively,  and  that  it  shall  be  the 
duty  of  the  trustees  of  Indiana  University  to  provide  such  instruction  in  as 
thorough  a  manner  as  the  means  at  their  disposal  will  permit,  and  as  nearly 
as  possible  to  provide  the  same  quality  of  instruction  whenever  a  reasonable 


demand  shall  be  made  for  the  same :  Provided,  further,  That  premedical  or 
other  collegiate  work  done  in  any  college  or  university  of  Indiana,  which  is 
recognized  by  the  state  board  of  education  of  Indiana  as  a  standard  college 
or  university,  shall  be  received  and  credited  in  the  Indiana  University  School 
of  Medicine  upon  the  same  conditions  as  work  of  the  same  kind,  grade  and 
amount  done  in  the  department  of  liberal  arts  of  Indiana  University. 

Sec.  2.  Whereas,  an  emergency  exists  for  the  immediate  taking  effect 
of  this  act.  the  same  shall  he  in  force  from  and  after  its  passage. 


Admission  to  the  university  was,  until  the  college  year  1868-69,  re- 
stricted to  men,  but  by  a  resolution  of  the  board  of  trustees  the  doors  of  the 
university  were  at  the  beginning  of  that  year  opened  to  women  on  the  same 
terms.  Since  1868,  therefore,  the  university  has  been  co-educational  in  all 
its  departments. 


By  virtue  of  the  state  constitutions  of  1816  and  185 1.  and  the  acts  of 
the  General  Assembly  thereunder,  the  Indiana  University  is  the  state  uni- 
versity of  Indiana,  and  the  head  of  the  public  school  system  of  the  state.  In 
order  that  there  might  be  no  doubt  of  the  special  relationship  of  the  uni- 
versity to  the  state  under  the  new  constitution  of  1851,  the  General  Asseinbly 
in  1852  enacted  that  "the  institution  established  by  an  act  entitled  'an  act  to 
establish  a  college  in  the  state  of  Indiana',  approved  January  28,  1828,  is 
hereby  recognized  as  the  university  of  the  state"  (act  approved  June  17, 
1852)  ;  and  again  in  1867  the  General  Assembly  characterized  it  as  the 
"crowning  glory  of  our  present  great  common  school  system"  (act  approved 
March  8,  1867).  Finally,  the  supreme  court  of  the  state  in  the  case  of 
Fisher  vs.  Bower,  rendered  a  decision  June  24,  1902,  in  which  these  words 
were  used :  "The  Indiana  University  is  an  integral  part  of  our  free 
school  system":  "it  was  the  special  creation  of  the  constitution";  "the  uni- 
versity as  well  as  its  endowment  has  always  been  under  the  supervision  of  the 


The  first  site  of  tlie  university  adjoined  the  town  on  the  south,  and  lay 
in  Perry  township,  the  township  granted  by  Congress  in  1816  for  seminary 
purposes.     Here,  in  a  temporary  structure,  what  was  at  first  called  the  State 


Seminary  was  opened  in  1824,  the  style  being  changed  to  Indiana  College  in 
1828,  and  to  Indiana  University  in  1838.  In  1836  a  more  pretentious  build- 
ing was  erected,  which,  together  with  its  contents  in  the  form  of  libraries  and 
collections,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1854.  The  friends  of  the  university 
then  came  to  its  aid,  and  another  and  better  building  was  erected.  This 
structure,  one  of  the  most  picturesque  in  Bloomington,  is  now  known  as 
the  Old  College;  it  was  purchased  in  1897  by  the  board  of  education  of  the 
city  of  Bloomington,  and  is  occupied  by  the  Bloomington  high  school.  In 
1847  a  second  large  building  of  similar  design  to  the  Old  College,  was  erected 
for  the  libraries  and  museum;  but  in  a  second  fire,  in  1883,  this  building  also 
was  destroyed  with  all  its  contents. 


The  fire  of  1883  marked  a  turning-point  in  the  history  of  the  institution. 
It  was  decided  to  remove  the  university  to  a  more  ample  site,  away  from  the 
noise  and  disturbance  of  the  railway.  For  this  purpose  the  tract  known  as 
Dunn's  woods  was  purchased,  east  of  the  city,  facing  what  is  now  Indiana 
avenue  on  the  west,  and  Third  street  on  the  south.  Including  later  purchases, 
the  college  grounds  have  an  extent  of  about  seventy  acres.  The  campus 
proper  is  well  wooded  and  of  a  rolling  nature ;  a  portion  of  the  remainder 
is  more  level,  and  is  used  for  the  athletic  field  and  for  tennis  courts.  The 
campus  is  cared  for  by  an  experienced  gardener,  who,  under  the  direction  of 
a  faculty  committee,  has  set  out  many  native  and  exotic  plants,  shrubs  and 


The  chief  university  buildings  iorm  three  sides  of  a  quadrangle  on  the 
crest  of  the  campus  proper.  Beginning  with  the  one  nearest  the  Kirkwood 
avenue  entrance,  they  are  as  follows:  The  library  building,  erected  in  1907; 
the  student  building,  1906;  Maxwell  hall.  1890:  Owen  hall,  1884;  Wylie 
hall,  1884;  Kirkwood  hall,  1894;  Science  hall,  1902;  the  biological  building, 
1910.  Lying  outside  the  quadrangle  are  Mitchell  hall,  erected  in  1884;  the 
men's  gymnasium,  1896;  and  the  two  power  houses.  Within  the  quadrangle 
is  Kirkwood  observatory,  erected  in  1900. 


The  library  building,  completed  January  i,  1908,  at  a  cost,  including 
equipment,  of  one  hundred  and  forty  thousand  dollars,  occupies  a  site  at  the 


north  of  the  Kirkwood  avenue  or  main  entrance  to  the  campus.  It  is  con- 
structed of  Indiana  Hmestone  and  red  tile.  The  style  is  collegiate  Gothic. 
The  main  reading  room,  a  well  lighted  and  proportioned  apartment,  fifty-six 
by  ninety- four  feet,  has  seats  for  two  hundred  and  four  readers.  Around 
the  walls  is  shelving  for  six  thousand  volumes  in  the  open  reference  collec- 
tion. The  stack  house  has  provision  for  six  book  levels,  three  of  which  are 
at  present  installed.  The  third  of  these  levels  is  continuous  with  the  floor 
of  the  main  reading  room.  The  total  book  capacity  of  the  stack  house  is  in 
excess  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  volumes.  Nearly  as  many  more 
can  be  housed  in  various  parts  of  the  building  without  detriment  to  its  other 
uses.  Over  thirteen  thousand  square  feet  of  floor  space  has  already  been 
divided,  or  is  available  for  division,  into  department  rooms.  The  university 
bookstore,  which  furnishes  books  and  supplies  to  students  at  cost,  is  in  the 
east  basement  of  this  building. 


The  student  building  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars  from  funds  contributed  half  by  the  students  and  friends  of  the  uni- 
versity, and  the  other  half  by  John  D.  Rockefeller.  The  west  wing  of  the 
building  is  used  by  women  students ;  in  the  basement  of  this  wing  are  plunge 
and  shower  baths  and  a  swimming  pool;  on  the  first  floor  are  parlors,  rest 
rooms,  and  the  women's  gymnasium:  on  the  second  floor  are  the  headquarters 
of  the  Young  Women's  Christian  .\ssociation.  The  east  wing  is  used  by  men 
students :  in  the  basement  are  baths  and  lockers :  the  first  and  second  floors 
contain  the  rooms  of  the  Indiana  Union  and  other  organizations  for  men 
students.  In  the  center  of  the  building  is  an  auditorium  capable  of  seat- 
ing six  hundred  persons,  where  vesper  services  are  occasionally  held  on  Sun- 
day afternoons,  and  popular  lectures  and  entertainments  may  be  given  during 
the  week.  Below  the  auditorium  is  a  commons  room,  used  for  class,  or 
club,  meetings  and  bantjuets. 


Maxwell  hall,  which  is  occupied  by  the  administrative  offices  and  the 
School  of  Law.  is  named  for  Dr.  David  H.  Maxwell,  one  of  the  most  ener- 
getic promoters  of  the  State  Seminary  and  a  lifelong  friend  of  the  university 
in  the  three  stages  of  its  development,  and  for  his  son.  Dr.  James  D.  Maxwell, 


a  member  of  the  board  of  trustees  from  i860  to  1892.     The  main  part  of  the 
building  is  of  white  Hmestone,  in  Romanesque  style. 


To  give  additional  space  for  the  School  of  Law.  a  three-story  addition 
to  Maxwell  hall  was  erected  in  1907,  connected  with  the  main  body  of  the 
building  from  the  rear  by  a  corridor,  and  separated  by  an  inclosed  court. 

Owen  hall,  rebuilt  in  1911,  is  named  for  Richard  Owen,  the  geologist, 
who  was  professor  of  natural  science  in  Indiana  University  from  1863  to 
1879.  It  contains  the  lecture  rooms  and  laboratories  of  the  departments  of 
physiology'  and  anatomy. 

Wylie  Hall,  the  first  building  in  the  east  side  of  the  quadrangle,  was 
partially  destroyed  by  fire  February  7,  1900,  but  is  now  restored  and  in- 
creased by  one  story.  Like  Owen  Hall,  it  is  built  of  brick  trimmed  with 
stone.  Dr.  Andrew  Wylie.  the  first  president  of  Indiana  University,  and 
Prof.  Theophilus  A.  Wylie,  the  colleague  of  Professors  Owen  and  Kirkwood. 
are  worthily  commemorated  in  this  building,  which  was  the  principal  one 
erected  in  1884.  Wylie  hall  is  used  by  the  departments  of  chemistry  and 

Kirkwood  hall,  the  next  building  to  the  south,  is  built  of  white  limestone, 
as  (with  one  exception)  are  all  the  buildings  erected  since  1884.  A  Roman- 
esque portal,  surmounted  bv  a  tower,  is  the  most  striking  feature  of  the 
facade.  Tlie  building  contains  the  rooms  of  the  following  departments : 
Economics  and  social  science  ( l^asement,  first  fioor ) ,  history  and  political 
science  (first  floor),  comparative  philology  ( hrst  floor).  Cireek  (second 
floor),  Latin  (second  floor),  romance  languages  (first  and  second  floors), 
and  German  (basement,  first,  second  and  third  floors). 

Science  hall  was  completed  in  1902  and  dedicated  January  21,  1903,  at 
the  installation  of  President  Brvan.  It  is  the  last  building  in  the  east  side  of 
the  quadrangle.  Its  interior  construction  is  of  brick,  irou,  and  concrete,  the 
exterior  being  of  white  limestone.  It  is  one  of  the  largest  buildings  on  the 
campus.  It  contains  a  basement  and  four  stories,  and  is  occupied  by  the 
following  departments:  Physics  (basement,  first  floor),  philosophy  (second 
and  third  floors),  educational  (second,  third  and  fourtli  floors),  and  geology 
(third  and  fourth  floors). 


Biology  building,  an  additional  building  for  the  use  of  the  science  de- 
partments, finished  in  1910,  is  the  first  structure  on  the  south  side  of  the 
quadrangle.  It  is  built  of  white  limestone,  and  is  fireproof  throughout.  It 
contains  the  lecture  rooms  and  laboratories  of  the  departments  of  botany  and 
zoology,  and  the  rooms  of  the  department  of  English.  A  greenhouse  for  the 
use  of  the  department  of  botany  is  connected  with  the  building. 


Kirkwood  observatory,  situated  south  of  the  student  building,  is  built 
of  white  limestone.  It  contains  six  rooms,  including  a  circular  dome  room 
twenty-six  feet  in  diameter.  Both  the  observatory  and  Kirkwood  hall  are 
named  in  honor  of  Dr.  Daniel  Kirkwood,  one  of  the  most  eminent  of  Ameri- 
can astronomers,  who  was  for  many  years  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the 


Mitchell  hall,  named  for  the  Hon.  James  L.  Mitchell,  a  graduate  of 
1858  and  trustee  from  1883  till  his  death  in  1894,  is  a  wooden  structure,  east 
of  Science  hall.  Until  the  completion  of  the  student  building  it  was  used 
for  the  women's  gymnasium.     It  is  now  used  by  classes  in  music. 

The  men's  gymnasium  was  erected  in  1896.  In  addition  to  its  athletic 
uses,  it  serves  on  extraordinary  occasions  as  an  assembly  room,  having  a 
seating  capacity  of  One  thousand  five  hundred. 

East  of  the  men's  gymnasium  is  the  power  house,  completed  in  1904. 
From  this  central  plant  all  the  buildings  except  Kirkwood  observatory,  are 
supplied  with  steam  heat  and  electric  light,  and  the  laboratories  of  the  de- 
partments of  physics,  chemistry,  and  philosophy  with  electric  power.  The 
old  power  house,  near  by,  has  been  converted  into  a  laboratory  for  electro- 
chemistry, assaying,  and  electric  furnace  work. 

A  well-house  of  white  limestone,  with  stained  glass  skylights,  was  pre- 
sented to  the  university  in  1908  by  Theodore  F.  Rose,  '75,  who  is  now  a  mem- 
ber of  the  board  of  trustees.  The  stone  portals  to  this  structure  were  the 
portals  to  the  Old  College  building  before  the  removal  of  the  university  to 
the  present  site. 


In  the  tract  of  ground  lying  northeast  of  Owen  hall  and  the  men's  gym- 
nasium is  Jordan   Field,   the  athletic  grounds — named   in   honor   of   David 


Starr  Jordan,  president  of  the  University  from  1884  to  1S91.  On  con- 
tiguous ground  to  the  west  are  a  number  of  tennis  courts  for  the  use  of  men 

In  the  wooded  ground  on  the  south  side  of  the  campus,  near  Mitchell 
hall,  are  four  w-ell-shaded  tennis  courts  for  women  students. 

The  various  clubs  and  societies  of  the  university  include,  the  Greek- 
letter  fraternities,  alumni  association.  Christian  associations  for  both  men 
and  women.  Also  the  Indiana  Union,  a  social  organization  founded  in 
1909,  with  a  charter  membership  of  four  hundred.  Plans  are  now  maturing 
for  the  construction  of  a  fine  building  for  this  society.  Then  there  are  the 
Women's  League,  the  musical  clubs,  literary  and  scientific  societies,  graduate 
clubs,  departmental  clubs  and  many  others. 


In  February,  1911,  the  university  received  as  the  gift  of  Dr.  and  Mrs. 
Robert  W.  Long,  of  Indianapolis,  real  estate  in  Indianapolis  valued  at  two 
hundred  thousand  dollars,  for  the  erection  of  a  hospital  in  connection  with 
the  School  of  Medicine.  The  purpose  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Long  in  giving  was 
twofold :  To  make  it  possible  for  worthy  persons  of  limited  means  from  all 
parts  of  Indiana  to  secure  hospital  advantages  and  the  services  of  the  best 
physicians  in  connection  therewith :  and  to  provide  clinical  facilities  for  stu- 
dents of  medicine  in  connection  with  the  Indiana  University  School  of  Medi- 
cine. Recently  Dr.  Long  gave  an  additional  twenty-five  thousand  dollars  for 
the  equipment  of  the  Long  Hospital. 

By  the  terms  of  the  will  of  Miss  Louise  A.  Goodbody,  dean  of  w^omen 
from  1906  to  her  death  on  March  5,  1911,  real  estate  in  Bloomington  valued 
at  four  thousand  dollars  was  bequeathed  to  the  universit}-.  By  the  provisions 
of  the  will,  the  rents  and  profits  of  the  property  are  to  go  to  the  father  of  Miss 
Goodbody,  Walter  G.  Goodbody,  during  his  lifetime.  As  a  memorial  to  Miss 
Goodbody,  a  loan  fund,  to  be  known  as  the  Louise  Goodbody  Memorial  Loan 
Fund,  has  been  established.  Voluntary  contributions  to  the  amount  of  one 
thousand  three  hundred  dollars  have  thus  far  been  received.  The  principal 
and  interest  of  this  fund  will  be  lent  to  women  students  who  desire  assist- 
ance in  meeting  the  expenses  of  their  course  in  Indiana  l^niversitv. 





Students  who  wish  to  make  a  part  of  the  expenses  of  their  college  course 
while  here,  and  are  competent  and  willing,  rarely  fail  to  get  all  the  work 
thev  care  to  do.  The  Christian  associations  make  the  finding  of  places  for 
those  desiring  employment  a  special  feature  of  their  practical  work.  At  the 
present  time,  there  are  in  the  university  about  one  hundred  and  twenty-five 
men  students  who  are  making  their  way,  in  whole  or  in  part,  and  about 
twelve  women  students.  The  lines  of  work  engaged  in  are  chiefly  the  fol- 
lowing: Surveying,  waiting  on  table,  and  dishwashing  at  boarding  clubs; 
attending  to  furnaces  and  doing  chores ;  newspaper  correspondence,  collect- 
ing and  clerking  for  business  houses :  typewriting,  etc.  Girls  who  are  capable 
of  assisting  at  housework  have  no  difficulty  in  finding  places  in  good  families, 
where  they  will  receive  room  and  board  in  return  for  their  services.  A  spirit 
of  democracy  prevails  in  the  university :  no  stigma  attaches  to  the  student 
who  is  obliged  to  make  a  living  by  honest  labor. 


The  library  of  Indiana  University  at  present  contains  eighty-five  thou- 
sand volumes,  and  is  growing  at  the  rate  of  about  five  thousand  volumes  a 
year.  The  selection  of  these  books  has  been  made  by  experts  within  the  last 
twenty-five  years  with  a  view  to  facilitating  instruction  and  research.  The 
collection  is  especially  strong  in  literary  and  scientific  periodicals.  The 
library  is  made  thoroughly  usable  by  a  carefully  prepared  card  catalogue,  by 
indexes,  and  other  bibliographical  aids. 

In  addition  to  the  central  library,  where  the  general  literary  and  his- 
torical collections  are  housed,  there  are  nine  departmental  collections  of  vary- 
ing sizes,  kept  in  the  dififerent  university  buildings.  The  library  force  con- 
sists of  a  librarian  and  twelve  assistants,  all  of  whom  are  at  the  service  of 
anv  authorized  user  of  the  librarv. 

The  expenses  of  the  student  will  vary  according  to  his  way  of  living. 
Most  of  the  students  lodge  in  private  houses  and  board  in  clubs.  From  inquiry 
the  following  facts  have  been  ascertained,  which  will  indicate  to  an  entering 
student  the  amount  he  may  expect  to  spend  during  the  college  year. 


A  room  occupied  by  one  person  costs  from  one  dollar  to  four  dollars  a 
week.  Two  students  rooming  together  pay  as  a  rule  from  seventy-five  cents 
to  two  dollars  each ;  at  the  latter  rate,  fuel  and  light  should  usually  be  included. 
Rooms  are  generally  engaged  by  the  term  and  paid  for  weekly.  The  cost  of  a 
room  for  a  year  will  vary,  then,  from  thirty-six  tn  one  hundred  and  fifty 

Fuel  and  light  are  charged  for  extra,  except  by  special  agreement.  From 
fifteen  to  twenty  dollars  will  generally  cover  this  expense.  Laundry  and  wash- 
ing" mav  be  estimated  at  from  ten  to  twenty-fi\e  dollars. 

Boai'd  may  be  had  in  clubs  at  three  dollars  a  week  (payable  weekly). 
Board  in  hotels  costs  from  four  dollars  to  five  dollars.  The  amount  to  be  set 
aside  for  board  for  the  vear  varies  from  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and 
eighty  dollars. 

Text-books  and  stationerv  are  supplied  students  ])y  the  university  book- 
store at  practically  cost  price,  b^or  a  student  in  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts 
this  item  of  expense  is  about  twenty  dollars  a  }'ear ;  for  a  student  in  the  School 
of  Law,  or  the  School  of  Aledicine,  about  thirty  to  thirty-five  dollars. 


The  College  of  Liberal  Arts  is  the  nucleus  of  the  uni\ersity.  Passing 
over  the  seminary  stage  of  the  university's  history,  the  C(^llege  of  Liberal  Arts 
may  be  said  to  have  begun  in  1828.  with  the  chartering  of  the  institution  as 
the  Indiana  College.  L'ntil  the  Law  School  was  re-established  in  1889,  the 
College  of  Liberal  Arts  was  ( with  the  exception  of  the  then  existing  prepara- 
tory school)  the  only  permanent  department  of  the  universit}'.  The  statutes 
governing  the  university  which  date  from  this  period,  therefore,  deal  chiefly 
with  what  is  now  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts. 

The  departmental  organization  of  the  college  was  made  in  1887.  Since 
that  date  the  number  of  departments  has,  of  course,  considerably  increased. 


The  founders  of  what  is  now  the  Indiana  Cni\ersity  designed,  from  its 
inception,  to  incorporate  in  it  a  school  of  law.  .As  early  as  1835  the  board 
of  trustees,  considering  the  question  of  the  immediate  opening  of  such  a  school 
at  Bloomington.  went  so  far  as  to  select  the  foremost  lawyer  of  his  day  in 
Indiana,  Judge  Isaac  Blackford,  as  its  first  professor  of  law.  In  1838,  when 
the  Indiana  College  became  by  act  of  the  Legislature  the  Indiana  L^niversity. 


it  was  expressly  required  that  a  course  of  law  should  be  given  in  it.  A  school 
of  law  was  accordingly  opened  at  Bloomington,  as  a  department  of  the  uni- 
versity, in  1842.  This  was,  it  is  believed,  the  first  State  University  law  school 
established  west  of  tlie  Alleghanies. 

The  original  purpose  of  the  uni\'ersity  board  was  to  establish  a  two  years' 
course  of  law.  The  conditions  of  the  time,  however,  prevented  this  for  many 
years.  It  was  not  until  1889  that  such  a  course  was  definitely  established. 
A  three  years'  course  was  established  in  the  year  1901. 

Lack  of  funds  resulted,  in  the  year  1877,  in  a  suspension  of  the  Law 
School,  which  lasted  twelve  years.  With  this  exception,  the  school  has  been 
in  continuous  operation  since  1842. 


The  steps  in  the  development  of  the  Indiana  University  School  of  Medi- 
cine will  be  evident  from  the  following  historical  statement : 

The  Indiana  Medical  College,  Indianapolis,  was  organized  in  1869. 

The  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Indianapolis,  was  organized  in 
1874  and  continued  until  1878,  when  it  was  combined  with  the  Indiana  Med- 
ical College,  thereafter  known  as  the  Medical  College  of  Indiana,  which  for  a 
time  was  the  medical  department  of  Butler  University. 

The  Central  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Indianapolis,  was  or- 
ganized in  1879. 

The  Fort  Wayne  College  of  Medicine,  Foi't  Wayne,  was  organized  in 

The  Indiana  University  School  of  Medicine,  Bloomington,  was  organ- 
ized in  1903. 

The  State  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Indianapolis,  was  organ- 
ized in  1906. 

In  September,  1905,  the  Medical  College  of  Indiana,  the  Central  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  and  the  Fort  Wayne  College  of  Medicine 
merged  under  the  name  of  the  Indiana  Medical  College,  the  school  of  medicine 
of  Purdue  University. 

In  the  summer  of  1907,  the  Indiana  University  School  of  Medicine  and 
the  State  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  united  under  the  name  of  the 
Indiana  LTniversity  School  of  Medicine. 

In  April,  1908,  negotiations  were  completed  whereby  the  Indiana  Medical 


College  was  united  with  the  Indiana  University  School  of  Medicine  under  the 
name  of  the  latter. 

On  February  26,  1909,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Legislature  authorizing 
the  trustees  of  Indiana  University  to  conduct  a  medical  school  in  Marion 
county,  to  receive  gifts  of  real  estate  and  other  pi'operty  in  behalf  of  the  state 
of  Indiana  for  the  maintenance  of  medical  education  in  said  county,  and 
declaring  an  emergency. 


The  university  offers  in  the  summer  a  full  term's  work,  the  term  being 
divided  into  two  half-terms  of  equal  credit  value.  Although  many  courses 
continue  through  both  half-terms,  the  work  of  each  is  in  charge  of  a  different 
corps  of  teachers. 

The  purpose  of  the  summer  term  is  to  extend  to  those  who  are  otherwise 
engaged  during  the  school  \ear  the  advantages  which  the  university  offers  for 
instruction,  together  with  the  aid  afforded  l>y  the  library,  laboratories,  and 
other  facilities  for  stud)  connected  with  the  university.  It  is  the  aim  to 
present  courses  of  study  which  are  equivalent  in  quality  oi  instruction  and 
grade  of  work  done  to  those  offered  in  the  other  university  terms.  Some  of 
the  courses  have  been  specially  arranged  for  the  purpose  of  aiding  those  who 
teach,  or  wish  to  prepare  themsehes  to  teach,  in  high  schools,  academies,  and 
other  schools.  ^Methods  of  teaching  will  also  lie  treated  incidentally  in  other 


An  act  of  the  General  Assembly,  passed  in  1853,  provided  that  the  uni- 
versity should  "establish  a  normal  department  for  instruction  in  the  theon,- 
and  practice  of  teaching,"  wherein  young  persons  might  be  prepared  as  teach- 
ers for  the  common  schools  of  the  state.  In  accordance  with  this  require- 
ment, the  university  established,  that  same  year,  such  a  department,  "with  a 
male  and  female  model  school  as  schools  of  practice."  in  connection  therewith. 

From  1856  to  1886.  inclusive,  the  normal  department  was  suspended. 
In  the  latter  year  it  was  revived,  first  as  the  department  of  pedagogy,  and  later 
as  the  department  of  education.  In  each  case,  the  department  was  regarded 
as  organically  a  part  of  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts,  in  which  a  major  subject, 
leading  to  the  degree  Bachelor  of  Arts,  might  be  taken  as  in  other  similar 


The  enactment  of  the  school  law  of  1907,  requiring  pedagogical  training 
from  all  classes  of  public  school  teachers  of  the  state,  was  followed  by  the 
segregation  and  formal  organization  of  the  pedagogic  courses  and  faculty  in 
the  uni\ersitv.      The  result  is  the  present  enlarged  School  of  Education. 

...  .  GRADUATE    SCHOOL. 

The  first  advanced  degrees,  conferred  for  graduate  work,  were  granted 
in  1 88 1.  During  the  eighties,  well  defined  regulations  for  graduate  work 
and  graduate  degrees  were  stated  in  the  university  catalogue,  and  a  consider- 
able number  of  graduate  students  were  enrolled,  especially  in  the  natural 
sciences.  In  the  years  1881  to  1893,  inclusive,  the  university  graduated  four- 
teen Doctors  of  Philosophy,  ninety-nine  Masters  of  Arts,  and  twelve  Masters 
of  Science.  For  some  years  following  1893,  however,  the  degree  of  Doctor 
of  Philosophy  was  not  conferred. 

In  1904  there  took  place  the  segregation  and  formal  organization  of  the 
Graduate  School,  and  in  1908  the  office  of  dean  of  the  Graduate  School  was 


1816 — First  Constitution  of  Indiana  adopted,  providing  for  a  general 
system  of  education,  ascending  in  regular  gradation  from  township  schools 
to  a  state  university. 

1820 — January  20.  Act  of  the  General  Asseml^ly  estalilishing  a  state 
seminarv.      This  da\'  is  observed  as  Foundation  day. 

1824 — Seminary  building  erected.  Seminary  opened  in  May  with  an 
attendance  of  ten  boys. 

1828 — Januarv  24.  Act  changing  the  State  Seminary  into  the  Indiana 

1836 — First  college  building  erected;  destroyed  by  fire.  1854. 

1838 — February  15.  Act  changing  the  Indiana  College  into  the  Indiana 

1842 — School  of  Law  established;  suspended,  1877-89;  revived,  1889. 

1852 — June  17.  Act  recognizing  the  university  as  "the  University  of  the 

1855 — "Old  College"  building  erected;  used  for  Preparatory  School, 
1885-90;  sold  to  Bloomington  school  board  for  use  of  high  school,  1897. 

1865 — President  of  Indiana  University  made  a  member  ex-officio  of  the 
state  board  of  education. 


1867 — March  8.  First  annual  appropriations  made  to  the  university. 
The  university  made  coeducational;  first  woman  graduated  in  1869. 

1873 — Closer  relations  established  between  the  university  and  the  high 
schools  through  the  system  of  commissioned  high  schools. 

1874 — Old  Science  hall  erected;  destroyed  by  fire,  1883. 

1883 — March  8.  Endowment  act  passed  levying  one-halt  of  one  cent 
on  each  $100  taxable  property,  for  thirteen  years. 

1884-5 — Wylie,  Owen  and  Mitchell  halls  erected  on  new  campus,  and 
removal  of  the  university  to  its  present  site. 

1886-7 — Reorganization  of  the  curriculum  on  the  major  sul>ject  and  de- 
partmental basis. 

1890 — Maxwell  hall  erected.  Summer  school  estal:)lished.  Preparatory 
department  abolished. 

1891 — March  3.  Vet  providing  for  the  election  of  three  trustees  by 
the  alumni  of  the  university. 

1894 — Kirkwood  hall  erected. 

1895 — March  8.  Act  for  annual  tax  of  one-fifteenth  of  a  mill  for  the 
uni\'ersity.  Biological  station  established  at  Turkey  lake;  removed  to  Winona 
lake  in  1899. 

1896 — Alen's  gymnasium  erected. 

1900 — Kirkwood  observator\-  erected. 

1901 — Three-\ear  course  estal)lished  in  School  ni  Law. 

1902 — Science  hall  erected.  June  24,  sui)reme  court  of  the  state  de- 
cided that  "the  Indiana  University  is  an  integral  part  of  our  free  school  sys- 
tem"; that  "it  was  the  special  creation  of  the  constitution,"  and  that  "the  uni- 
versitv  as  well  as  its  endowment  has  always  ])een  under  the  supervision  of 
the  state." 

1903 — School  of  Medicine  establi-^hed.  Tax  le\-}-  for  university  in- 
creased to  one-tenth  of  a  mill. 

1904 — Graduate  School  organized. 

1905 — Student  liuilding  erected  with  funds  from  private  su1)scription. 
New  power  house  erected. 

1907 — Xew  Hbrary  Iniilding  completed. 

1908 — Erection  of  the  well  house,  gift  of  Theodore  F.  Rose,  '75. 

1910 — Biological  building  erected. 

1911— ;-Gift  from  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  W.  Long  of  real  estate  \alued  at 
two  hundred  thousand  dollars  for  the  erection  and  maintenance  of  a  ho.spital 
in  connection  with  the  School  of  Medicine  at  Indianapolis.     Bequest  of  prop- 


erty  valued  at  four  thousand  dollars  by  the  will  of  Dean  Louise  A.  Goodbody. 
Establishment  of  the  Louise  Goodbody  Memorial  Loan  Fund. 

1913 — Tax  levy  for  university  increased  to  two  and  four-fifths  cents  on 
the  hundred  dollars. 

1913- — Additional  gift  of  twenty-fi\e  thousand  dollars  to  the  Medical 
School  by  Dr.  Robert  W.  Long. 

During  the  last  twenty  years,  this  institution  has  grown  as  follows  :  1892 
it  had  497  students;  in  1S97,  it  had  944;  in  1902,  it  had  I-334;  in  1907  it 
reached  1,821  ;  in  1912  it  had  2,522  students. 

The  subjoined  is  a  brief  biography  of  each  of  its  presidents: 


Dr.  Andrew  VVylie,  the  first  president  of  Indiana  University,  was  born 
April  12,  1789,  in  western  Pennsylvania,  son  of  Adam  Wylie,  a  native  of 
county  Antrim,  Ireland,  who  came  to  Fayette  county  Pennsylvania,  about 
1776.  The  son  Andrew  was  reared  to  farm  duties  and  spent  his  evenings  at 
hard  study.  He  loved  outdoor  sports  and  especially  did  he  love  to  handle 
an  axe  in  the  forests,  and  this  remained  with  him  to  his  old  age,  as  will  present- 
ly be  observed.  When  only  fifteen  years  old  he  entered  Jefferson  College, 
from  which  he  graduated  in  1810  and  was  appointed  a  tutor  of  that  institution, 
and  finally  became  its  president,  the  youngest  person  to  ever  hold  such  ofifice 
there.  In  181 7  he  resigned  and  went  to  Washington  College,  Pennsylvania, 
with  the  hope  of  uniting  the  two  schools.  In  1829  he  was  elected  president 
of  Indiana  University  (College).  Flere  he  made  many  warm  friends  as  well 
as  man}-  opposers  of  his  policies.  He  had  strong  likes  and  flislikes.  As  a 
writer,  he  was  clear  and  terse.  He  was  sought  after  by  such  men  as  Daniel 
Webster,  who  liked  his  writings  and  speeches.  In  1839  he  had  published 
books,  including  his  "Sectarianism  is  Heresy."  He  was  reared  a  Presby- 
terian, but  in  i(S4i  um'ted  with  the  Episcopalian  church,  which  displea.sed 
many.  He  died  November  ii,  185  [,  after  having  his  foot  cut  with  bis  axe 
accidentally,  and  still  later  pneumonia  set  in  and  killed  him. 

REV.  .\LFRFn  RYORS,  D.  D. 

Doctor  Ryors,  the  university's  second  president,  was  born  in  Phila- 
delphia, June  23,  18 1 2,  and  was  left  an  orphan  at  a  very  tendej  age.  not  recall- 
ing vividlv  his  parents  in  after  years.      He  went  to  live  with  friends  in  Mont- 


gomery  county,  Pennsylvania,  and  there  remained  until  1823,  in  which  year 
he  united  with  the  Presbyterian  church  and  commenced  a  preparatory  course 
for  entering  the  theological  school.  He  entered  Jefferson  College  in  1831, 
remaining  two  years,  and  then  taught  school  at  Bristol,  Pennsylvania.  In 
1834  he  went  back  to  Jefferson  College,  graduating  in  1835.  and  was  made 
professor  at  Lafayette  College,  Easton,  Pennsylvania :  held  chairs  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Ohio,  was  ordained  to  preach  in  Philadelphia ;  was  elected  professor 
in  mathematics  at  Indiana  University  in  1843,  held  one  year,  and  then  again 
back  to  the  University  of  Ohio.  He  preached  at  Bloomington,  Indiana,  two 
years  to  the  Presbyterian  people  and  was  ordained  by  the  presbytery  in  1845. 
In  1852  returned  to  Bloomington  as  president  of  Indiana  University;  re- 
mained one  year  and  resigned ;  he  was  then  professor  in  a  Kentucky  college, 
where  he  died  May  8,  1858. 


The  third  president  of  Indiana  University  was  born  in  Coshocton,  Ohio, 
in  181 2.  His  youth  was  spent  in  Indiana  and  he  taught  at  the  age  of  fifteen 
years.  He  was  a  delicate  child  and  youth,  hence  gave  up  the  rugged  work 
of  a  farm.  He  grew  up  in  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church;  at  the  age  of 
sixteen  years  he  became  an  exhorter  and  was  styled  "boy  preacher."  In  1831 
he  united  with  the  Methodist  conference  and  was  made  an  elder  in  1835.  He 
kept  on  studying,  even  being  up  at  four  in  the  morning  with  his  books.  He 
was  stationed  at  Bloomington  in  1835-36:  in  1838  was  an  agent  for  the 
Preachers'  Aid  society  of  his  church  and  transferred  to  Missouri,  being- 
stationed  at  St.  Louis  till  1840.  when  he  returned  to  Indiana  in  ill  healtli.  In 
1843,  ^t  Bishop  Ames'  suggestion,  he  was  made  pastor  at  Madison,  Indiana. 
In  1844-45  he  was  chaplain  of  the  L'nited  States  Congress.  He  was  agent  for 
Asbui-y  University  (now  De  Pauw).  In  1853  he  was  made  president  of 
Indiana  LTniversity,  was  here  six  years,  and  returned  to  the  Madison  Methodist 
church.  In  1862  he  was  hospital  chaplain  at  St.  Louis,  under  appointment  of 
Mr.  Lincoln.  In  1865  he  was  appointed  special  mail  agent  in  the  Southern 
states.  He  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity  from  Indiana  LTni- 
versity in  185 1  and  later  that  of  Doctor  of  Laws  from  the  Louisville  Uni- 
versity.    He  preached  in  the  South  until  his  death. 



John  H.  Lathrop,  the  fourth  president  of  Indiana  University,  was  born  in 
January,  1799,  in  Sherburne,  New  York.  He  entered  Hamilton  College  in 
1815  and  Yale  two  years  later,  receiving  his  degrees  in  1819.  He  was  a  tutor 
of  note  at  Yale  College ;  taught  school  in  New  England ;  was  professor  in 
mathematics  at  Hamilton,  1829.  In  1840  he  became  president  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Missouri,  when  it  tirst  started,  and  when  it  took  him  six  weeks  to 
get  there.  On  account  of  the  slave  question,  he  resigned  in  1849  ^.nd  went 
as  cliancellor  to  Wisconsin  University  and  after  ten  years  was  made  president 
of  Indiana  University,  where  he  remained  one  year,  after  which  he  returned, 
as  a  professor,  to  the  University  of  Missouri.  He  died  in  May,  1866,  at 
Columbia,  the  seat  of  the  university. 


Cyrus  Nutt  was  the  hfth  president  of  Indiana  University.  He  was  born 
in  Trumbull  county,  Ohio,  September  4.  1814.  He  graduated  at  Allegheny 
College,  Pennsylvania,  in  1831,  and  soon  after  went  to  Asbury  University 
(now  DePauw),  Indiana,  where  he  was  licensed  to  preach  in  1837.  He  was 
professor  of  languages  in  1841,  professor  of  Greek,  Latin  and  Hebrew  in 
1849,  ^iid  served  as  president  of  Fort  Wayne  Female  College  one  year.  Then 
he  was  at  Whitewater  College  for  h\e  years  and  again  took  up  preaching. 
In  1857  he  was  made  professor  of  mathematics  at  Asbury  University,  Indiana, 
for  two  years,  until  Rev.  Thomas  Bowman  (later  Bishop)  became  its  presi- 
dent. In  i860  he  was  made  president  of  Indiana  University  until  end  of  the 
college  year  of  1874-75.  He  died  a  few  weeks  after  his  resignation,  August 
24,  1875,  and  lies  buried  at  Greencastle.  Indiana. 


The  sixth  president  of  Indiana  Uni\  ersity  was  born  in  Kentucky  in  1829. 
He  graduated  at  Rochester,  New  York,  as  a  Bachelor  of  Arts  in  1858,  was 
made  a  Doctor  of  Divinity  in  i860,  and  in  1860-64  was  pastor  of  the  Baptist 
church  at  Worcester.  Massachusetts.  In  1864  he  was  made  secretary  of  the 
United  States  Christian  Commission.  From  1865  to  1868  he  held  a  chair  at 
Lewisburg,  Pennsylvania,  from  1868  to  1872  was  editor  of  the  National  Bap- 
tist.     In  1874-75  he  was  president  of  Chicago  I'niversity  and  was  then  made 


president  of  Indiana  University.  He  was  author  of  "Annals  of  the  Christian 
Commission"  and  editor  of  the  "'Baptist  and  Centenaiy,  1876."  Resigned  in 
November,  1884. 


Indiana  University's  seventh  president  was  born  in  W  yoniing,  New  York, 
in  1851,  and  was  reared  on  a  farm.  He  early  took  to  botany  and  in  1869  he 
entered  Cornell  University,  New  York,  graduating  as  a  Master  of  Science  in 
1875:  also  had  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Medicine  from  Indiana  Medical  Col- 
lege. He  was  instructor  in  botany  at  Cornell  in  1872,  and  held  many  chairs  in 
various  states.  From  1879  to  1885  he  was  professor  of  biology  in  Indiana 
University  and  was  made  its  president  in  1884.  In  1882  he  explored  Lake 
Superior;  in  1886  the  Adirondacks  and  also  Iowa,  Missouri,  Arkansas  and 
Texas;  in  1888,  Virginia,  Tennessee  and  the  two  Carcjlinas :  1889,  Colorado, 
Utah  and  Wyoming.  He  resigned  at  Indiana  Unixersity  in  1891  to  accept 
the  head  of  the  Leland  Stanford  I  niversity,  California,  which  was  a  hard 
blow  to  our  university  in  Indiana.  More  credit  is  due  to  this  president  than 
any  other  man,  living  or  deceased,  for  the  upbuilding  of  Indiana  University. 


This  was  the  eighth  president  for  Indiana  University.  He  only  ser\ed 
a  short  time  and  resigned  in  1893.  baving  been  made  president  of  Lake  Forest 


Doctor  Swain  was  the  ninth  to  hold  the  presidency  of  Indiana  Uni\ersity. 
He  commenced  his  work  in  1893  and  ser\ed  until  in  T90J,  to  go  to  Swarth- 
more  College,  of  the  Society  of  the  Friends,  in  Pennsylvania. 

DR.  WILLIAM   LOWE  BRYAN,   PH.   1).,  LL.   D. 

Doctor  Bryan,  the  present  and  tenth  president  of  Indiana  University, 
commenced  his  work  where  Doctor  Swain  left  off.  antl  his  record  is  tot>  well 
known  to  be  enlarged  upon  here,  in  this  particular  connection.  Under  his 
wise  administration  the  university  is  coming  fast  to  the  front  as  one  of  the 
nation's  great  educational  institutions. 



In  the  publication  of  a  newspaper,  as  well  as  in  all  other  branches  of  in- 
dustry, there  must  of  necessity  be  a  first  one,  and  here  in  Monroe  county  it  is 
conceded  that  Jesse  Brandon,  an  ex-state  printer,  established  the  first  news- 
paper, at  Bloomington  about  1826.  It  was  styled  the  Bloomington  Repub- 
lican, although  its  name  was  forty  years  in  advance  of  the  birth  of  the  Repub- 
lican party,  as  now  understood  in  American  politics.  Mr.  Brandon  came  over- 
land from  Corydon  with  his  material  and  soon  took  in  as  a  partner  Jacob  B. 
Lowe.  There  is  no  file  of  this  pioneer  paper  extant  now,  but  it  is  known  from 
various  historical  events  that  it  only  survived  imtil  about  1829.  Either  Janu- 
ary I,  1829,  or  January  i,  1830,  appeared  the  first  number  of  a  small  sheet, 
known  as  the  Independent  Whig.  It  was  a  five-column  paper  and  its  price 
per  year  was  two  dollars;  its  motto  was  "Measures,  Not  Men."  In  1831  this 
newspaper  went  defunct.  Indeed  many  have  gone  the  same  way  in  this 
county,  for  in  Bloomington  alone  there  have  been  no  less  than  thirty-five 
newspaper  \'entures.  W .  D.  McCollough  &  Company  were  the  proprietors 
of  the  Independent  U'liig. 

September  15,  1832,  Jesse  Brandon  and  Marcus  L.  Deal  issued  the  first 
number  of  the  Far  West,  an  exponent  of  the  Whig  faith.  ^  "Willing  to  praise, 
but  not  afraid  to  blame,"  was  this  paper's  motto.  D.  R.  Eckles  was  its  pub- 
lisher, and  its  life  was  about  two  years.  During  the  summer  of  1832.  Dr. 
Deal  began  the  publication  of  the  Literary  Register,  devoted  to  the  special 
interests  of  Indiana  College,  but  upon  the  Far  West  springing  up,  this  publica- 
tion ceased  to  be  issued.  Subsequently.  Mr.  Deal  issued  the  Bloomington 
Post,  another  \\'hig  organ.  This  was  conducted  for  about  nine  years,  and 
had  a  subscription  rate  of  two  dollars  a  year  or  three  dollars  if  not  paid  in 
advance.  Ben  Franklin  was  another  paper  started  by  Jesse  Brandon,  who 
seemed  to  be  a  genuine  "starter"  of  papers !  The  Herald  was  a  Whig  paper 
established  late  in  the  forties  by  C.  Davidson.  At  the  same  time  J.  S.  Hester 
conducted  an  opposition  paper  at  Bloomington.  The  Christian  Record  was  a 
religious  publication  by  Elder  James  M.  Matthes.  This  was  a  monthly  in  the 
interests    of   the    Christian    Church.     He    also    conducted    the    Independent 


Tribune  mid  Monroe  Farmer.  C.  G.  Berry  and  Mr.  Brandon  were  also  con- 
nected with  this  paper. 

The  Northwestern  Ga::ette  was  established  in  1852,  by  James  Hughes, 
and  continued  for  a  year  and  a  half.  In  1853  Eli  P.  Fanner  and  Jesse 
Brandon  published  the  Religious  Times,  later  known  as  the  Western  Times. 
In  1854  J.  F.  Walker  and  L.  M.  DenKjtte  purchased  the  Times  office  and 
began  publishing  the  Bloomington  Times.  This  was  the  first  real  organ  of 
the  newly  organized  Republican  party  in  Monroe  county.  Later,  this  plant 
was  removed  to  Nashville,  Tennessee. 

In  1854  A.  B.  and  J.  C.  Carlton  founded  the  Bloomington  News  Let- 
ter, a  Democratic  organ.  Howard  Coe  bought  this  paper  in  1856  and  com- 
menced to  issue  a  seven-column  paper,  called  the  Bloomington  Republican. 
Again  the  paper  changed  hands,  and  Clement  Walker  and  W.  S.  Bush  as- 
sumed control  in  1858.  Subsequently,  Bush  severed  his  connection  and  J. 
F.  Walker  became  a  w(jrking  partner.  During  the  years  of  the  Civil  war, 
and  just  after  that  conflict,  this  paper  had  a  very  large,  profitable  circula- 
tion. While  the  Republican  was  in  existence  many  attempts  were  made  to 
found  successful  Democratic  papers,  but  without  avail,  such  attempts  proving 
but  loss  and  disappointment  to  their  owners. 

In  1867  William  A.  Gabe  began  the  publication  of  the  Republican,  and 
later  changed  the  name  to  the  Republican  Progress,  and  it  existed  until  in 
the  nineties.  In  1868,  the  Bloomington  Democrat  was  founded  by  Thomas 
C.  Pursel  and  continued  for  some  time.  He  also  published  the  Indiana 
Student,  devoted  to  university  interests  and  local  news  of  the  day. 

In  August,  1875,  the  Democrat  office  was  sold  to  O.  G.  Hunt  and  J.  V. 
Cook,  who  began  the  publication  of  the  Bloomington  Times,  a  Republican 
organ,  and  two  months  later  H.  J.  Feltus  established  the  Bloomington 
Courier,  a  paper  still  published  in  connection  with  the  World,  and  now 
(1913)  owned  by  Oscar  Cravens. 

In  April,  1877,  Walter  S.  Bradfute  began  the  publication  of  the 
Bloomington  Telephone,  prolmbly  the  first  paper  bearing  this  name,  as  it 
was  about  that  date  that  the  electric  telephone  was  discovered  and  put  in 
practical  use.  The  first  issue  of  the  Telephone  was  about  the  size  of  a  note- 
sheet  of  paper,  and  was  full  of  choice,  spicy  local  items.  The  Telephone 
office  was  burned  in  1910,  and  its  files  and  materials  generally  destroyed, 
but.  Phoenix-like,  it  arose  from  the  ashes  and  built  new  quarters,  which 
building  is  among  the  handsomest  in  all  Indiana  for  a  newspaper  pulilication. 

Before  passing  to  other  newspaper  history,  let   it  be  stated  that  when 


the  Telephone  was  first  established  Mr.  Bradfute  had  associated  with  him  a 
young  man  named  Arnott,  l)ut  in  November  of  the  same  j^ear  the  pubHca- 
tion  was  launched,  the  latter  left  the  office,  after  which  Mr.  Bradfute  con- 
tinued alone.  In  1878  the  weekly  was  enlarged,  the  first  time;  in  1880  again, 
and  still  another  enlargement  in  January,  1883,  when  it  took  on  the  form  of 
a  six-column  quarto.  In  1892  the  Daily  Telephone  was  started,  and  is  now 
an  eight-column  folio,  printed  on  a  Babcock  power  press.  It  is  in  every 
way  an  up-to-date  paper  and  has  the  good  will  of  the  community. 

The  newspaper  publications  of  Bloomington  in  19 13  are  the  World- 
Courier^  the  Telephone  and  the  Star,  a  weekly,  with  a  university  paper  styled 
the  Daily  StudeuL  The  World-Courier,  since  comljined.  is  a  semi-weekly, 
while  the  World  is  a  daily,  as  well  as  the  Telephone. 

James  Marlin  conducted  a  Greenback  organ,  The  True  Plan,  in  1878, 
when  the  doctrine  of  greenback  money  was  rife  in  the  nation.  A  few  months 
in  1880  the  Bloomington  Hazvkeye  was  published;  it  was  a  Democratic 
pa])er.  John  East  also  conducted  a  small  political  organ  in  the  campaign  of 


Up  to  1883-84  the  only  other  place  in  Monroe  county  where  a  newspaper 
had  been  established  was  at  the  enterprising  town  of  EUettsville,  where  in 
1872,  or  possibly  a  year  later,  Howard  L.  Morris,  editor,  and  S.  B.  Harris, 
proprietor,  issued  the  first  number  of  the  Ellettsiille  Republican,  which  after 
two  issues  passed  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Harris.  .\t  the  end  of  two  issues 
more  Harris  emjjloyed  John  Walker  to  edit  the  paper,  which  had  a  life  of 
about  six  months,  after  which  Harris  assumed  control  for  about  two  years, 
then  leased  his  office  to  Charles  McPheetridge.  who  sold  to  William  B.  and 
S.  B.  Harris.  After  \V.  B.  Harris  had  continued  a  while  he  moved  the 
office  to  Spencer,  and  a  year  later  came  back  and  was  still  at  the  helm  in 
1884.  While  he  was  absent,  a  Mr.  Hyatt  issued  a  publication  styled  the 
Graphic.  S.  K.  Harris  also  issued  the  N r<.vs  for  a  time.  'I'he  first  paper 
was  the  Republican,  the  second  the  Sun,  the  third  the  People,  the  fourth  the 
Graphic,  the  fifth  the  Nei^'s,  and  the  sixth  the  Monroe  County  Citizen.  The 
present  paper  of  the  town  is  the  Farm  and  Real  E.'^tate,  a  seven-column  folio, 
with  a  subscrii)tion  rate  of  fifty  cents  per  year.  It  is  printed  on  a  power 
press  by  gasoline  power.  It  was  established  in  1881,  succeeding  the  Ellctts- 
ville  Republican,  established  in  1872.  It  is  published  by  B.  H.  Harris  and  is, 
politicallv,   a    Republican   newspaper.      To   go   more    into   details   concerning 


the  founding  and  publishing  of  these  Elletts\ille  newspapers,  it  will  be  well 
to  state  that  in  July,  1872,  S.  B.  Harris  bought  a  printing  plant  which  had 
been  shipped  in  by  a  local  stock  company.  The  "company"  failed  to  put  up 
the  cash,  and  Mr.  Harris  advanced  the  money.  The  first  few  issues  were 
gotten  out  by  Howard  ^Morris,  the  promoter  of  the  stock  company,  after 
which  Air.  Harris  hired  John  V.  \\alker,  one  of  the  ijldest  printers  in  the 
ccHinty,  who  had  charge  till  the  following  December,  when  \\\  15.  Harris 
took  charge,  and  with  the  exception  of  a  )ear  at  Clcnerdale  and  two  vears 
at  Spencer,  has  been  in  charge  ever  since.  Besides  this  publication  Mr. 
Harris,  between  1801  and  1905,  established  throughout  Indiana,  Illinois, 
Ohio  and  Kentucky,  one  hundred  and  thirty-fi\e  newspapers,  the  printing 
being  done  at  the  plant  in  Ellettsville.  In  December,  1905,  the  W.  B.  Harris 
&  Sons  Company  was  capitalized  at  twenty-fi\e  thousand  dollars  for  the 
purpose  of  publishing  a  youth's  magazine.  Our  Boys  and  Girls.  W.  B.  Har- 
ris, editor,  which  was  the  first  publication  in  the  United  States  to  give  Shet- 
land ponies  away  as  premiums.  This  publication  attained  a  circulation  of 
thirty-five  thousand,  and  was  later  absorbed  by  the  Star  Monthly,  of  Chi- 
cago. The  Saturday  Evening  Post  later  took  up  the  plan  of  giving  Shetland 
ponies  as  premiums,  after  first  getting  pointers  from  the  Ellettsville  editor 
and  publisher. 

Another  Monroe  county  paper  is  the  Suiithzille  Nezvs,  an  independent 
paper  established  at  Smithville  on  July  31.  1908,  by  R.  B.  Carter. 



Tlic  leligious  sentiment  has  always  been  well  represented  in  Monroe 
county,  according  to  statistics  gathered  at  various  dates.  In  1861,  the  first 
year  of  the  Civil  war,  the  Ministerial  Association  of  Bloomington  had  pre- 
pared a  table  showing  the  standing  of  the  various  churches  at  that  date, 
which  may  be  of  interest  now : 

The  Old  School  Presbyterians  had  sittings  for  350;  average  congrega- 
tion, 200;  members.  105. 

The  New  School  Presbyterians  had  sittings  for  225 ;  average  congre- 
gation, 150;  members,  83. 

The  United  Presbyterians  had  sittings  for  300;  average  congregation, 
100;  members,  60.     (This  was  Professor  Wylie's  church.) 

The  United  Presbyterians,  under  Mr.  Turner,  had  sittings  for  500; 
average  congregation,  250;  members,  225. 

Methodist  Episcopal,  sittings,  500;  average  congregation,  300;  mem- 
bers, 230. 

The  Baptists  had  sittings  for  250;  membership,  40. 

The  Christian  church  had  sittings  for  400;  average  congregation,  200; 
members,  175. 

This  gave  a  total  of  all  sittings,  2,525;  average  congregation,  1,200; 
total  membership,  916.     Bloomington  then  had  only  2,200  population. 


This  denomination,  with  the  Presbyterians  and  Baptists,  were  pioneers 
in  this  county.  They  all  established  church  homes  about  the  same  time  and 
very  soon  after  the  county  was  organized. 

At  Bloomington,  the  Methodists  occupied  the  field  in  1820,  by  organiza- 
tion of  a  class,  and  six  years  later  erected  their  first  church.  Among  the 
early  menibers  were  Joshua  O.  Howe  and  wife,  Daniel  Rawlins  and  wife, 
Benjamin  Freeland  and  wife,  Samuel  Hardesty  and  wife,  Ebenezer  Shep- 
ard  and  wife,  Mrs.  Wright,  Jonathan  Legg  and  wife,  Naomi  Otwell  and 
familv,  James  H.  King  and  wife,  Abraham  Pauly  and  others. 


The  rir^il  church  buikliui;-  cost  six  hundrtnl  dollars  and  hdias  Abel 
wheeled  mortar  for  it  and  the  Wrights  did  the  brick  work.  It  was  sold  in 
the  forties  to  the  Baptists,  and  in  the  sixties  to  the  t  atholic  people.  The 
Methodists  erected  a  new  house  of  worship  in  i84(),  when  Rev.  Owen  was 
pastor.  It  was  the  custom  to  ha\e  a  door-keeper,  and  in  place  of  a  bell  to 
call  the  congregation  together,  a  large  tin  burn  was  used.  In  1873  another 
more  modern  and  much  larger  edifice  was  built  on  College  street,  at  a  cost 
of  twelve  thousand  dollars,  which  served  until  the  completion  of  the  present 
magnificent  stone  ediiice,  surmounted  with  a  d(Juble-cross,  which  at  night 
time  is  kept  illuminated  by  electricity,  the  expense  being  provided  for  Iw  a 
prominent  member,  now  deceased.  The  cost  of  the  present  building  was 
about  one  hundred  thousand  dollars,  and  it  was  hnished  in  1909,  and  stands 
on  the  corner  of  Washington  and  Fourth  streets.  The  present  member- 
ship of  the  church  is  one  thousand  two  hundred  and  seventy,  and  its  pastor 
is  Re\-.  J.  W.  Jones. 

A  Alethodist  class  was  organized  at  the  Putnam  school  house,  in  Bean 
Blossom  township  in  \St,2  and  there  met  for  many  years.  Early  in  the 
fifties  a  church  building  was  provided  in  the  southern  ])art  of  the  township 
and  services  ha\'e  been  kept  up  in  the  township  ever  since,  at  various  points. 

In  the  thirties  a  class  was  formed  in  \^an  Buren  township,  with  Lewis 
Dale  as  a  pastor,  in  1850.  A  building  was  erected  later  at  Stanford  and 
the  society  has  always  prospered. 

In  Indian  Creek  township  the  Methodists  were  first  in  the  religious 
field,  the  first  class  being  formed  in  the  Walker  neighborhood,  about  1825. 
This  was  known  as  Alt.  Salem  church  and  was  famous  in  early  days  for  its 
revivals  of  power  and  attendance  from  far  and  near.  I'inally  the  church  was 
divided,  some  uniting  at  Stanford  and  others  at  various  jilaces  for  conven- 

In  Clear  Creek  township,  earlv  in  tlie  fifties,  a  Methodist  class  was 
formed  at  Smithville. 

In  Polk  township,  in  the  fifties,  a  clas-  was  formed  and  a  church  or- 
ganized, known  as  Chapel  Hill,  a  building  soon  being  erected.  Later  one 
was  built  at  Pleasant  A'alley.  Salem  Chapel  was  another  earl)-  organized 

A  Methodist  church,  styled  Wesley  Chapel,  was  organized  in  Rich- 
land township  in  the  twenties. 



METHODISM   IN    I912. 

At  the  date  of  the  last  conference  report  ( 1912)  the  following  appears: 

Bloomington,  Eighth  Street  church — 436  membership;  church  property 
valued  at  $2,500. 

Bloomington,  First  church — 1,270  members;  church  property,  $105,- 
000;  parsonage  property,  $7,500:  pastor,  Rev.  J.  \V.  Jones:  church  owes, 

Ellettsville — 300  membership;  church  property  valued  at  $4,200. 

Harrodsburg — 470   membership;   church  property  estimated   at  $4,500. 

Stinesville  and  Paragon— 180  members;  value  of  church  property.  $6,- 

Smithville- — Membership,  94. 

Cross  Roads — Membership,  no. 

VVhitaker — 14  membership. 

Total  membership  in  Monroe  county,  in  above  charges  and  churches, 
2,801.  The  total  of  all  benevolences  collected  in  19 12  in  the  Bloomington 
district  was  $11,747.     Total  value  of  church  property  (estimated),  $133,600. 

There  may  be  at  this  date  (  1913)  a  few  country  churches  not  here 


The  Presbyterian  church  at  Bloomington  was  organized  on  September 
26,  1819,  by  Rev.  Isaac  Reed.  The  first  members  included  Henry  Kirk- 
man.  David  PI.  Maxwell,  Mary  D.  Maxwell,  John  Ketchum  and  wife,  Eliza- 
beth Anderson,  Elizabeth  Lucas  and  Patsey  Baugh.  The  society  was  or- 
ganized at  the  old  log  court  house  which  stood  wliere  now  stands  the  county 
jail.  The  first  regular  minister  was  Rev.  David  C.  Proctor,  who  took  charge 
in  1822,  preaching  three-fourths  of  bis  time  in  Indianapolis.  Pie  was  suc- 
ceeded in  1825  1)v  Rev.  B.  R.  Hall,  principal  of  the  State  Seminar}-  (now 
University),  .\ndrew  W'ylie  supplied  the  pulpit  from  1830  to  1834:  Re\-. 
Ranson  Hawley  served  from  1834  to  1841  :  Rev.  W.  \Y.  Martin,  from  1843 
to  1845;  Rev.  Alfred  Ryors.  from  1845  to  1847:  Rev.  Levi  Hughes,  from 
1847  to  T851  :  Rev.  Thomas  Alexander,  from  1851  to  1853:  Rev.  F.  H. 
Laird,  from  1855  to  1856:  Rev.  Lowman  Hall,  from  1856  to  1857;  Rev. 
T.  M.  Hopkins,  from  1857  to  1869;  Rev.  A.  Y.  Moore,  from  1869  on  for  a 
number  of  years.  The  first  church  was  erected  in  1826  and  another  in  1859- 
63.  that  still  did  service  in  the  eighties. 


In  June,  185J,  the  Second  I'reslivterian  church  was  organized  with 
eleven  memhers,  eight  from  the  Mrst  church.  Rev.  Bishop  became  stated 
pastor  in  1857.  In  April,  1870,  the  First  and  Second  churches  were  united 
under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  A.  Y.  Moore,  which  union  was  called  the  Walnut 
Street  Presbyterian  church.  From  date  of  organization  in  1819  to  1882 
there  had  been  received  into  church  fellowship  eight  hundred  and  twelve 
members,  and  twelve  ministers  had  gone  forth  from  the  church  to  do  good 
work  for  the  Master. 

The  United  Presbyterian  church  of  Bloomington  was  composed  of  all 
branches.  Associate  (Seceders),  Associated  Reformed  (Union),  and  the 
Reformed  Presbyterians,  which  were  separately  organized  in  1833,  1834 
and  1838.  The  three  branches  remained  separate  until  1864,  when  the  As- 
sociated Reformed,  under  Rev.  William  Turner,  and  the  Associate,  under 
Rev.  John  Bryan,  came  into  the  above  named  union,  forming  the  United 
Presbyterian  congregation.  In  1809  tlie  Reformed  congregation,  under 
Rev.  T.  A.  VVylie,  came  into  the  union.  The  members  were  mostly  from 
North  Carolina  and  left  on  account  of  slavery.  At  the  time  of  the  union  the 
membership  was  about  two  hundretl.  In  the  early  se\enties  their  church 
was  erected  in  the  northern  part  of  the  city. 

Of  the  First  Presbyterian  church  of  Bloomington  it  may  be  stated  that 
it  is  located  in  a  new  thirty  tlmusanrl  dollar  stone  edifice  on  the  corner  of  Sixth 
and  Lincoln  streets.  It  now  has  a  membership  of  more  than  four  hundred, 
including  many  of  the  present  facult\  of  the  university,  whicli  institution 
has  a  student  pastor,  Rev.  Thomas  R.  U'hite,  and  the  church's  regular  pas- 
tor is  Rev.  John  R.  Ellis. 

The  Reformed  Presbyterian  churcli,  located  on  Walnut  street,  was 
organized  in  1820  by  the  Scotch-Irish  Covenanters  from  South  Carolina. 
Its  neat  little  brick  edifice  is  still  intact  and  there  the  faithful  from  both 
town  and  city  meet  regularly  and  hold  divine  sen'ices  after  their  own  fash- 
ion, and  here  much  spirituality  is  oliserved.  Midweek  day  prayer  services 
are  held  at  present. 

The  United  Presbyterians,  above  mentioned  as  among  the  early  socie- 
ties of  the  city  and  Monroe  county,  have  a  church  on  the  corner  of  College 
avenue  and  Ninth  street.  Their  membershi])  is  now  a1)out  two  hundred  and 
fifty.  This  congregation  maintains  a  mission  on  Maple  Heights.  Among  the 
last  pastors  is  the  Rev.  Thomas  H.  Hanna.  Jr. 

The  Presbyterian  denomination  also  has  churches  at  Ellettsville  and 
Harrodsburg,  the  latter  of  the  Cuiuherland  sect  or  branch. 


Bethesda  Presbyterian  congregation,  east  of  Bloomington.  was  organ- 
ized in  the  thirties.  An  acre  of  land  was  bought  in  section  3,  township  8, 
range  i  west.  Another  society  was  formed  and  land  was  donated  on  sec- 
tion 29,  by  Mr.  Campbell,  and  in  1856  a  church  was  erected  there  known 
as  "Christian  Union." 

The  Cumberland  Presbyterian  church  was  organized  at  Harrodsburg 
in  the  fifties,  meetings  being  held  at  the  school  house. 

Another  famous  church  was  the  Cumberland  church  of  Richland  town- 
ship, which  was  formed  in  1830. 


While  this  denomination  has  never  been  as  strong  in  the  county  as 
some  other  churches,  yet  it  has  been  represented  at  many  places  in  this 
county  from  early  in  the  twenties,  when  a  small  society  was  formed  at 
Bloomington,  the  Fosters,  Stones  and  Vanoys  being  leaders  in  the  organiza- 
tion work. 

In  Richland  township  the  old  Vernal  Baptist  church  was  one,  if  not 
the  very  first  organized  in  the  county.  Meetings  were  held  during  the 
winter  of  1817-18,  but  a  real  societv  was  not  perfected  for  several  years 
thereafter.  A  rude  log  church  was  l)uilt  in  the  Sanders  neighborhood  about 
1826,  antl  used  until  1838,  when  a  frame  church  was  l)uilt  further  north 
and  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  Ellettsville.  So  open  and  cold  was  the 
log  church  that  in  wintertime  services  were  h,eld  at  private  homes.  The 
first  minister  was  Rew  James  Chambers,  who  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Leroy 
Mayfield,  who  served  thirty  years.  Bethany  Baptist  church,  another  in  the 
same  township,  was  early  in  organizing. 

In  Van  Buren  township,  early  in  the  forties,  the  Cnited  Baptists  formed 
a  society  near  Stanford  and  in  1850  they  built  a  neat  church.  The  old 
Baptist  church  in  the  south  part  of  Richland  township  for  years  drew  large 
congregations  from  Van  Buren  township. 

The  old  Hebron  Baptist  church,  in  the  southern  part  of  Indian  Creek 
township,  was  formed  in  the  forties,  and  its  influence  was  felt  many  dec- 
ades— indeed  it  is  still  going  on. 

In  Clear  Creek  township  an  early  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  the 
Nichols  neighborhood,  probably  about  1828.  There  were  numerous  points 
within  this  township  at  which  smaller  classes  of  this  denomination  did  ex- 
cellent pioneer  work. 


In  Benton  township,  as  early  as  1834.  a  Baptist  society  was  formed, 
near  the  residence  of  Lewis  Stevens,  and  it  was  styled  "Little  Union."  It 
was  noted  for  its  spirit  of  enthusiasm  and  faithful  work. 

In  Bean  Blossom  township,  a  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  1S40,  known 
as  "Jack's  Defeat."  Another  Bai)tisl  church  was  Mt.  ("armel,  built  in  the 
forties.  After  Stinesville  started  up,  their  old  log  church  was  a])andoned, 
and  the  Baptists,  Methodists,  Christians  and  Lutherans  united  and  Ijuilt  a 
"box"  church  in  the  village,  which  was  used  until  a  better  Ijuilding  was 
erected  in  1883-84  b\-  the  Baptist  denomination.  The  Methcxlists  retained 
the  old  building. 

The  present  Baptist  church  at  Bluomington  is  located  on  the  corner  of 
Washington  and  l-'ourth  streets:  it  is  a  splendid  stone  structure  of  recent 
construction,  modern  in  all  of  its  appointments.  It  has  a  large,  active  con- 
gregation and  attends  well  to  the  needs  of  the  Ba])tist  denomination  in  the 
city.      Its  latest  pastor  is  Re\-.  James  A.  Brown. 

There  are  now  (1913)  Baptist  churches  at  both  Stinesville  and  Fdletts- 
ville,  both  doing  an  excellent  work. 


By    Amzi    Atwater. 

In  the  early  day  of  our  country's  history  a  goodly  number  of  religious 
teachers  advocated  reform  chiefly  by  rejecting  creeds  and  taking  the  word  of 
God  as  their  only  guide.  Two  of  the  most  learned  and  worthy  of  these  were 
Barton  W.  Stone,  of  Kentucky,  and  Alexander  Campbell,  of  Virginia.  Both 
of  them  had  been  educated  as  Presbyterians.  Stone  began  his  reformatory 
work  about  ten  years  before  1800,  Campbell  nine  years  after  that  time. 
Some  of  the  followers  of  Stone  arri\ed  in  Bloomington  by  the  time  the  town 
was  laid  out  in  1818.  As  they  had  no  church  building  they  met  from  house 
to  house,  in  their  log  cabins  in  winter  and  in  a  grove  to  the  northeast  in 
summer.  The  Christian  church  chapel  is  not  far  from  the  place.  Here  they 
held  great  camp  meetings,  often  with  much  sensational  exhorting.  John 
Henderson  was  their  preacher.  He  was  a  large  man,  had  a  strong  voice 
and  was  a  great  singer.  Old  settlers  said  that  the  voice  of  John  Henderson, 
singing  the  old-time  hymns  at  evening,  could  be  heard  a  mile  away.  He  had 
in  his  employ  an  ex-slave  brought  from  Kentucky.  The  people  called  him 
"Black  Aaron."  He  could  preach  and  act  out  his  sermons  at  the  same  time. 
'When  he  took  David  and  Goliath  as  his  text  he  would  fold  his  handkerchief 
into  a  sling,  put  in  the  stone,  whirl  it  and  let  it  fly,  then  turning  quickly  he 


would  personate  Goliath,  receive  the  stone  in  his   forehead  and   fall  down 
dead  on  the  platform. 

THE  COURT  HOUSE  OF  1 826. 

When  the  brick  court  house  was  built  in  1826  Barton  Stone  came  from 
Kentucky  and  held  meetings  in  it.  which  made  a  fine  impression  on  the 
pioneer  hearers.  The  people  at  once  bought  a  lot  and  built  a  house  to  serve 
both  for  school  house  and  church.  This  lasted  them,  with  one  enlargement, 
about  fifty  years.  The  church  parsonage  stands  on  that  lot  today.  Stone 
and  Campbell  having  conferred  together  as  early  as  1824,  and  they  and 
their  followers  many  times  later  on,  and  having  come  finally  to  almost  a 
perfect  agreement,  a  union  was  effected  in  1833,  in  which  the  views  of 
Campbell  more  largely  prevailed. 


Faith  and  repentance  were  now  much  preached  and  baptism  by  immer- 
sion to  be  administered  at  once  w  ithout  a  mourner's  bench  delay.  The  com- 
munion was  now  observed  every  Sunday.  Some  people  had  called  the  asso- 
ciates of  Stone  "Newlights."  Some  now  called  the  church  "Campbellite," 
but  the  members  objected  and  desired  to  be  called  simply  "Christians,"  or 
"Disciples  of  Christ."  The  deed  of  the  above  named  lot  (167)  was  given 
in  1826  to  the  "Trustees  of  the  Christian  Church."  Though  Stone  himself 
joined  forces  with  Campbell,  some  of  his  associates  never  did  go  into  the 
"new  organization."  A  few  have  remained  firm  to  this  day  and  very  gen- 
erally say  they  have  the  first  claim  to  the  name  "Christian  Church"  as  a 
distinctive  name.  Thus  some  confusion  exists.  Campbell  always  preferred 
the  name,  "Disciples  of  Christ."  Again  in  these  later  years  a  marked  division 
has  sprung  up  between  the  more  progressive  and  more  conservative  of  the 
churches — the  one  readily  adopting  missionary  and  Endeavor  societies.  Sun- 
day schools  and  organs,  the  other  rejecting  them.  The  latter  party  tend  to 
the  exclusive  use  of  the  name,  "Church  of  Christ,"  which  all  acknowledge 
to  be  as  Scriptural  as  "Church  of  God,"  both  being  used  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment. Thus  again  some  ambiguity  has  arisen.  The  writer  hopes  that  this 
careful  explanation  will  remove  all  confusion  from  the  mind  of  every 



It  is  believed  that  no  other  rehgious  body  has  organized  so  many  churches 
in  Monroe  county  as  this  people  who  sprang  from  the  Campbell  and  Stone 
movement.  Of  these  there  have  been  about  a  score  started.  A  few  of  them, 
in  time,  have  weakened  and  ceased  to  meet. 

While  this  church  has  not  greatly  inclined  to  organization  or  combina- 
tion of  any  kind,  the  brethren  of  the  early  day  repeatedly  strengthened  their 
work  by  county  and  district  co-operative  effort.  This  can  be  seen  especially 
in  the  years  before  the  war.  Their  county  co-operation  began  as  early  as 
1848,  when  James  Blankenship,  who  had  just  come  to  us  from  the  Baptists 
at  Unionville,  was  chosen  county  evangelist,  and  went  at  once  to  holding 
meetings  in  destitute  places,  while  the  churches  supported  him  by  their  con- 
tributions. Later  John  C.  Mathes  was  chosen  county  evangelist.  Again  in 
185 1,  the  churches  of  Monroe,  Lawrence,  Brown,  Morgan,  Owen,  Green. 
Martin  and  Daviess  counties  formed  a  district  organization,  held  annual 
meetings  and  employed  an  evangelist.  This  they  kept  up  till  war  times,  dropped 
it,  but  resumed  it  after  the  war. 

Let  us  now  name  the  leading  events  in  the  formative  period  of  this 
people.  Minister  John  Henderson  moved  to  Illinois  in  1830.  Though  he  was 
in  sympathy  with  the  new  reformatory  changes,  he  did  not  stay  to  see  them 

Among  the  men  who  were  in  the  lead  of  Bloomington  church  when 
John  Henderson  left  were  Jonathan  Nichols,  who  had  laid  out  the  town  of 
Bloomington,  and  later  was  president  of  the  board  of  trustees  of  the  Univer- 
sity; Dudly  C.  Smith,  later  leader  at  Harmony  church  (father  of  Dudly  F. 
Smith)  ;  David  Batterton,  afterwards  a  mainstay  in  Bloomington  church,  and 
Jonathan  Rogers,  the  last  named  grandfather  of  many  in  the  church  today. 


A  new  impetus  was  given  to  the  movement  and  many  churches  were 
now  formed  in  different  parts  of  the  county.  Harmony  and  South  Union 
started  in  1834,  Richland  and  Clear  Creek  were  organized  in  1838.  Union- 
ville had  a  peculiar  experience.  The  Baptist  church  of  that  village  had  as  its 
minister  in  1848  James  Blankenship.  At  this  time  he  became  convinced  that 
the  Reformers  had  the  true  ground.  He  therefore  invited  his  Baptist  breth- 
ren (after  setting  forth  the  argument)  to  go  with  him,  which  they  did,  and 
he  thus  formed  the  Unionville  Christian  church,  which  took  on  the  geo- 



graphical  name.  "Young's  Ridge,"  which  reported  to  the  district  meeting  of 
185 1  ninety  members.  Mount  Gilead  church  was  starting  about  the  same 
time,  but  in  a  small  way,  under  the  lead  of  Washington  Houston  as  preacher. 
John  C.  Mathes  and  Pressly  Mathers  were  active  in  the  work,  the  latter  hav- 
ing the  first  meetings  at  his  house  in  the  locust  grove.  Isaac  Buskirk  and 
wife  generously  gave  the  land.  Their  first  house  was  built  in  1851.  Mathes 
and  Mathers,  in  the  district  meeting  of  that  year,  reported  the  little  church 
had  a  membership  of  twenty  members. 

Mount  Pleasant,  up  five  miles  east  of  Gosport,  near  the  Morgan  county 
line,  may  have  been  the  next  church  to  get  a  start  about  1850.  It  was  repre- 
sented in  the  district  meeting  of  185 1  by  Penel  Houston  and  John  Cooter 
(father  of  Elder  Nathan  Cooter  and  Benjamin  Cooter.  commissioner  when 
our  new  court  house  was  built).  They  also  reported  their  little  church  had 
twenty  members  in  May  of  that  year.  A  church  was  also  organized  in 
Benton  township,  known  as  the  Bean  Blossom  church. 


The  New  Albany  and  Salem  railroad,  stretching  north  and  dotting  sta- 
tions along  its  line,  helped  to  start  several  churches  in  the  fifties.  One  of 
these  was  Ellettsville.  The  people  far  to  the  east  and  five  miles  north  of 
Bloomington  had  begun  their  religious  work  at  Maple  Grove  as  early  as  1850 
and  really  helped  Ellettsville  make  a  beginning.  The  two  worked  together 
for  some  years,  holding  meetings  in  common.  The  preachers  gave  the  name  of 
"North  Liberty"  to  the  Maple  Grove  movement,  but  the  designation  seems 
to  have  dropped  ofif  with  the  following  years.  The  Houstons  (J.  W.  and 
y.  O.  A.)  were  leaders  and  liy  August.  1851.  they  were  able  to  report  that 
North  Liberty  had  forty-seven  members.  This  was  before  Ellettsville  had  got 
on  the  church  map.  The  people  of  these  two  churches  found  in  B.  M. 
Blount  (a  college  student)  a  man  who  was  a  tower  of  strength  to  them. 
This  worthy  preacher  may  be  still  living  at  Indianapolis  at  this  writing  in 
extreme  old  age.     He  visited  Bloomington  not  many  years  ago. 

Three  other  railroad  villages  must  be  remembered  in  mentioning  Christ- 
ian church  planting,  Stinesville,  Smithville  and  Harrodsburg.  The  last  named 
is  the  oldest,  but  happened  to  get  located  away  over  the  hills  and  out  of 
sight  of  the  railroad  builders.  Preaching  began  here  earlier  than  at  the  other 
places,  but  has  not  kept  its  start.  Moses  Field  was  the  most  zealous  and 
most  generous  contributor  to  the  building  of  their  brick  house,  which  was 
completed  in  1869.    Rev.  William  F.  Black,  who  had  just  held  a  great  revival 


in  Bloomington,  was  called  to  dedicate  it.  It  illustrates  what  has  been  said 
in  these  pages  about  modifying  church  names  that  at  the  dedication  "Christ- 
ian Church"  was  put  up  over  the  doors,  but  years  afterward  those  words  were 
removed  and  "Church  of  Christ"  was  put  in  their  place. 

At  Stinesville  one  man,  John  L.  Ashbaugh,  almost  built  the  little  church 
himself  in  1856.  This  burned  in  1865,  but  his  son-in-law,,  James  S.  Williams, 
provided  an  audience  room  in  his  business  block.  This,  dedicated  by  Rev. 
Thomas  J.  Clark  in  1899,  lasted  them  till  they  could  buy  a  good  church 
house  high  up  on  Stinesville  side-hill.  At  this  writing,  1913,  "Uncle  Jimmy 
Williams"  is  enjoying  in  his  old  age  the  friuts  of  his  labors  among  his  breth- 
ren and  fellow  citizens. 

Years  ago  you  could  see  at  Smithville  one  man  doing  the  community  a 
great  service.  This  was  William  Leonard.  Under  his  lead  they  built  the 
Christian  church  in  1856.  He  was  a  good,  true,  safe.  Christian  leader.  The 
annual  August  meeting  in  Leonard's  Grove  may  be  regarded  as  an  annual 
memorial  of  William  Leonard. 


Let  us  now  glance  at  the  succession  of  pastors  of  the  Bloomington  Christ- 
ian church.  Beginning  with  1834  }0U  may  mark  ofif  the  score  of  years  to 
1854  as  the  period  of  the  labors  of  James  M.  Mathes  and  Elijah  Goodwin. 
At  first  Mathes  came  from  Owen  county  by  monthly  visits.  Later  he  came 
with  his  family  in  1838,  to  attend  college  and  be  the  settled  minister.  In 
1 84 1  they  remodeled  and  enlarged  the  church.  In  1843  Mathes  began  pub- 
lishing a  magazine  called  the  "Christian  Record."  Later  Goodwin  came  and 
helped  him.  Mathes  was  the  chief  editor,  Goodwin  the  great  worker.  The 
county  and  district  co-operation  owe  their  success  to  Goodwin.  Thomas  P. 
Connelly  was  an  able  student  preacher,  1843  to  1846.  The  stay  of  Prof. 
Robert  Milligan  in  the  university  during  1852  to  1854  was  a  great  advantage 
to  the  church.  The  pastorate  of  Randall  Faurote  and  his  good  wife.  1859 
to  1 86 1,  brought  a  blessing  to  all  the  people.  Then  followed  Harrison  Hight. 
lately  graduated  from  the  university.  1861  to  1863.  James  H.  McCollough, 
1864;  Amzi  Atwater.  1865  to  1867  (while  he  was  a  student  or  professor). 
John  LaGrange,  1868.  W.  B.  F.  Treat,  1869  to  1873.  H.  D.  Carlton.  1875 
to  1877.  John  H.  Hamilton,  1878.  Allen  B.  Philputt,  1879  to  1885,  under 
whose  leadership  the  present  Christian  church  was  built.  George  B.  Peak, 
1886  to  April,  1887.  Peter  J.  Martin,  1888.  Franklin  Ross,  1889  to  1891. 
L.  T.  Van  Cleve,  1892  to  1894.    Thomas  J.  Clark,  1894  to  1908.    Joseph  C. 


Todd,  1908  to  1912.     ^^'illiam  H.  Smith,  November  i,  1912,  to  the  present 


Bloomington  congregation  has  been  favored  by  the  visits  of  great  men 
and  ardent  missionaries.  Barton  W.  Stone  came,  as  has  been  mentioned,  in 
1826.  Again  he  came  in  1835,  still  again  in  1838,  and  lastly  in  1843,  a  year 
before  he  died.  Alexander  Campbell  came  in  1850.  He  v^^as  passing  through 
the  state,  accompanied  by  another  noted  man  and  pulpit  orator,  John  O'Kane. 
They  stopped  to  attend  our  Indiana  state  constitutional  convention,  which  was 
then  in  session,  and  he  was  invited  to  conduct  devotional  exercises,  v^'hich  he 
did.  At  Bloomington  he  addressed  a  university  audience,  preached  in  the 
church  and  visited  his  old  friend.  President  Andrew  Wylie.  Campbell  came 
again  in  1861,  while  the  mutterings  of  the  coming  war  were  being  heard. 
He  was  accompanied  this  time  by  Isaac  Errett.  Though  he  was  still  able  to 
set  forth  impressively  the  great  doctrines  of  scripture,  his  mind  was  failing 
in  common  matters  of  present  time.  This  may  have  been  his  last  journey 
among  the  churches.  His  was  a  great  mind  and  a  noble  life.  He  lived  to  see 
the  success  of  a  world-wide  reform. 

One  object  of  the  writer  of  this  historical  sketch  has  been  to  correct 
misunderstanding  with  regard  to  the  people  of  whom  he  has  written  and 
present  to  the  public  the  facts  as  they  occurred  in  this  community.  Many 
worthy  deeds  have  been  done  by  noble  men  and  women  in  years  gone  by,  but 
time  fails  me  to  duly  record  them.  If  they  have  not  "subdued  kingdoms," 
they  have  at  least  "wrought  righteousness."  Those  who  know  of  them 
should  tell  the  story  to  their  children  for  a  memorial  of  them  to  future  gen- 
erations. Take  for  in.stance  Thomas  Nesbit.  James  Mathes  said  of  him.  "one 
of  the  best  men  ever  in  Monroe  county."  Dow  Foster  has  written  of  him 
for  our  Historical  Society  under  the  title,  "History  of  Richland  County:" 
"For  thirty-five  years  his  home  was  a  haven  of  refuge  for  the  weary  traveler, 
and  he  was  the  faithful  friend,  counselor,  spiritual  adviser  and  judge  for  the 

Henry  Dillman  has  written  a  most  valuable  history  of  Qear  Creek 
church,  going  back  to  its  planting  and  its  charter  members.  In  that  history 
he  has  mentioned  many  good  people;  among  the  best  of  these  was  Samuel 
Mathers.     Read  Dillman's  History  and  see  their  names  by  the  score. 

Mount  Gilead  people  have  their  history  written  up  in  a  book  of  nearly 
three  hundred  pages.     They  have  thus  recorded  the  generous  deed  of  Isaac 


Buskirk  in  giving  the  land  and  as  their  members  are  called  to  the  better  world 
they  carefully  record  the  death. 

South  Union  church  has  its  history  started  and  expects  to  go  on  to 
perfect  it.  Among  the  first  things  to  be  put  down  will  be  that  P.  L.  D.  Mit- 
chell gave  them  the  land  for  the  church  in  1846,  but  the  present  house  seems 
to  have  been  built  ten  years  later.  Among  the  good  men  of  that  congregation 
of  the  olden  time  you  may  write  Elder  James  Shipman.  He  had  been  a 
member  of  Bloomington  before  South  Union  was  organized.  Among  the 
good  men  of  the  later  days  we  must  remember  the  name  of  Jacob  Car- 
michael,  whose  funeral  we  attended  with  tearful  eyes. 


The  withdrawal  of  some  members  of  Bloomington  Christian  church  in 
November,  1877,  may  be  regarded  as  the  natural  separation  of  the  progres- 
sive and  the  conservative  element  which  frequently  takes  place.  Those  with- 
drawing have  successfully  maintained  their  organization  and  have  built  a 
good  house  at  the  comer  of  Fourth  and  Lincoln  streets. 

The  Bloomington  churcii  has  started  a  mission  at  the  corner  of  Eleventh 
and  Indiana  avenue  for  Sunday  school  and  preaching  purposes.  It  is  doing 
good  work  and  will  some  day  be  a  flourishing  church.  The  efifort  dates  from 
Christmas  time,  1911. 

A  goodly  number  of  churches  adopted  a  form  of  co-operation  in  August, 
1910.  They  have  a  county  advisory  committee  made  up  of  representatives 
from  each  church.  Their  action  is  not  binding  on  anybo4y,  but  just  what  its 
name  indicates.     It  has  already  awakened  much  activity. 

The  Kirkwood  Avenue  Bible  Chair  is  an  organization  incorporated 
October.  1910,  for  the  more  perfect  education  and  cultivation  of  the  young 
people  of  the  Christian  church  in  the  university.  It  ought  to  accomplish  great 


Trinity  Episcopal  church,  at  Bloomington,  is  located  on  East  Kirkwood 
avenue,  and  is  one  of  the  finest  specimen  of  church  architecture  in  the  city, 
where  so  many  fine  edifices  abound.  The  old  church  building,  in  the  rear 
of  the  new  structure,  is  used  as  a  parish  house.  This  society  purchased  the 
large  stone  chapter  house,  next  to  the  church  proper,  and  this  is  used  as  a 
home  for  the  Episcopal  girls  who  attend  the  Indiana  L'niversity.  The  latest 
rector  is  Rev.  William  Burrows.  This  denomination  has  never  been  counted 


among  the  strong  churches  of  Monroe  county,  but  here  and  there,  especially 
in  Bloomington,  there  is  a  goodly  following  at  present. 

Other  denominations  and  church  societies  of  Bloomington  are  the 
Christian  Scientists,  the  Colored  Methodist  and  Baptist  churches,  and  the 
Sahation  Army,  all  doing  a  good  work  in  their  own  special  and  unique  man- 
ner, reaching  those  whom  the  other  sects  could  not  hope  to  reach,  under 
present  circumstances. 


This  is  really  a  church  of  no  special  denomination,  but  adheres  as  near 
as  possible  to  the  apostolic  teachings.  They  separated  from  the  Christian 
church  man\'  }ears  ago,  being  opposed  to  instrumental  music  in  churches  and 
are  also  against  organized  missionary  movements.  About  1830  such  a 
society  was  organized  in  \'an  Buren  township.  They  first  met  at  the  resi- 
dence of  Joseph  Berry,  a  leading  member.  In  1834  a  church  house  was 
erected  and  ser\ed  many  years.  At  Harrodsburg  another  was  formed  in 
the  thirties  and  is  still  in  existence.  Other  points  in  this  county  where  these 
societies  have  a  footing  may  be  named,  in  Marion  township,  formed  in  the 
forties:  on  ^'oung■s  Ridge,  about  the  same  date,  and  they  built  in  1851  on 
lot  No.  26  in  Unionville. 

In  Bloomington,  the  Lincoln  Street  Church  of  Christ  is  a  strong  society, 
and  recenth'  erected  a  beautiful  stone  edifice  on  East  Fourth  street.  Rev. 
H.  H.  Adamson  is  pastor. 


About  the  year  1850,  Catholics  began  to  settle  in  and  about  the  city  of 
Bloomington,  at  the  time  when  the  Louisville,  New  Albany  &  Chicago  rail- 
road was  built.  Hitherto,  the  most  of  the  inhabitants  were  Scotch  Presby- 
terians, and  had  kept  the  Catholics  from  entering  this  territory.  But,  as  the 
railroad  was  the  result  of  the  work  of  Catholic  people  mostly,  the  members 
of  this  denomination  began  to  gather  in  Monroe  county. 

The  first  priest  was  the  Rev.  Patrick  Murphy,  who  lived  at  Mt.  I'leasant, 
and  visited  Catholic  families  scattered  along  the  line  from  Salem,  in  Wash- 
ington county,  to  Gosport,  in  Owen  county.  Rev.  Louis  Neyron,  who  had 
once  been  an  officer  in  the  great  French  army  under  Napoleon  Bonaparte, 
next  visited  this  region  and  said  mass  to  the  Catholic  families.  During  this 
perit)d  an  important  step  was  taken,   namely,   the  purchase  of  a   lot.      Rev. 


Edward  Martinovic,  of  Columbus,  came  next  to  this  district,  and  then  the 
Rev.  Simon  Siegrist,  of  Indianapohs.  Rew  Joseph  O'Reilly,  stationed  at 
Greencastle,  Putnam  county,  in  [8()0,  paid  a  visit  to  Bloomington  on  the  2nd 
of  December,  i860,  and  made  a  regular  practice  of  ^•isiting  this  place  at 
intervals.  Rev.  Charles  J.  Mongin,  of  Crawfordsville,  became  the  \isiting 
pastor  in  April,  1864.  At  this  time  the  cpiestion  of  a  church  building  l^e- 
came  agitated,  the  first  mention  having  been  made  in  18^0.  b_)hn  Waldron 
kindly  purchased  the  oldest  brick  building  in  town,  which  was  formerly  a 
Methodist  church  erected  in  1826.  This  purchase  was  made  on  juh"  4, 
1864,  for  six  hundred  dollars.  Mass  was  first  held  in  that  church  on  the 
igth  day  of  that  month  of  July,  1864.  A  mission  was  held  shortly  after- 
wards by  the  Passionist  Fathers,  Martin  and  Luke,  and  was  attended  with 
notable  effect.  From  the  departure  of  Father  Mongin  until  the  arrival  of 
the  first  resident  pastor,  the  Rev.  Julius  Clement,  residing  at  (ireencastle, 
attended  Bloomington  and  in  1868  built  a  parsonage. 

Rev.  Henry  H.  Kessing  became  the  first  resident  priest  at  Bloomington 
on  November  4,  1868.  He  remained  until  July,  1877.  Kev.  Leopold  M. 
Burkhardt  was  appointed  resident  pastor  on  July  2<).  1877.  The  congrega- 
tion at  that  time  numbered  twenty-se\'en  families,  and  had  two  hundred  and 
seventy  dollars  in  the  treasure  The  necessity  for  the  building  of  a  new 
church  became  apparent  to  the  Catholics  of  Bloomington,  as  the  old  struc- 
ture had  been  for  a  long  time  unsafe  for  use.  This  was  a  difficult  and 
doubtful  undertaking,  ])ut  the  memt)ers  set  to  work  with  a  will  not  to  be 
defeated.  The  Rev.  August  Bessonies  laid  the  corner  stone  for  the  new 
house  of  worship  on  June  16,  1878.  and  in  December  of  the  same  year  the 
congregation  took  possession  of  their  new  church.  The  structure  was  of 
Gothic  architecture,  sixty  by  thirty-five  feet,  with  a  hundred-foot  steeple, 
and  cost  five  thousand  six  hundred  dollars. 

In  March,  1879,  Rev.  John  B.  Unxerzagt  succeeded  b'ather  I'.urkhardt 
as  resident  pastor.  On  Se|)teml)er  7,  1879,  the  church  of  which  St.  Charles 
B.  is  the  patron,  was  consecrated  by  liishop  Chatard.  blather  Cnverzagt 
continued  until   1882,  when  he  was  in  turn  succeeded  by  Rev.  T.  X.  Logan. 

Rev.  Af.  H.  Bogemann.  the  present  pastor  of  the  church  at  Blooming- 
ton, came  here  in  June,  1885.  He  had  under  his  charge  on  his  arrival  seven 
counties,  Owen,  Greene,  Brown,  Monroe,  Lawrence,  Orange  and  Washing- 
ton. Father  Bogemann  has  served  continuall\-  since  that  time,  and  has  won 
a  place  of  respect  and  affection  with  everyone  in  the  cit)-  of  Bloomington. 
His  fidelitv,   devotion  and  sympathetic  intercourse   with  the  people   is  char- 


acteristic  of  the  man.  Broad  and  logical  in  intellect,  tender  as  a  child,  but 
with  Viking  strength  and  unswerving  integrity,  Father  Bogemann  graces 
well  the  holy  position  which  he  occupies.  The  church  at  Bloomington  now 
numbers  five  hundred  souls.  Plans  are  being  considered  for  the  erection  of 
a  new  church  at  a  different  location.  This  undertaking,  of  course,  is  ac- 
companied by  difticulties,  but  with  the  wise  leadership  of  the  priest  it  is  a 
near  realization.  An  adecjuate  i:)arochial  school  will  also  be  established  with 
the  church. 

Father  Bogemann  was  born  in  Franklin  county,  this  state,  on  March 
lo,  i860,  and  was  the  son  of  Henry  and  Elizal>eth  (Broxtermann)  Boge- 
mann. His  parents  resided  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  before  his  birth,  but  finding 
climatic  conditions  there  unsuited  to  the  father's  health,  moved  into  Franklin 
county,  Indiana.  Rev.  M.  H.  Bogemann  was  educated  by  the  Benedictine 
Fathers  in  Spencer  county,  Indiana,  at  St.  Meinard's  College  and  Seminary. 
In  the  year  from  1899  to  1900  he  attended  Oxford  College.  England,  doing 
post-graduate  work,  and  was  known  as  the  first  Catholic  priest,  secular  priest, 
to  matriculate  in  Oxford  since  the  days  of  the  Reformation.  Father  Boge- 
mann has  been  interested  in  architectural  work  during  his  life,  and  has  re- 
garded the  profession  as  sort  of  an  avocation.  He  drew  plans  and  built  the 
first  Catholic  church  at  French  Lick  in  1886.  He  also  constructed  the  Bed- 
ford church,  and  later  planned  the  construction  of  Kirkwood  hall.  Indiana 
University,  for  the  state.  The  school  authorities  had  given  up  the  building 
of  this  last  edifice  because  the  plans  could  not  be  made  to  fit  in  with  the 
amount  of  appropriation,  due  to  the  high  cost  of  stone.  Father  Bogemann 
took  charge  of  the  work,  reconstructed  the  architectural  drawings  to  a 
straight  line  style,  and  arranged  so  that  the  building  could  be  built,  with 
funds  left  over.  Father  Bogemann  was  chairman  of  the  building  committee 
of  the  Monroe  countv  court  house,  and  suggested  the  use  of  concrete  in  its 


Without  attempting  to  go  into  the  detailed  history  of  the  workings  of 
the  civic  orders  of  the  county,  it  will  be  but  proper  to  give  some  facts  con- 
cerning the  three  prominent  secret  fraternities,  the  Masons,  Odd  Fellows  and 
Knights  of  Pythias. 



Cecilia  Lodge  No.  i66,  at  Bloomington,  was  instituted  by  J.  B.  Ander- 
son, grand  master,  August  i.  1853,  the  following  being  the  charter  member- 
ship: H.  C.  Smith,  John  W.  Smith,  L.  M.  Hays,  C.  H.  Laird,  Daniel 
Shrader,  C.  R.  Miner,  John  Warner,  Theodore  Johnson,  Peter  Clemison  and 
Thomas  H.  Sinex.  It  had  a  membership  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  in  1884, 
was  in  a  flourishing  condition,  and  owned  a  good  lodge  room  on  College 
avenue.  It  also  had  an  encampment  here,  known  as  Herndon  No.  56,  insti- 
tuted at  Gosport.  August,  1858,  but  in  January,  1862,  was  removed  to  Bloom- 
ington. At  present  the  membership. of  the  subordinate  lodge  at  Blooming- 
ton  is  three  hundred  and  fifty,  and  its  elective  officers  are :  Mort  Gaskins, 
noble  grand ;  Edwin  Carmichael.  vice-grand ;  Arthur  G.  Lewis,  recording 
secretary ;  A.  H.  Beldon,  financial  secretary ;  Lsaac  W.  Walker,  treasurer. 
This  order  owns  a  good  hall  on  Walnut  street.  The  encampment  in  Bloom- 
ington has  a  membership  of  about  one  hundred  and  sixty,  with  present  officers  : 
A.  H.  Beldon.  chief  priest;  James  H.  Cooper,  high  priest:  W.  J.  Durst,  senior 
warden ;  Harrv  Barnes,  junior  warden ;  Isaac  W.  Walker,  treasurer. 

In  the  side  towns  of  this  county  are  located  Odd  Fellows  lodges  as  fol- 
lows:  Ellettsville;  Oolitic  Lodge,  at  Stinesville;  Arbutus  Lodge,  at  Clear 
Creek ;  Harrodsburg  Lodge,  at  Harrodsburg,  each  having  about  one  hundred 
members.     Ellettsville  has  also  an  encampment. 


The  first  Masonic  lodge  in  Monroe  county  was  instituted  at  Blooming- 
ton,  as  Monroe  Lodge  No.  22.  Its  detailed  history  is  not  attainable  at  this 
date,  but  is  being  prepared  by  a  committee  of  the  fraternity,  in  a  booklet  form, 
but  too  late  for  insertion  in  this  work  of  the  county.  The  fraternity  is  strong 
here,  having  in  Bloomington  alone  three  hundred  and  sixty  members,  with 
present  officers  as  follows:  John  T.  Eller,  worshipful  master;  Fred  A. 
Seward,  senior  warden;  Stacy  O.  Harrell.  junior  warden:  Frank  C.  Duncan, 
treasurer :  Hugh  Baker,  secretary ;  Joseph  Boyd,  tyler. 

Bloomington  Chapter  No.  70,  Royal  Arch  Masons,  was  organized  in 
1867,  by  the  following  membership:  Cyrus  Nutt,  Hiram  Gilmore,  G.  \\\ 
Hardin.  J.  J.  Durand,  J.  J.  Hight,  Asher.  Labertew,  George  Sheeks,  M.  C. 
Hunter,  J.  G.  McPheeters,  M.  L.  McCullough,  J.  B.  Hamilton,  Augustine 
Holtzman  and  J.  T.  Holtzman.     The  present  membership  of  this  chapter  is 



one  hundred  and  fifty.  Its  present  (  1913)  officers  are:  Orville  B.  Fuller, 
high  priest;  Alilton  L.  I'xjrden,  exalted  king;  Fred  A.  Seward,  exalted  scrihe ; 
Lon  D.  Rogers,  treasurer ;  Hugh  Baker,  secretar)- ;  John  L.  Boyd,  tyler. 

Bloomington  is  also  the  home  of  a  council  of  Royal  and  Select  Masters, 
but  there  is  no  comniandcry  of  Knights  Templar. 

In  other  parts  of  the  county  this  ancient  and  honorable  order  has  flourish- 
ing lodges  at  the  following  points:  Ellettsville,  Stanford  and  Harrodsburg. 
The  lodge  rooms  of  this  county  will  compare  favorably  with  any  county  in 
the  state,  where  there  are  no  larger  towns. 


This  is  the  youngest  of  the  three  great  secret  orders,  and  was  first  insti- 
tuted in  Monroe  county  in  Bloomington.  It  was  Franklin  Lodge  No.  22. 
It  moved  on  rapidly  until  today  it  has  a  membership  of  three  hundred  and 
ten,  with  the  following  present  elective  ofticers  :  W.  A.  Wellon,  chancellor 
commander;  Fred  Hazel,  vice-commander;  H.  E.  Wahl,  prelate;  Arthur 
Lewis,  master  of  work;  John  T.  Foster,  master  of  exchecjuer ;  John  Kirby, 
master  of  finance ;  Wilson  I.  Ross,  keeper  of  records  and  seal ;  Walter  Billeg, 
master  at  arms ;  Keneth  Stout,  inside  guard ;  Walter  Pruett,  outside  guard. 

The  county  has  lodges  of  this  order  at  the  following  points :  At  Smith- 
\ille,  Stinesville,  Stanford,  Harrodsburg  and  Ellettsville.  In  each  there  is 
a  round  membership  of  about  one  hundred. 



These  two  professions  haxe  been  al)ly  represented  in  AJijnroe  connt_\  and 
its  county  seat,  Blooniington.  it  will  not  be  possible  to  give  a  detailed  account 
of  all  who  have  served  as  either  lawyers  or  physicians  here  for  the  last  ninety 
odd  years,  but  the  following  will  call  to  memory  many  of  those  who  have 
graced  the  two  professions  with  the  flight  of  years;  also  there  will  be  found 
in  conclusion,  the  names  of  the  present  attornexs  and  phwsicians  of  the  county. 

In  searching  for  those  who  have  practiced  law,  for  a  longer  or  shorter 
peri(jd,  the  writer  has  had  much  difticult}',  as  tlierc  are  no  I'ecord.s  kept  in 
regular  order  nf  tliese  legal  men.  We  depend  du  the  memory  of  older  men, 
and  on  books  and  ])apers  published  man\'  \-ears  since,  for  what  data  we  have 
collected,  b'rom  such  sources  it  is  learned  that  the  following  ha\'e  |)racticed 
law  here,  the  list  not  calculated  to  be  gi\en  chronologically: 

Eli  K.  Milieu,  who  commenced  the  practice  of  law  here  in  the  autumn  of 
1858,  was  born  in  this  countv  in  i<S37:  graduatetl  at  the  uni\ersity  here  .in 
1858:  was  prosecuting  attorney  tw(j  years:  was  considered  the  best  lawyer  in 
the  countv  manv  vears  ago.  He  acted  as  a  special  judge  in  Monroe  county 
at  \arious  times.      Politically,  he  was  a  life-long  Democrat. 

John  PI.  Louden,  a  Peimsyhauian  b\-  l)irth,  was  the  son  of  an  elder  in  the 
Reformed  Presbyterian  church.  Pie  taught  school  in  1861 -fij.  and  during 
the  last  year  studied  law  as  well,  his  preceptor  being  Judge  Read  of  Conners- 
ville.  He  also  assisted  in  the  summer  of  1862  in  raising  a  com])an\-  of  Ci\il 
war  troops  for  the  Fifth  Indiana  Regiment,  and  intended  entering  the  >er\-ice. 
but  was  taken  ill  and  abandoned  the  thought,  lie  bad  charge  of  tbe  lUooiii- 
iiu/toii  Republican,  at  the  same  time  reading  law  with  judge  Hughes.  He 
graduated  from  the  law  department  of  Indiana  Tniversit}-  in  r8r)4  and  at  once 
commenced  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He  had  fm-  bis  i)artners  -;uch  men 
as  Capt.  John  W.  McCoy,  Frank  Wilson  and  Hon.  M.  V.  Hunn.  als,,  R.  \V. 
Miers.      He  became  one  of  the  state's  best  lawvers. 

George  A.  Buskirk,  born  in  1820.  the  son  of  .\bram  Puskirk.  was  edu- 
cated at  the  Rloomington  schools,  then  entered  the  ofhce  of  David  Browning, 
clerk  of  the  Afonrop  countv  coiu't.      He  entered   the  jireparatorv  course  of 




Indiana  University  just  as  the  war  with  Mexico  broke  out,  and  he  enHsted 
at  Lafayette,  but  transferred  to  the  Third  Indiana  Regiment,  under  Col. 
James  H.  Lane,  serving  till  the  end  of  that  war.  He  followed  the  printer's 
trade  for  a  few  \ears,  on  the  Democratic  paper  at  Bloomington,  and  in  1849 
began  the  study  of  law,  graduating  from  Indiana  University  in  1850.  In 
1856  he  was  elected  judge  of  this  circuit,  and  was  re-elected  in  i860.  He 
was  sent  to  the  Legislature  in  1867,  being  again  elected  to  the  same  position 
of  trust  in  1868-69,  and  was  speaker  of  the  Lower  House.  In  1871  he  organ- 
ized the  First  National  Bank  of  Bloomington,  and  was  made  its  president. 
In  war  days  he  was  greatly  appreciated  by  Governor  Morton,  who  appointed 
him  colonel  of  the  Indiana  Legion. 

John  \\".  Buskirk.  second  son  of  John  B.  Buskirk,  was  born  in  1845  '^'i 
Lawrence  count}',  Indiana,  and  entered  the  State  University  of  Indiana  in 
1859.  He  enlisted  in  Company  G,  h^orty-ninth  Indiana  Regiment,  serving 
until  June,  1863.  He  soon  entered  the  law  office  of  Hon.  J.  L.  Collins  at 
North  America,  and  after  two  years  formed  a  partnership  with  his  preceptor. 
Two  years  later  he  removed  to  Paoli,  where  he  was  a  law  partner  of  his 
brother  until  1869,  then  moved  to  Bloomington,  Indiana,  and  after  two  years 
formed  a  partnership  with  Lester  L.  Norton,  l>ecoming  two  years  later  a  part- 
ner of  H.  C.  Duncan.  He  was  a  successful  lawyer  and  in  time  was  elected 
prosecuting  attorney.     Politically,  he  was  a  stanch  Democrat. 

Hon.  John  R.  East,  born  in  Indian  Creek  township,  this  county,  in  1845, 
was  the  son  of  pioneer  William  East,  who  settled  here  in  1828.  In  February, 
1864.  he  enlisted  in  Company  I,  Fifty-ninth  Indiana  Regiment,  serving  nearly 
two  vears  during  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  aiid  was  with  Sherman  on  his 
famous  march  to  the  sea.  He  returned,  taught  school  and  in  March,  1869, 
entered  the  law  office  of  Judge  S.  H.  Buskirk.  He  graduated  from  the  Uni- 
\ersity  in  1870,  and  fc^rmed  a  law  partnership  with  James  H.  Rogers,  after 
which  he  assumed  the  duties  of  circuit  clerk.  He  then  resumed  his  law  prac- 
tice, having  for  partners,  at  dififerent  times,  Hon.  C.  \\'.  Henderson,  and 
Colonel  W.  C.  L.  Taylor.  In  October.  1878,  he  was  appointed  prosecuting 
attorney,  served  a  year,  remaining  in  jjractice  alone  until  1882,  when  he 
formed  a  partnership  with  his  brother,  William  H.  East. 

William  H.  East,  a  native  of  this  county,  l>orn  in  1852  in  Indian  Creek 
township,  and  the  voungest  of  seven  children  in  the  family,  when  eighteen 
years  old  entered  the  printing  office  of  Thomas  Purcell.  One  year  later, 
seeing  he  had  missed  his  calling,  he  taught  school  until  1874,  when  he  became 
deputy  clerk,  then  taught  and  read  law  alternately  for  three  )'ears.     He  then 


farmed  two  years  and  taught  another  year,  after  which  he  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  his  brother,  J.  R.  East,  in  the  law  business,  which  proved  to  Ixt  his 
success  in  Hfe. 

Robert  C.  Foster,  born  in  i'hihidelphia,  I'ennsylvania,  in  1S31,  entered 
Indiana  University  in  1844,  graduating  in  1850.  lie  went  back  to  his  native 
city  and  studied  law  two  years  and  was  elected  deputy  auditor  of  Monroe 
county,  under  William  Tarkingtou,  ser\ing  until  1S55.  He  was  then  elected 
auditor,  and  in  1859  was  re-elected.  In  1863  he  went  into  the  dry  goods 
trade  for  three  years,  and  was  then  elected  county  clerk,  and  after  four  years 
in  that  office  practiced  law  for  a  time  and  was  made  cashier  of  the  Blooming- 
ton  First  National  Bank  ,ser\ing  until  1880,  after  which  he  practiced  the  legal 
profession.  For  twentv-five  vears  he  served  faithfully  and  well  as  secre- 
tarv  of  Indiana  University.  In  1876  he  was  elected  to  a  seat  in 'tlie  State 
Legislature  and  held  other  positions  of  trust  in  Monroe  county. 

John  Graham  was  born  in  Bloomington,  Indiana,  in  1842.  where  he  re- 
sided until  manhood.  He  entered  the  State  I'niversity,  at  Bloomington, 
graduating  from  the  law  department.  In  1870  he  was  elected  librarian  of 
the  supreme  court  of  Indiana,  served  two  years,  returned  to  Bloomington, 
and  soon  engaged  in  his  profession.  In  1882  he  was  elected  as  representative 
to  the  Indiana  Legislature,  and  also  had  a  large  real  estate  business. 

J.  E.  Henley,  born  in  1856,  in  Orange  county,  Indiana,  came  to  Bloom- 
ington when  fifteen  years  of  age.  He  graduated  in  1873  from  the  State  Uni- 
versity with  high  honors.  The  following  autumn  he  took  the  chair  of  Greek 
in  Smiths  Grove  College,  Kentuckw  but  a  \ear  later  was  made  superintendent 
of  the  city  schools  in  Shoals,  Indiana,  serving  two  vears.  He  studied  law  and 
in  1880  entered  upon  his  regular  ]uactice.  He  was  a  jiartner  of  William  P. 
Rogers.  In  1882  was  elected  prosecuting  attorney  in  which  he  made  an 
efficient  official. 

Hon.  Robert  W'.  Miers,  Ijorn  in  1848,  was  reared  to  farm  labor,  but  at 
the  age  of  sixteen  commenced  to  teach  school.  In  1868  he  entered  the  State 
University  of  Indiana,  graduating  in  1871.  One  )ear  later  he  graduated 
from  the  law  department,  and  was  at  once  admitted  to  the  practice  of  law. 
In  the  spring  of  1874  he  became  a  partner  of  Judge  Echols,  and  was  one  year 
later  elected  prosecuting  attorney,  on  the  Democratic  ticket,  and  re-elected 
in  1878.  He  served  as  a  representative  from  this  county,  and  developed  into 
an  excellent  attorney  and  served  on  the  bench  of  his  district. 

James  F.  Morgan  was  born  in  Harrodsburg,  Indiana,  in  1855,  and  after 
obtaining  a  common   school  education   taught   school   to   secure    funds   with 


which  to  enter  the  State  L'iii\ersity,  which  he  did  in  Septeml>er,  1874,  re- 
mained one  year  and  again  laught  sch(jul.  Jn  1877  he  entered  the  North- 
ern Indiana  Xornial  at  \alparaiso,  whence  lie  gradnated  in  the  teacher's 
department  in  1878.  lie  then  taught  in  StinesviUe  and  Rockville,  Indiana, 
and  in  June.  1881,  entered  the  law  office  of  Buskirk  &  Duncan,  of  Blooming- 
ton,  and  was  soon  appointed  deputy  prosecuting  attorne}-  of  Monroe  county 
by  Judge  Mavity,  and  after  his  term  expired  was  engaged  in  the  law  and  real 
estate  business. 

feremiah  I'.  I'ittman,  jjurn  in  1842,  in  Orange  county.  Indiana,  received 
a  common  school  education,  and  at  fourteen  years  of  age  went  to  school  in 
Leaxenworth,  Crawford  county.  Indiana.  In  the  fall  of  1861  he  began  teach- 
ing, but  resigned,  and  in  Xo\ember,  that  year,  enlisted  in  Company  F, 
h'iftieth  Regiment  Indiana  Volunteers,  serving  o\  er  three  years  in  the  Union 
cause  in  Cix'il  war  days.  After  his  return  he  was  elected  county  recorder, 
served  three  years  and  in  the  meantime  studied  law  and  entered  the  practice 
of  that  profession  in  IJloomington.  He  attended  law  school  in  the  winter  of 
1867-68,  graduating  in  June,  1 8r)8.  Four  years  later  he  was  appointed 
prosecuting  attornev  for  this  district,  lie  was  also  a  count\-  commissioner 
of  Monroe  county,  and  a  law  partner  of  Major  Mulky. 

William  P.  Rogers  was  born  in  1857.  in  ISrown  countw  Indiana,  and  at 
the  age  of  sixteen  entered  the  high  school  of  I'loomington,  remaining  two 
years.  During  1875-76  he  taught  scliool  in  I'.rown  county,  and  in  i87()  he 
entered  the  State  Cnixersilw  remained  three  \ears  ;nul  then  began  reading 
law  with  Buskirk  t\:  Duncan.  In  1^71;  he  formed  a  i.iartnership  in  law  with 
F.  E.  Sadler,  but  after  a  short  time  practiced  alone  until  the  fall  of  1881,  when 
he  became  a  jjartner  of  J.  K.  Henley  and  both  had  a  large  clientage. 

C.  R.  Worrall  was  born  in  .Marion.  Iowa.  In  1871  he  entered  Asbury 
b'ni\ersity  (now  DeFauw  Cni\ersit\).  remained  three  A'ears,  and  then 
entered  tiie  law  department  nf  Indiana  Cnixersity.  from  which  he  graduated 
in  1876.  Two  years  later  he  commenced  the  regular  jjractice  of  law  at 
Bloomington.  hie  remained  here  onlv  two  \ears  and  removed  to  Ogden, 
Iowa,  practicing  there  three  years,  iluring  which  time  he  served  as  city  attor- 
ney and  citv  recorder.  In  the  autunm  of  1881  he  returned  to  Bloomington. 
and.  after  teaching  for  a  time,  engaged  in  law  i)ractice. 

H.  C.  Duncan,  born  in  1845,  in  Fawrence  county.  Indiana,  entered  the 
State  University  in  1864.  He  enlisted  in  the  One  Hundred  and  Thirty-sixth 
Indiana  Regiment  in  October,  1864.  He  graduated  from  college  in  1868:  in 
i86q  was  appointed  enrolling  clerk  in  the  Indiana  Fegislature,  and  in   1872 


loriiiecl  a  partiiL^rshin  with  Mr.  Dunn  in  law  practice.  Two  years  later  lie  went 
to  Bloomington  and  had  tor  a  ]jartner  John  \\".  Ikiskirk.  In  iSSo  he  was 
elected  prosecuting  attorney. 


The  members  ol"  the  bar  in  this  countv  in  Ud^  were  all  residing  at  the 
county  seat,  as  near  as  can  be  learned  from  the  counl\'  clerk.  Thev  are  these  : 
Batman.  .Miller  ^X:  Blair,  h'rank  J.  Durm,  Ernest  .\.  Darbv,  Rutus  H.  East. 
Jess  B.  Eields.  Joseph  E.  Henley.  Walter  E.  Hottel.  Thomas  J.  Louden. 
^^"illiam  M.  Louden.  Lee  &  Lee.  Miers  X-  Corr,  R.  L.  Morgan,  :Malott  &  Bar- 
clay. John  E.  Regester.  Springer  &-  Sare.  Judge  John  B.  Wilson.  Wellons  lK: 
Carpenter.  Charles  B.  Waldron. 

l'[IVSrCI,\XS    OF    TIT!--.    COl'NTV. 

Among  the  earliest  doctors  of  Moriroe  county  ma\'  be  recalled  the  names, 
lives  and  characters  of  such  as  Drs.  David  H.  Maxwell.  W.  C.  ^\^ster.  Roach. 
Jenkins  and  Janies  D.  Maxwell. 

Dr.  J.  Ci.  McPheeters.  a  native  of  Kentuckx.  born  in  rSi  1.  studied  medi- 
cme  under  Dr.  1).  hi.  Maxwell  and  others  here  and  in  Kentucky.  Fie  came 
to  Bloomington  in  the  spring  of  o'^^i  and  entered  the  .State  Cni\ersity.  grad- 
uating in  183.4.  In  1838  he  commenced  to  stud\-  medicine  innler  Dr.  War- 
field,  of  Lexington.  Keinucky  :  the  next  yeai-  he  returned  to  B.loomington, 
and  resuivied,  his  studies  w  ith  Dr.  Maxwell.  In  the  spring  of  1840  he  began 
practice  in  .Morgantown.  Indiana.  1X41  lif  came  to  IMoomington  and  entered 
into  i)artnershi])  with  Dr.  .Alcixwell.  continuing  until  iN5().  In  August.  1861, 
he  entered  the  L'm'on  army  as  a  surgeon  of  the  I'ourteenth  Indiana  Regmient. 
ser\ing  three  }ears.  In  1864  he  was  honorablv  discharged  an.l  upon  his  re- 
turn home  engaged  in  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

Dr.  J.  E.  Dodds  was  liorn  in  1807  and  was  reared  in  Lincoln  county, 
Kentucky.  He  entered  the  State  Cni\er>it\-  when  twenty  years  of  age. 
graduating  in  1834.  He  taught  in  the  university  se\eral  years  and  also  taught 
in  Cumberland  College.  Kentucky.  In  183Q  he  began  reading  medicine  and 
entered  Louisville  Medical  College.  In  ^Vugust.  iX|o.  he  entered  into  part- 
nershi]i  with  Dr.  Mitchell  and  began  regular  ]>ractice  at  Corydon.  Indiana, 
where  he  remained  fne  years.  l*"rom  i86j  to  1 8S_'  he  was  examining  sur- 
geon for  the  pension  department. 

Dr.  James  M.   Harris,  born  in  Kentucky  in   181Q,  at  the  age  of  twenty 


years  entered  the  office  of  Dr.  S.  P.  Langdon,  of  Gosport,  and  soon  located 
at  Ellettsville,  this  county.  He  was  the  only  doctor  of  that  place  and  had  a 
large,  paying  practice.  In  1865  he  established  a  drug  business  and  later 
retired  to  his  two-hundred-acre  farm.  He  opened  the  first  hotel  at  Elletts- 
\ille  in  1850.     He  was  a  public  spirited  man  and  made  many  warm  friends. 

Dr.  Rice  C.  Harris,  born  in  Owen  county,  Indiana,  in  1834,  was  four- 
teen years  old  when  he  removed  with  the  family  to  Ellettsville,  where  he  at- 
tended, and  in  185 1  taught  school.  In  1852.  under  his  brother,  Dr.  J.  M. 
Harris,  he  ccjmmenced  the  study  of  medicine.  In  1856-57  he  attended  lec- 
tures at  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan,  and  later  engaged  in  the  medical  practice  with 
his  brother,  Ixit  shortly  left  for  Coles  county,  Illinois,  where  he  practiced  four 
years,  then  moved  to  this  county  again  He  made  a  handsome  property  and 
owned  several  farms  and  houses.  He  was  postmaster  and  served  as  such 
sixteen  years  at  his  township  residence. 

Dr.  James  Dodd,  born  in  1832,  in  Lawrence  county,  Indiana,  lived  on  the 
old  home  farm  until  1855,  when  he  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  with 
doctors  at  Bedford,  I'ennsyhania.  He  located  in  Harrodsburg  in  1857,  and 
in  the  winter  of  1858-59  graduated  from  the  Ohio  Medical  College.  In  1870 
he  exchanged  his  town  property  for  eighty  acres  of  land  and  there  carried 
on  agriculture  as  well  as  practiced  medicine.  He  was  appointed  surgeon  of 
the  Sixty-seventh  Indiana  Regiment  in  1862.  His  health  prevented  a  long 
stay  in  the  ser\  ice  of  his  country. 

Dr.  G.  W.  Bryan  was  Ijorn  in  1825,  in  Beaver  county,  Pennsylvania. 
His  educational  facilities  were  poor  in  his  youth.  He  commenced  the  trade 
of  a  tailor,  w  ith  his  l)rotlier,  w  ho  died  two  years  later.  He  then  spent  three 
vears  at  that  trade  in  .Vllegheny  county,  Penns\l\ania,  after  which  he  worked 
as  a  journeyman  a  year,  and  then  opened  a  shop  in  Indiana.  He  studied 
metlicine  with  a  Dr.  3*1  oon  for  two  years,  and  attended  lectures  at  Cleveland 
in  the  Western  Reserve  College  of  Medicine,  l)eginning  his  practice  in  Alle- 
gheu)'  county,  Pennsyh'ania.  He  came  to  Bloomington  in  1855  and  at  once 
set  up  his  practice  here.  In  December,  1862,  he  was  appointed  assistant  sur- 
geon of  the  Sixty-seventh  Regiment  of  Indiana  X'olunteers.  He  was  a  stanch 
churchman  of  the  L'nited  Presbyterian  faith. 

Dr.  A.  J.  Axtell.  born  in  Washington  countw  Indiana,  in  1827.  became 
one  of  the  leading  physicians  in  Monroe  county.  He  commenced  the  study 
of  medicine  in  [847  in  Xoble  count)-,  Ohio,  continuing  four  years.  He 
engaged  in  regular  practice  in  1850  and  moved  to  Greene  county,  Indiana, 
where  he   continued   twenty  years  and   had   a   large   practice.      He   came   to 


Bloomington  in  1873  and  ever  afterwards  practiced  the  art  of  healing.  He 
served  as  captain  in  Civil  war  days  in  Company  A,  Ninety-seventh  Indiana 

Dr.  J.  H.  Gaston,  born  in  Greene  ccjunty,  Indiana,  in  1844,  ^^'^^  reared 
on  a  farm.  He  attended  the  academy  at  Bloomfield,  Indiana,  and  one  term 
at  Asbury  University,  Greencastle,  and  taught  school  for  two  terms.  In 
August,  1862,  he  enlisted  in  the  Ninety-seventh  Regiment  Indiana  Volun- 
teers and  saw  much  hard  fighting  service.  At  Kenesaw  Alountain  he  received 
a  wound  in  his  arm  which  disabled  him,  so  he  came  home.  He  studied 
medicine  with  Dr.  Bailey  at  Stanford,  and  attended  Miami  Medical  College, 
graduating  in  1872,  when  he  set  up  his  practice  at  Stanford,  where  he  had  a 
fair  practice. 

Dr.  Robert  M.  Weir  was  born  m  Richland  township,  Monroe  county,  in 
1841.  He  entered  the  State  University,  at  Bloomington,  in  1857,  graduating 
in  1863.  He  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  that  autumn,  under  Dr.  J.  D. 
Maxwell,  but  after  eight  months  enlisted  in  Company  K,  One  Hundred  and 
Thirty-third  Regiment  from  Indiana,  as  a  "hundred  day  man."  In  the  fall 
of  1864  he  entered  the  University  of  Michigan,  graduating  from  the  medical 
department  in  March,  1866.  In  the  seventies  he  came  to  Bloomington  where 
he  built  himself  up  in  a  good  practice. 

Dr.  L.  T.  Lowder,  who  was  born  in  Lawrence  count}-,  Indiana,  in  184O, 
received  a  good  literary  education  at  the  State  University  at  Bloomington, 
and,  after  attending  a  full  course  at  the  Indiana  State  Medical  College,  he 
graduated  in  1873  and  came  to  Harrodsburg,  where  for  many  years  he  was 
a  successful  physician  and  surgeon,  as  the  term  was  then  understood. 

Dr.  Chesley  D.  ]\lcLahlan.  a  native  of  Lawrence  county,  was  born  in 
1847  of  Scotch-Irish  origin.  He  attended  the  home  schools  and  later  the 
schools  of  Bedford,  Indiana,  where  he  ol)tained  a  fair  common  school  educa- 
tion. He  was  a  member  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Forty-fifth  Indiana  Regi- 
ment, serving  until  the  Civil  war  had  ended.  In  1867  he  came  to  Harrodsburg 
and  commenced  the  stud}-  of  medicine  in  the  office  of  Dr.  Beard,  a  very  prom- 
inent physician.  He  later  attended  Rush  Medical  College,  graduating  in  1871. 
He  then  commenced  his  regular  practice  at  Harrodsburg.  He  succeeded  re- 
markably well,  and  was  one  of  the  men  whom  we  may  truthfully  call  "self- 

Dr.  R.  M.  (ireer  was  born  in  1851,  in  Troup  count}-,  (ieorgia,  l.)ut  owing 
to  the  condition  of  ])ul)lic  schools  in  the  South  at  thai  date,  had  but  little 
chance   for  an  education.      He   went  to  school   after  the   war  at    Davisville, 


Alabama.  He  then  spent  some  nKmtlis  at  Lonisville  Medical  College  and  two 
terms  at  the  Louisville  l'ni\ersit  \ .  The  family  remo\e(l  to  Monroe  county, 
this  state,  in  1870,  antl  to  Stines\illc  in  187J.  where  he  was  engaged  in  the 
stone  quarries  three  Aears,  after  wliich  he  liegan  tlie  stud}'  of  medicine  with 
Dr.  Smith,  of  (iosport,  hnishing  his  course  in  the  College  of  Medicine  and 
practical  at  (losport  erne  year,  then  located  at  Stines\-ille,  where  he  won  dis- 
tinction in  his  profession.  He  also  conducted  a  good  drug  ])usiness  at  the 
same  place. 

Dr.  Henr\-  P.  Tourner  was  ])orn  in  W'aterford.  Ireland,  ui  uSii.  His 
father  d\ing  while  the  son  was  \et  an  infant,  he  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  an 
uncle  to  rear  and  educate  him.  When  twenty-three  years  of  age  he  \vent 
to  Canada,  then  to  Chicago,  after  which  he  drifted  .South.  In  1840  he  pre- 
pared himself  for  a  medical  man,  whicli  ])rofession  he  followed  in  Mississippi, 
Tennessee  and  Kentuckw  iinallv  locating  in  lUoomington,  Indiana,  in  1858, 
entering  on  a  general  medical  praclice.  wdiich  he  continued  until  his  ileath,  in 
1881.  As  a  citizen,  he  a!wa\-s  commanded  the  ;ittention  of  e\eryone  in  his 
circle  of  ac(|uaintance,  heing  charitalde,  faitliful  and  tender-hearted.  As  a 
doctor  he  possessed  rare  skill.  I' or  twenty-three  years  he  was  an  office- 
bearer in  the  Church  of  Christ,  and  an  active  member  of  the  Masonic  lodge. 

Dr.  John  P.  Tourner,  son  of  Dr.  Henry  P.  Tourner,  above  mentioned, 
was  born  in  1854,  in  Kentucky,  but  reared  near  Bloomington,  Indiana.  In 
1873  he  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  with  his  father,  and  two  years 
later  eiUered  the  h'.clectic  Medical  College  at  (.."incinnati,  remaumig  one  year, 
then  returned  to  IHoomington,  forming  a  ])arlners]iip  \vitli  hi^'  lather  in  the 
medical  |jractice.  He  took  up  his  father's  large  practice,  at  the  latter's  death 
in  October.   1881. 

Dr.  |olin  D.  .Simpson  was  born  in  ()wen  count}-,  Iventucky,  in  1846. 
He  obtained  a  lietter  lilerarv  educatiou  ihan  the  ax'crage  doctor  (d'  his  da}-  and 
generatiou.  In  1  8O4  he  went  to  Louis\-ille,  Kentuck}-,  and  was  for  one  }-ear 
engaged  ni  ;i  wholesale  con-imission  house.  In  that  cit}-,  in  1 8(';6,  he  began 
the  stud}-  of  medicine,  graduating  at  the  Cnixersit}-  of  Medicine  there  in  1868. 
The  same  }ear  he  came  to  1  lehons\i]le.  Indiana,  and  oi)ened  his  jiractice. 
He  graduated  at  I'elleNue  Hospital,  Xew  ^'ork,  in  ]87c\  and  went  to  Bedford 
to  i)ractice  his  i)rofession.  In  1880  he  remoNed  lo  Harrodslmrg,  this  count}-, 
where  he  also  engaged  in  the  drug  trade. 

Dr.  John  K.  Harris  w-as  born  in  KeiUuck}-  in  1847.  His  father  was 
liookkeeper  a  number  of  \-ears  and  in  i85(')  was  elected  city  assessor  of  Louis- 
x'ille,  serving  until  1873;  he  died  in  1880.  In  1863,  John  T{.  entered  the 
laboratory  of  Prof.  Jenkins,  and  clerked  in  a  drug  store  until  1865.     He  ran 


a  drug  trade,  at  the  same  time  studying  medicine,  graduating  in  \S()H,  fr(_)m  a 
IDractical  school  of  medicine  and  su!-gery.  He  graduated  from  sexeral  schiiols 
of  medicine  and  practiced  in  Louis\ille  until  1S76.  then  removed  to  I'.loom- 
ington.   Indiana,  where  he  worked  himself  into  an  excellent  ])ractice. 

Dr.  William  L.  W'hitted  was  born  in  Bedford,  Indiana,  in  1842.  In 
i8()i  he  enlisted  as  a  member  of  Company  B,  Eighteenth  Indiana  Regiment, 
and  in  18O3  was  made  sergeant,  ancl  sulisequentlv  \eteranized  and  was  pro- 
moted to  second  lieutenant :  was  then  captain  and  major  until  the  ci\il  struggle 
had  ended.  Having  prepared  himself  and  practiced  some  as  a  phvsician  in 
1869  he  came  to  Monroe  county.  Indiana,  locating  in  bdlettsxille.  In  1877-78 
he  attended  antl  graduated  from  Miami  Medical  L'ollege.  In  1881  he  estalv 
lished  himself  in  the  drug  trade  with  .Mr.  Hughes. 


As  near  as  can  be  learned  the  following  were  practicing  medicine  in 
Bloomington  and  the  smaller  towns  within  Monroe  counl\'  in  the  month  of 
September,   1913  : 

At  Bloomington  the_\-  were  1\.  A.  Aikin,  V.  11.  Ilatman.  \\\  X.  Culmer, 
Fletcher  (iardner,  Luc_\-  Ciardner,  C  \i.  Harris,  Phili])  C  Holland,  (i.  V.  Hol- 
land. J.  E.  P.  Holland,  J.  E.  Luzadder.  O.  F.  Rogers,  R.  C.  Rogers,  John  C. 
Ross,  Rodney  I'.  Smith,  Charles  C.  Stroup,  ¥.  U.  Tournev,  j.  P.  Tourne\',  L. 
E.  Whetsell,  James  W.' Wiltshire,  Homer  Woolery,  Dr.  Bobbitt. 

in  the  outlying  towns  are:  At  Stinesville,  Dr.  W.  Pice  IPjltzman;  at 
Harrodsburg,  Dr.  D.  J.  Holland:  at  Snuthville.  Dr.  j.  ixentlmg.  and  at  Clear 
Creek.  Dr.  Morris. 

With  the  passing  of  the  decades,  mucli  achancement  has  l)een  made  in 
the  count}-  in  the  methods  of  ])racticing  medicine.  a<  well  a>  in  other  arts  and 
professions.  It  goes  without  saying  that  the  doctor^  of  long  ago  clid  the 
best  they  knew  how.  and  in  nian\-  wa}-s  were  e\'en  more  faithful  to  the  knowl- 
edge the\  possessed  than  modern-da\-  practitioners.  In  surgery,  they  were 
not  ad\anced  much,  but  toda}-  this  lirancli  of  medical  science  has  ad\-anced 
rapidly,  e\en  in  the  la>t  twent\-  _\'ears.  Operations  once  belie\ed  impossible 
to  perform  are  easil_\-  handled  now.  The  old  doctors  did  not  ha\e  the  aid  of 
local  hos])itals,  hence  could  not  meet  with  the  success  that  now  attends  the 
profession.  Then  be  praise  given  in  record  form,  in  the  annals  of  Monroe 
county,  to  those  old  "family  doctors'"  who  rode  against  the  biting  frosts  of 
manv  se\'ere  winters,  in  darkness  and  da\light.  for  the  hojie  of  pav  or  with- 
out it.     Peace  to  their  ashes ! 

CHAPTER   Xlil. 


The  resolutions  creating"  Monroe  county  from  a  portion  of  Orange 
county  were  passed  by  the  General  Assembly  of  Indiana  and  approved 
on  the  14th  of  January,  1818,  and  in  the  year  after,  1819,  the  county  of  Mon- 
roe was  formed,  as  a  district,  for  the  organization  of  the  Tw^entieth  Regiment 
of  Indiana  militia.  The  memories  of  the  war  of  1812  were  fresh  in  the  minds 
of  the  people  and  the  necessity  of  trained  troops  was  realized  by  force  of  the 
inadequacy  of  the  soldiery  in  the  Revolution  and  later  conflict  in  1812,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  continuous  and  sanguinary  struggles  with  the  hostile  Indian 
tribes.  Monroe  county,  as  an  organized  district,  was  not  represented  in  these 
early  wars,  but  her  men  were  scattered  through  the  ranks  of  the  American 
army,  and  contributed  nobly  to  the  service  of  the  country.  The  long  list  of 
the  honored  dead  and  the  heroic  tales,  scraps  of  narrative,  and  other  incidental 
records  attest  the  bravery,  the  sacrifice,  and  the  suffering  of  these  men  of 
the  territory  now  Monroe  county.  The  fear  of  the  savages  who  roamed  the 
wilderness  was  uppermost  in  the  apprehension  of  the  pioneers,  and  conse- 
quently the  militia  came  to  be  in  that  day  the  prime  institution  of  the  county. 
Constant  vigilance  was  observed  on  the  frontier,  and  everything  kept  in  readi- 
ness for  any  outbreak  on  the  part  of  the  savages  who  were  stubbornly  giving 
ground  to  the  onward  march  of  the  settlers.  Even  after  the  removal  of  the 
tribes  from  Monroe  county,  the  militia  was  kept  intact  for  several  years,  until 
the  active  interest  in  the  organization  began  to  wane,  and  the  military  system 
became  a  mere  comedy  compared  to  its  former  state.  As  the  troubles  with 
the  Indians  had  in  a  measure  subsided,  the  troops  that  once  had  paraded 
]jroudly  before  the  admiring  crowds  now  degenerated  into  riotous,  drinking 
fellows,  reveling  in  Bacchanalian  sports  of  all  descrijition  ;  horse  racing  and 
games  M'cre  substituted  for  the  red-blooded  pastimes  when  the  knowledge  was 
imminent  that  the  next  moment  a  call  might  come  for  an  expedition  into  the 
field.  John  Storm  was  the  first  colonel  of  the  Twentieth  Regiment,  and  in 
1822  he  was  succeeded  by  John  Ketchum.  After  the  service  of  this  latter 
itfficcr  the  men  who  headed  the  Monroe  countv  militia  are  lost  to  historical 


record.  It  is  known,  however,  that  \Villiam  Lowe  was  a  brigadier-general 
i)f  the  Twentieth  for  a  short  period. 

The  first  war  of  any  prominence  in  A\hich  Monroe  county  liad  the  o[)por- 
tunity  to  show  the  mettle  of  her  troops  was  the  Mexican.  'Hie  tirst  call  for 
troops  came  from  Washington  in  May,  1846,  and  almost  immediately  two 
full  companies  of  militia  were  organized  within  the  borders  of  this  county. 
Bloomington  was  the  tirst  meeting  point,  and  the  entire  enlistment  congregated 
in  that  town  for  regimental  and  battalion  muster,  lliere  w  ere  stirring  times 
in  Monroe  county  during  those  days,  business  was  practically  at  a  standstill 
and  the  usual  activities  of  the  day  were  forsaken  in  the  martial  excitement  that 
prevailed.  A  full  company  of  volunteers  was  ready  for  the  field  by  the  first 
of  June,  1846,  having  been  trained  to  a  nicety  in  the  art  of  military  maneuvers 
and  tactics.  Their  knowledge  of  the  war  game  in  this  day  and  age  would 
indeed  seem  primitive,  but  then  their  skill  was  considered  paramount,  and  was 
adec[uate  by  reason  that  the  opposing  forces  possessed  no  greater  facilities. 
The  ofificers  of  this  first  company  were  as  follows :  John  M.  Sluss,  captain ; 
John  Eller,  first  lieutenant ;  Aquilla  Rogers,  second  lieutenant.  The  company 
was  given  the  company  letter  A,  and  was  assigned  to  the  Third  Regiment, 
Indiana  Volunteer  Infantry,  which  regiment  assembled  at  New  Albany,  and 
the  company  left  Bloomington  on  the  15th  of  June  for  the  front,  accompanied 
by  the  cheers  of  their  friends  and  relatives,  and  presented  with  a  handsome 
American  flag,  the  presentation  speech  having  been  made  b)  .Miss  Sarah 
Markle.  Company  A  soon  arrixed  at  the  scene  of  hostilities  and  were  quickly 
engaged  in  actual  conflict  with  the  Mexicans.  The  comi)am-  i)articipated  in 
the  battle  of  Buena  Vista,  receiving  their  Iwptism  of  blood  with  many  other 
troops  from  the  North  country.  Several  of  the  Monroe  county  hoys,  among 
them  Buskirk,  Applegate,  Stout  and  Holland,  were  killed,  and  many  others 
received  wounds  of  varying  character.  Most  of  the  company  were  mustered 
out  at  the  close  of  the  war  with  high  honors,  and  returnetl  to  Monroe  county 
to  make  .succeBses  of  the  civil  life  as  well  as  the  military. 

In  the  year  1847  ^  call  came  from  the  government  for  three  more  full 
companies  of  militia  from  Indiana,  and  one  Daniel  Lunderman  ix'gan  to  raise 
the  required  troops.  He  was  successful  in  recruiting  a  full  company,  which  was 
assigned  the  letter  G,  of  the  Fourth  Regiment,  Indiana  \'olunteer  Infantry. 
As  was  the  custom,  the  company  was  accorded  a  glorious  farewell,  the  towns- 
people turning  out  en  masse,  and  presenting  the  departing  soldiers  with  an 
American  banner.  This  comi)any  was  in  the  (li\ision  which  accompanied 
Gen.  Winfield  T.  Scott  on  his  memoraljle  march  from  W-ra  Cruz  to  Mexico 



City,  and  they  engaged  in  all  the  battles  fought  along  that  historic  route.  A 
nunilier  of  the  Alonrue  county  men  were  killed  and  scores  were  wounded,  but 
the  roster  of  their  names  is  not  available.  Many  of  these  brave  fellows  who 
lost  their  lives  were  Ijuried  in  the  land  south  of  the  Rio  Grande,  and  today  their 
graves  are  unmarked  and  forgotten,  but  their  deeds  are  forever  written  in  the 
pages  of  historw  Company  G  returned  when  the  war  was  ended,  and  received 
honorable  discharge.  Their  record  was  a  commendable  one.  individually  and 
collectively,  and  Monroe  county  has  seen  fit  luany  times  since  to  accord  honors 
to  their  memor}-. 

Militarism  in  Monroe  county  now  entered  upon  a  period  of  quiescence, 
not  to  be  interrupted  until  the  firing  ujion  I^ort  Sumter  in  .\])ril,  t86i.  The 
first  omen  of  civil  trouble  in  Monroe  county  occurred  on  l*>bruary  2,  1860, 
when  the  citizens  of  the  county  seat  and  surrounding  country  were  given  notice 
to  meet  at  the  county  court  house  to  discuss  the  general  state  of  the  Union  and 
the  proljabilities  of  war.  The  citizens  were  invited  to  come  irrespective  of 
party  alignment.  T^dge  G-  A.  lUiskirk  was  nominated  chairman  of  the  meet- 
ing: G.  1".  Tulcv  and  J.  1'..  .Mulky  were  made  secretaries:  and  M.  C.  Hunter, 
Benianun  Wolfe,  Dr.  W.  G.  b'oster.  1^  T.  liutler  and  Elias  Al)el  were  ap- 
pointed as  a  committee  to  draft  proper  resolutions  signifying  the  tenor  of  the 
meeting.  During  the  alisence  of  the  l)ody  ]H-eparing  the  formal  copy  of  the 
resolutions,  se\-eral  interesting  incidents  occurred,  notal)le  among  them  ])eing 
Governor  Dunning's  witlulrawal  from  the  meeting  and  declaration  that  he  was 
an  all\'  of  no  party  until  the  differences  l)etween  the  North  and  South  had  been 
amicalilv  settled.  Prof.  John  ^'oung  indulged  in  a  little  oratory,  speaking 
against  the  "Grittenden  Gompi-omise,""  and  in  favor  of  the  Constitution  as  it 
stood,  but  was  perfectl}'  willing  to  abide  1)y  the  'Toorder  State  Resolutions," 
which,  all  in  all,  was  a  very  convenient  stand  for  the  estimable  gentleman  to 
take,  for  no  matter  which  wa\-  be  fell  there  would  be  a  support  waiting  for  him. 

The  committee  finall}-  came  in  and  lianded  in  their  set  of  resolutions. 
Thev  declared  in  favor  of  the  so-called  "Border  State  Resolutions,"  which 
recommended  the  repeal  of  the  I'ersonal  Liberty  bills ;  the  amendment  of  the 
Fugitixe  Slave  law.  so  as  to  jM-event  kidnapping,  and  to  provide  for  the  equal- 
ization of  the  comnussioner's  fee,  etc. :  that  the  Constitution  be  amended  so  as 
to  prohibit  an\-  interference  with  slavery  in  au)-  of  the  states  where  it  then 
existed  :  that  Congress  should  not  abolish  slavery  in  the  Southern  dock-yards, 
arsenals,  etc.,  nor  in  the  District  of  Colum])ia,  without  the  consent  of  Mary- 
land and  the  inbaliitants  of  the  district,  nor  without  compensation;  that  Con- 
gress sliould  not  interfere  with  the  inter-.state  slave  trade;  that  African  slave- 


trade  should  be  absolutely  prohibited ;  that  the  line  of  thirty-six  degrees,  thirty 
minutes,  should  be  run  through  all  the  existing  territory  of  the  United  States, 
that  in  all  north  of  that  line  slavery  should  be  prohibited,  and  that  south  of 
the  line  neither  Congress  nor  the  Territorial  Legislature  should  thereafter  pass 
any  law  abolishing,  prohibiting,  or  in  any  manner  interfering  with  African 
slaver)' ;  and  that  when  any  territory  containing  a  sufficient  population  for  one 
member  of  Congress  in  any  area  of  sixty  thousand  square  miles  should  apply 
for  admission  as  a  state  it  should  be  admitted,  with  or  without  slavery,  as  its 
Constitution  might  determine.  I  he  committee  also  reported  favorably  on  the 
fifth  resolution  of  the  "Crittenden  Compromise,'"  empowering  Congress  to  pay 
an  owner  full  value  of  a  slave  in  cases  where  the  marshal  is  prevented  from 
discharging  his  duty  by  force  or  rescue  made  after  arrest,  also  that  the  owner 
shall  have  power  to  sue  the  county  in  which  such  \iolence  or  rescue  is  made. 
and  the  county  might  in  turn  sue  the  indi\'iduals  who  committed  the  wrong. 
Other  resolutions  were  passed  advocating  the  maintenance  of  the  Cnion  l)y 
conciliation,  and  if  unsuccessful,  then  ])y  coercion.  Hie  Border  State  resolu- 
tions passed  after  a  sjjirited  debate,  and  the  Crittenden  Comiinnnise  received 
even  harsher  treatment  from  the  Monroe  county  citizens,  but  finally  got 
through  successfully.  Dr.  Foster's  resolution  pertaining  to  conciliation  or 
coercion  was  ignominiously  rejected  by  a  large  majority.  Tempestuous 
orator v  and  fierce  argument  accompanied  the  discussion  of  the  Foster  resolu- 
tion, and  finalh-  Dr.  j.  (i.  AlcPheeters  offered  a  resolution  tendering  tlie 
Border  States  resolutions  as  a  liasis  of  conciliation,  l)ut  on  its  rejection,  to  stand 
bv  the  Union,  the  Constitution,  and  the  enforcement  of  the  laws.  After  mucli 
opposition,  particularly  on  the  part  of  Messrs.  Wolfe,  Marlin,  B.  F.  Williams 
and  na\id  Sheeks.  tlie  resolution  was  adopted. 

The  meeting  at  which  the  abo\e  transpired  was  one  of  the  most  nota1)le 
in  the  early  histoiy  of  the  county,  and  was  productive  of  a  great  deal  of  strong 
sentiment.  The  general  trend  of  the  people  was  against  coercion  in  the  mat- 
ter of  keeping  the  Southern  states  in  tlie  Union,  luit  there  seemed  to  be  the 
spirit  that  if  conciliatory  measures  were  not  effective,  the  best  thing  to  do 
would  be  to  tight,  and  to  fight  hard.  The  war  "jingoes"  were,  howexer,  much 
in  the  minority.  Among  the  prominent  men  who  attended  this  meeting  in 
early  February,  i860,  were  Governor  Dunning,  Dr.  W.  C.  Foster,  Judge  G. 
A.  Buskirk,  S.  H.  Buskirk,  C.  P.  Tuley.  J.  B.  Alulky,  Isaac  Adkins.  Isaac  Cox. 
Abraham  Smith.  M.  C.  Hunter,  Benjamin  Wolfe,  F.  T.  Butler,  Elias  Abel, 
Prof.  John  Young,  P.  L.  D.  Mitchell,  Hugh  Marlin.  Johnson  McCulloch,  Dr. 
f.  G.  McPheeters  and  David  Sheeks. 


Affairs  in  the  county  were  disturbed  during  the  rest  of  the  year  i860  by 
different  acts  of  Congress,  presidential  elections,  and  political  fights  common  to 
such  a  time  of  imminent  strife.  This  continued  until  Monday,  the  15th  of 
April,  1 86 1,  when  the  startling  news  reached  Monroe  county  that  Fort  Sumter 
had  been  surrendered  by  Major  Anderson  to  the  Confederates.  The  tidings 
spread  rapidly  through  the  county,  and  the  citizens  hurried  together  to  counsel 
with  each  other  as  to  the  course  of  action  and  the  results  of  the  first  shot  of  the 
war.  Men  were  frightened  and  acted  in  a  wildly  excitable  way,  some  even 
preparing  to  flee  to  the  Pacific  coast  or  seek  the  Canadian  line  for  safety.  A 
monster  mass  meeting  was  held  at  the  court  house  on  the  night  of  the  15th,  and 
every  citizen  in  the  county  who  was  able  to  come  traveled  to  the  common 
rendezvous  on  horsel^ack.  in  wagons  or  on  foot.  It  is  a  distressing  fact  that 
no  detailed  account  of  that  famous  meeting  was  preserved  to  history,  but  when 
the  spirit  of  the  night  and  the  general  high  pressure  of  excitement  is  considered, 
it  is  realized  that  formalities  were  out  of  place  and  details  were  forgotten.  It 
was  a  night  of  frenzied  oratory,  and  personal  argument  over  the  big  question. 
Several  of  the  more  prominent  men  present  took  opposite  sides  on  the  method 
best  to  use  in  subjugating  the  South,  and  as  the  meeting  progressed,  and  the 
atmosphere  grew  more  tense,  the  exponents  of  armed  measures  won  the  upper 
hand.  Some  men  spoke  feelingly  of  the  brotherhood  between  men.  and  urged 
conciliatory  means :  others  urged  the  most  stringent  methods,  and  one  man 
spoke  stronglv  against  the  North,  especially  the  Abolitionists,  and  declared 
that  they  were  the  source  of  fratricidal  war,  and  announced  his  intention  to 
fight  on  the  side  of  the  Confederate  states.  A  list  of  resolutions  expounding 
the  business  of  the  meeting  was  prepared,  and  passed  over  the  opposition  that 
was  raised  against  it. 

Some  days  later  another  meeting  was  held  in  the  court  house,  and  this 
assemblage  was  characterized  by  even  more  patriotism.  Plans  were  formulated 
for  the  organization  of  a  company  of  volunteers.  By  the  20th  the  enlistment 
was  completed,  and  two  days  later,  on  the  22nd,  the  officers  were  commis- 
sioned. Drills  began  to  be  a  daily  feature,  and  the  raw  recruits  were  soon 
whipped  into  shape  for  campaigning,  and  only  awaited  orders  from  the  govern- 
ment to  be  mustered  into  the  three  months,  one  year,  or  three  years  service. 
May  10,  1861.  marked  the  departure  of  this  company  for  Camp  Vigo,  Terre 
Haute,  and  the  whole  town  gathered  at  the  railroad  station  to  bid  farewell 
to  the  boys.  A  Miss  Mitchell  presented  the  troop  with  a  beautiful  flag,  and 
her  presentation  speech  was  responded  to,  in  original  phrases,  by  Lieutenant 
Black.      The  scene  was  a  sorrowful  one.      Sweethearts,  wives,  mothers,  sisters 



and  fathers  watched  their  loved  ones,  pale-faced  and  silent,  leave  for  the  front, 
some  of  them  never  to  return. 

Circumstances  prevented  the  company  from  being  mustered  in  im- 
mediately upon  their  arrival  at  Terre  Haute,  and  they  accordingly  entered  a 
camp  of  instruction.  Under  the  restraint  of  having  to  wait,  there  was  oppor- 
tunity for  dissatisfaction  to  spring  up  in  the  organization,  and  consequently 
there  became  two  factions,  which  formed  the  nuclei i  for  two  separate  com- 
panies. One  division  remained  at  Terre  Haute  under  Captain  Kelley,  and  the 
other  portion  was  transferred  to  Indianapolis  under  the  command  of  Capt.  W. 
S.  Charles.  In  the  latter  part  of  May  and  first  of  June  the  officers  went  back  to 
Monroe  county  to  enlist  men  in  order  to  bring  the  complement  of  the  two 
companies  up  to  the  required  number,  in  which  task  Captain  Kelley  was  more 
successful  than  his  brother  officer.  Captain  Charles.  Kelley's  soldiers  became 
Company  K,  of  the  Fourteenth  Regiment,  and  were  mustered  into  the  three 
years'  service  on  June  7,  18O1.  On  the  5th  of  July  the  company  was  trans- 
ported to  Virginia  soil,  where  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  was  beginning  opera- 
tions. Captain  Charles'  company  was  not  exactly  a  full  Monroe  county  or- 
ganization, as  a  portion  of  the  men  were  recruited  from  other  localities.  They 
became  Company  H.  of  the  Eighteenth  Regiment,  three  years'  service,  mus- 
tered in  on  August  16,  1861,  and  taken  to  St.  Louis.  Missouri.  Milton  L. 
McCullough  was  first  lieutenant  of  Company  K,  and  Paul  E.  Slocum  was  sec- 
ond lieutenant.  James  S.  Black,  of  Indianapolis,  was  first  lieutenant  of  Com- 
pany H,  and  Hiram  W.  Rooker,  second  lieutenant. 

June  and  July  saw  the  raising  of  other  companies.  J.  O.  McCullough, 
Daniel  Lunderman,  A.  R.  Ravenscroft  and  others  succeeded  in  raising  a  full 
company.  James  B.  Mulky  and  J.  S.  Nntt  also  raised  other  organizations, 
the  latter  a  troop  of  cavalry.  Peter  Kop  was  instrumental  in  the  enlistment 
of  a  company.  In  the  town  of  Bloomington,  all  was  at  a  fever  heat.  The  boy 
in  l>lue  was  the  center  of  attraction ;  the  children  of  Bloomington  played  at  the 
soldier's  game  and  ladies  cast  admiring  eyes  at  the  volunteers,  but  observed  a 
studied  indifference  toward  the  civilian.  Sentiment  and  patriotism  grew 
stronger  and  stronger  and  everyone  thought  that  the  "rebels"  would  be  com- 
pletely trounced  in  a  very  few  months.  Had  the  long  grim  years  of  bloodshed 
and  hardship  that  were  to  come  been  evident  at  that  time,  it  is  hardly  probable 
that  such  a  spirit  of  gaiety  and  hilarity  would  have  graced  the  scene.  It  was, 
however,  an  act  of  Providence  that  so  deftly'  covers  our  sorrow?  with  the 
cloak  of  pleasure. 

^^6  T..\\VRHNCF.    AXl)    JIONROE    COUNTIES,    INDIANA. 

The  Blooiniiicjlon  Republican  of  July  13,  1861,  prints  the  following" 
paragraphs ; 

"Another  company  of  volunteers  fur  the  United  States  service  left  here 
on  Tuesday  last  for  Aladison,  Indiana,  wliere  the  regiment  is  to  be  formed. 
The  company  is  under  command  of  Capt.  Daniel  Lunderman,  of  this  place, 
who  has  had  considerable  experience  as  an  officer  in  the  recent  war  with 
Mexico,  and  we  have  no  doubt  he  will  faithfully  attend  to  the  interests  and 
welfare  of  the  company  while  they  are  under  his  charge.  Dr.  J.  O.  AIcCul- 
lough  was  elected  tirst  lieutenant  and  Andrew  K.  Ravenscroft.  second  lieu- 
tenant, who  we  have  no  doubt  will  be  equally  faithful  to  their  trust.  As 
many  of  the  volunteers  were  from  the  surrounding  country,  a  large  concourse 
of  people  from  different  i)arts  of  the  county  were  present,  to  see  them  take 
their  departure  and  to  bid  their  friends  farewell.  The  volunteers  were  escorted 
to  the  train  bv  Captain  Mulkvs  company  of  infantry,  and  took  their  departure 
amid  a  deafening  salute  of  musketry.  The  Bloomington  Cornet  Band  ac- 
companied them  to  Madison.  We  learn  that  Camp  Noble,  to  which  they  are 
assigned,  is  beautifully  situated  at  North  Madison,  which  is  on  a  high  bluff' 
overlooking  the  city  of  Madison  and  the  Ohio  river.     *     "^     *." 

■■Rkcrliting. — Peter  Kop  and  several  other  gentlemen  of  this  place 
are  raising  a  company  of  grenadiers  for  the  United  States  service.  They 
admit  no  recruits  under  five  feet,  ten  inches,  and  equally  stout  and  able-bodied. 
We  pity  the  rebel  upon  whose  neck  the  foot  of  'Big  Pete"  shall  come  down 
with  a  vengeance.  There  w  ill  l)e  no  chance  for  him  to  even  say  his  prayers 
before  his  life  is  crushed  out  of  him.  Some  of  the  others  engaged  in  raising 
the  company  are  among  our  most  athletic  citizens.  Their  recruiting  office, 
we  believe,  is  at  Williams  &  Sluss'  livery  stables." 

I'aplain  Lunderman's  cnni])any  liecame  Company  1.  nf  the  Twenty-second 
Regiment,  and  was  mustered  into  service  on  August  15.  1861,  at  Camp  Noble, 
Madison.  Nearly  thirty  of  this  trooj)  were  from  Owen  county  and  White 
Hall,  and  they  were  under  the  command  of  Col.  Jefferson  C.  Davis. 

The  Republican  of  September  14th,  on  the  occasion  of  the  departure  of 
the  company  for  Camp  Morton,  published  the  following : 

■'Off  for  the  War. — Capt.  L  S.  Dains'  company  left  here  for  Camp 
JNIorton,  Indianapolis,  on  Thursday  last.  This  company  was  raised  mostly 
in  this  and  Owen  counties,  a  number  of  them  being  from  the  \icinity  of  White 
Hall.  While  the\-  were  waiting  for  the  train  at  the  depot,  a  beautiful  flag  was 
presented  to  the  ctMupanv  from  the  ladies  of  W'hite  Hall.  Governor  Dunning, 
on  behalf  of  the  ladies,  made  a  suitable  address  on  the  presentation  of  the  flag. 


which  was  responded  to  by  Captain  Dains  in  a  short  address,  and  1)\-  three 
cheers  from  the  soldiers  for  their  beautiful  flag.  This  makes  the  seventh 
compan}-  which  has  l)een  raised  principally  in  this  county,  and  left  here  for  the 
war.  One  or  two  other  companies  are  now  raising.  .Monroe  county  will  be 
I'ully  represented  in  the  contest." 

This  newspaper  editorial  refers  to  the  following  companies :  Company 
K,  Fourteenth  Regiment,  Capt.  James  R.  Kelley ;  Company  H.  Eighteenth 
Regiment,  Capt.  \Villiam  Stanle}-  Charles ;  Company  I,  Twenty-second  Regi- 
ment, Capt.  Daniel  Lunderman;  Company  F,  Twenty-seventh  Regiment, 
Capt.  Peter  Kop;  Company  G,  Thirty-first  Regiment,  Capt.  Henry  L.  Mc- 
Calla ;  Company  G,  Thirty-eighth  Regiment,  Capt.  James  Secrest ;  Company  D. 
I'^iftieth  Regiment.  Capt.  Isaac  S.  Dains. 

Captian  Secrest's  company  was  raised  in  the  xicinity  of  Ellettsville  in 
August  and  September,  by  Captain  Secrest  and  Lieutenants  G.  K.  Perry  and 
James  McCormick.  The  companies  listed  above  were  not  the  only  ones  in  which 
Monroe  county  men  were  enlisted :  for  the  county  had  representatives  in  every 
branch  of  the  serxice  and  in  most  divisions  of  the  Federal  army.  Accord- 
ing to  record,  the  only  men  from  the  county  who  enlisted  in  the  three  months' 
service  were  from  the  northern  part  ()f  the  county,  and  were  meml^ers  of 
the  Twelfth  Regiment.  Chaplain  H.  B.  Hibben.  of  Monroe,  was  in  the 
Eleventh  Regiment,  about  ten  men  were  enrolled  in  the  Twenty-first  Regi- 
ment, which  afterwards  became  the  b'irst  Heav\-  Artillery:  some  men  were 
in  the  Twent\--third,  and  credited  to  Morgan  county,  and  fi^ur  members  of 
the  regimental  hand  were  credited  to  Bloomington.  In  summarizing  the 
total  number  of  enrollments  for  these  early  months  it  may  be  said  that  by 
the  middle  of  September.  i8hi.  Monroe  county  had  furnished  at  least  six 
whole  companies  ready   for  service. 

Captian  Nutt's  cavalry  company  contained  fifteen  men  from  this  county, 
the  rest  being  recruited  from  Brazil  and  Delphi.  This  troop  left  for  Indian- 
apolis in  the  middle  of  September,  and  organized  as  Company  K.  Second 
Cavalry  (Forty-first  Regiment),  and  was  mustered  in  on  December  24, 
1 86 1,  and  Jeptha  M.  Ellington,  of  Ellettsville,  was  chosen  as  captain. 

The  state  authorities,  in  September,  1861.  ordered  that  in  each  count\- 
a  thorough  organization  should  be  made  of  the  militia.  The  Governor  ap- 
pointed James  B.  Mulky  colonel  of  the  Monroe  county  militia,  and  in  this 
manner  ten  companies  were  organized  during  the  war,  namely :  The  Hoos- 
ier  Grays,  Capt.  Morton  C.  Hunter,  organized  in  the  fall  of  1861  :  the  Elletts- 
ville  Clippers.   Capt.    Barton   Acuff.   organized   in   the   autumn   of    1861  ;   the 



Monroe  Zouaves,  Capt.  Daniel  Shrader.  organized  in  1861 ;  the  Richland 
Mountaineers,  Capt.  B.  W.  Rice,  organized  in  the  fall  of  1861 ;  the  Hoosier 
Guards,  Capt.  H.  T.  Campbell,  organized  earh-  in  1862;  the  Harrodsburg 
Guards,  Capt.  John  M.  Anderson,  organized  in  the  fall  of  1861 ;  the  Richland 
Rangers,  Capt.  John  Wylie,  organized  during  the  summer  of  1863;  the 
Hughes  Guards,  Capt.  James  Mathers,  fall  of  1863;  the  Monroe  Guards, 
Capt.  Isaac  S.  Buskirk.  fall  of  1863;  Bean  Blossom  Rangers,  Capt.  Thomas 
M.  Gaskin,  fall  of  1863. 

Dr.  J.  G.  McPheeters,  surgeon  of  the  Thirty-third  Regiment,  enlisted  some 
men  while  home  on  a  furlough,  and  near  the  first  of  November  Wallace  Hight, 
who  had  superintended  the  making  of  cannon  at  Seward's  foundry  at  Bloom- 
ington,  left  for  Indianapolis  with  his  piece  of  ordnance  drawn  by  six  horses. 
The  gun  was  a  six-pounder,  of  brass,  and  an  excellent  instrument  of  war- 
fare. Hight,  with  his  gun  and  some  friends,  were  assigned  to  the  Ninth 
Battery.  In  February,  1862,  William  McCullough  began  recruiting  men  for 
the  Fifty-third  Regiment,  and  Lieut.  Francis  Otwell  opened  an  enlistment 
station  at  Fee"s  store  for  the  Twenty-seventh  Regiment,  which  included  the 
company  of  Captain  Kop.  In  November  and  December,  1861,  and  January 
and  February,  1862,  Capt.  Thomas  T.  Graves,  Lieut.  Alexander  Jones  and 
John  Phillips  recruited  two-thirds  of  a  company  for  the  Fifty-ninth  Regiment, 
which  assembled  at  Gosport,  in  October,  1861,  and  in  February  traveled 
south  on  the  Xew  Albany  road  to  the  scene  of  hostilities  in  Kentucky.  The 
Monroe  county  company,  from  near  Harrodsburg  mostly,  was  given  the 
letter  I,  of  the  Fifty-ninth,  under  Capt.  Graves.  The  men  were  mustered  into 
service  on  February  11,  1862,  and  Jesse  I.  Alexander,  of  Gosport,  was  colonel 
of  the  regiment.  M.  P.  Burns  recruited  six  or  eight  men  for  the  Sixty- 
hrst,  which  rendezvoused  at  Terre  Haute.  In  April,  Lieut.  Johnson's  com- 
pany of  the  Twenty-second  Regiment  opened  a  recruiting  office  in  Blooming- 
ton.  In  May  the  men  who  were  in  Capt.  Kelley's  company  sent  nearly  two 
thousand  dollars  home  to  their  friends  and  at  this  time  also  came  the  news 
of  Capt.  Ke!le\  's  untimely  death.  At  the  battle  of  Winchester  Capt.  Kelley 
suffered  a  wound  from  which  he  died,  after  lingering  in  a  hospital  at  Cin- 
cinnati for  weeks,  where  he  had  gone,  accompanied  by  his  faithful  wife,  for 
medical  treatment. 

Man\'  letters  came  to  the  follrs  at  home  from  the  boys  in  the  field,  and 
these  missi\es  are  nx-'-rFlow  ing  with  jiatho'^  and  vi\'id  description  of  the  cam- 
paigns and  army  life.  Each  in  itself  was  a  treasure,  and  although  many  of 
them  were  not  of  the  best  literary  style,  they  carried  a  message  to  the  ones 
at  home  which  could  not  be  equaled  by  the  words  of  a  muse.      Capt.  flenry 


I-.  McCalla  wrote  a  letter  to  his  brother,  w  hich  has  lieen  preserved  to  history 
and  served  as  an  admirable  example  of  the  letters  of  those  days.  Captain 
McCalla  says : 

''Thirty-first   Regiment    Indiana   Volunteers. 
"Pittsburg,  Tenn.,  April  8,  1862. 

"Dear  Brother— This  is  Tuesday,  and  I  take  this  chance  to  tell  you  that 
an  awful  battle  has  been  fought,  commencing  on  Sunday  morning  at  7:30 
o'clock,  A.  M.,  lasting  until  night,  and  continued  again  on  Monday.  Grimes 
and  I  are  safe.  The  company  behaved  nobly.  The  Thirty-first  will  now  get 
its  due  meed  of  praise,  I  think,  ^^'e  lost  Orderly  Sergeant  James  F.  Full- 
bright  and  Rolley  Franklin,  both  shot  in  the  head,  and  seven  wounded,  three 
of  them  severely — Joseph  Lucas,  in  the  hand  slightly;  Frank  Johnson  and 
Jerry  Serrell,  in  chin,  slightly  ;John  Cambell.  in  the  hand ;  Joseph  Woolery, 
in  the  hip,  severely;  Wesley  Polley,  in  the  shoulder;  Joseph  Gaither,  in  the 
face,  the  ball  entering  the  bridge  of  the  nose  and  coming  out  under  the  ear, 
cutting  the  tip  of  the  ear.  Many  more  were  grazed.  I  had  a  bullet  through 
the  top  of  my  Iiat.  John  McPhetridge  had  his  leg  grazed,  and  Grimes  was 
scratched  in  the  knee.  We  will  feel  the  loss  of  Fullbright.  He  was  the  man  in  the  regiment — so  modest  and  so  faithful.  \\'e  buried  our 
old  companions  with  the  lionnrs  of  war,  and  marked  their  graves  with  neat 

"I  met  brother  Sam  on  tlie  Field  of  battle  for  the  first  time  since  he  was 
in  the  ser\ice.  Thompson's  liatterx ,  with  which  Flight  and  other  Blooming- 
ton  bovs  are  connecterl.  were  in  the  fight  all  Monday.  They  fired  1,200 
shots.  Our  regiment  (lielongini;  to  llurlburt's  lirigade  )  fired  forty  rounds 
in  one  place,  repulsed  two  attacks  on  the  center,  (irimes  and  I  furnished 
our  men  with  thirtv  rounds  nujre  ;is  they  were  lying  down,  and  these  were 
all  expended  b^-  night.  The  carnage  is  frightful.  The  field  of  battle  covers 
over  six  miles.  Daniel  Lseminger  (formerly  of  Bloomington).  captain  in 
an  Iowa  regiment,  was  killed.  Our  major,  Frederic  Arn.  was  killed;  the 
colonel  was  wounded  in  two  places ;  Adjutant  Rose  wounded ;  Captain  Harvey 
killed;  and  other  officers  wounded,  all  of  our  regiment.  Jo.  Roddy  bore 
the  colors  througii  all  the  two  days  fight,  onward,  never  faltering,  the  fore- 
most in  the  advance,  the  hindmost  in  the  retreat. 

"The  day  of  the  battle  was  my  first  out-door  ser\-ice  for  three  weeks, 
having  been  sick  over  since  we  came  to  this  place."' 


340  l.WVRKXCF.    Ai\I)    MONROE    COUNTIES,    INIMANA. 

July  I,  1862,  Aljraham  Lincoln,  President  of  the  United  States,  issued 
a  call  for  three  hundred  thousand  volunteers,  and  the  quota  for  Indiana  was 
named  as  ele\en  regiments.  The  Republican  of  Juh-  12th  printed  the  fol- 
lowing : 

"More  Troops  Wanted — It  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  an- 
other ])art  (if  om-  pajjer  that  eleven  more  regiments  are  to  be  raised  in  our 
state  in  addition  to  those  alreadv  forming,  one  from  each  congressional 
district.  This  in  our  district  will  be,  on  an  average,  about  125  men  from 
each  count}'.  We  trust  that  old  Monroe  will  promptly  furnish  her  quota, 
as  she  has  dcme  on  all  former  calls.  She  has  now  nine  companies  in  the 
service,  besides  a  number  of  persons  scattered  in  companies  made  up 
elsewhere — infantry,  cavalry  and  artillery.  Xow  that  harvest  is  past 
and  our  young  men  more  at  leisure,  v.e  think  that  there  will  be  no  difficulty 
in  raising  this  Jidditional  (p.iota  of  troops  in  Monroe  county.  The  regiment 
for  this  district  will  rendezx'ous  at  Madison,  and  we  notice  that  in  some  of 
the  adjoining  counties  companies  are  alread\-  forming  to  fill  up  the  regi- 
ment.     Let  not   Monroe  be  behind." 

.\t  tlie  l)cginning  the  people  did  not  res]jond  quite  so  lieartily  as  they  had 
done  a  \ear  ])efore.  The  pajiers  appealeil  to  the  people,  and  the  draft  was 
threatened  if  the  demands  of  Lincoln  were  not  fulfilled.  The  prominent 
citizens  of  the  county  began  to  see  the  necessity  for  immediate  action,  and 
accordingly  commenced  to  bestir  themselves  and  urge  their  brethren  to  sup- 
port the  cause  of  L'uion  ;  recruiting  officers  began  to  gather  on  the  scene,  and 
it  was  not  long  before  mass  meetings  were  held,  with  the  same  intensity 
of  feeling  and  paU'iotism  as  in  -he  early  day-^  of  '61.  In  the  latter  part  of 
July  Lieui  I".  Otwell  was  commissioned  to  recruit  a  comnau}-  for  the  Sixty- 
seventh  Regiment  and  he  opened  an  office  in  the  town  of  Bloomington. 
Ca])t.  Charles,  of  tlie  hjghleenth,  also  came  liome  to  iTcruit,  and  Lieut.  W. 
j.  Allen,  of  the  d^xcntieth  Batterw  James  L.  Winrrex',  of  Bloonfington,  was 
commissioned  to  raise  a  compan\-  for  the  Ninet\--third  Regiment,  assembled 
at  Madison.  Lieutenant  Otwell  and  other  officers  raised  about  twenty  men, 
who  became  Compan\-  B,  of  the  Sixty-seventh  Regiment,  Samuel  Denny,  of 
Madison,  being  captain.  An  entire  company  was  raised  for  the  Eighty-second 
Regiment  by  ^Morton  I.  Hunter,  and  he  became  the  colonel,  by  Paul  E. 
Slocum,  Alfred  G.  LIunter,  Samuel  McWillie,  John  McKinney,  Samuel  Guy 
and  others.  The  company  was  designated  as  F,  and  McWillie  became  captain, 
McKinney,  first  lieutenant,  and  Guy.  second  lieutenant.  The  men  were  mus- 
tered in  on  August  30th  at  Madison.  Part  of  Company  T,  of  the  Eighty- 
second,  was  organized  in  Monroe  countv  bv  William  F.  Neill,  who  became 

LAWRENCE    AND    MONROE    COI'NTIKS.    l.\l>l\\\.  34  I 

captain,  and  by  Lieut.  H.  E.  Lundy.  Historical  records  pr(i\e  that  there  were 
more  regimental  officers  from  .Monroe  county  in  the  I^'ighty-second  than  in 
any  other  regiment.  Among  them  were  :  Colonel  Hunter.  Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Slocum,  Adjutants  A.  G.  Hunter  and  M.  E.  Bunger,  ( juartermaster  j.  C. 
Allenworth,  Chaplain  M.  W.  Canipl)ell.  .Surgeon  W.  H.  Lemon.  Assistant 
Surgeons  W.  B.  Harris  and  R.  H.  Campl)ell.  On  the  first  of  Septemher  the 
regiment  was  transferred  to  Louisville,  Kentucky.  Thirty  men  of  Company 
F,  Ninety-third  Regiment,  were  reciuited  bv  J-  L.  ^\'infre^■,  and  were  mus- 
tered in  at  Madison  from  the  15th  to  the  23d  of  August.  1862.  These  re- 
cruitments constitute  a  nohle  and  lasting  record  for  the  county  of  Monroe, 
and  to  her  credit  it  nuisl  lie  said  that  through  her  patri(.)tic  response  the  humil- 
iation of  the  draft  was  kept  from  within  the  borders  of  the  county. 

The  Republican  of  September  13.  1862.  gives  tables  of  figures  showing 
the  exact  condition  of  the  count}':  The  total  number  subject  to  draft  was 
1.824  nien.  (^xemjjtioris  3C)fj,  number  oi  \'olunteei's  104.  nnd  number  enrolled 
1,524.  The  api:)!icati()ns  for  exemjition  from  draft  in  Bean  Blossom  town- 
ship were  _|0,  Washington  30,  Marion  10,  Benton  30,  Bloomington  no, 
Richland  45,  \'an  liuren  38,  Perry  yj.  Salt  Creek  40,  Polk  42,  Clear  Creek 
38.  and  Indian  Creek  2S.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  of  499  applications 
for  exemption  in  Monroe  countw  onh'  300  were  acce])table  to  the  authori- 

On  the  6th  of  September.  1862.  Hon.  Joseph  A.  Wright.  ex-go\ernor 
of  Indiana,  made  an  eloquent  address  before  the  citizens  of  the  ctiuntw  and 
on  the  following  Monday,  the  8th,  the  Hon.  Josejih  E.  McDonald  deli\-ered  a 
magnificent  oration  pleading   for  a  cessation  of  hostilities. 

October  6,  1862.  was  the  final  date  set  for  the  draft  to  be  enforced  in 
Indiana,  although  Sei)tember  13111  had  been  the  original  date.  The  necessity 
of  postponing  the  date  was  m  order  to  give  every  countv  an  opportunity  to 
bring  its  enlistments  to  the  required  nun.iber.  The  draft  commissioner  was 
Tra  Browning,  the  marshal,  W.  J.  .\lexander.  and  the  surgeon,  J.  D.  Max- 
well, for  Monroe  county.  On  the  19th  of  September  the  enrolling  commis- 
sioners reported  the  following  to  the  adjutant-general  regarding  Monroe 
county:  Total  mib'tia.  1.828;  total  volunteers,  i  .039 ;  total  exempts.  298: 
total  conscientiously  opposed  to  bearing  arms.  3:  total  \-olunteer>~  in  the 
service.  840:  total  subject  to  draft.  1.527.  On  the  loth  of  Sejitember  the 
countv  lacked  twent\-tw()  men  (_)f  ha\ing  filled  her  (juota.  as  follows:  Benton 
I.  Salt  Creek  4,  Polk  \2.  Clear  Creek  3,  Indian  Creek  2.  This  number  was 
reduced  to  one  man  by  the  6th  of  October,  this  deficienc\  Iieing  in  Salt  Creek 
township.      Consequently  a  man   was  drafted  there,   but    immediately   after- 


wards  a  volunteer  was  reported  from  that  township  and  accepted,  thus  clear- 
ing the  county  of  Monroe  from  the  draft. 

Capt.  Daniel  Shrader,  remembered  for  his  work  in  raising  Company  A, 
Fiftv-fourth  Regiment,  for  the  special  three  months'  ser\dce  of  1862,  was 
commissioned  to  organize  another  company  for  the  same  regiment,  reor- 
ganized for  the  one  year's  service.  Accordingly  he  maintained  a  recruit- 
ing office  in  Bloomington.  In  this  capacity  he  continued  but  a  short  time, 
on  account  of  being  appointed  major  of  the  Fifty-fourth  Regiment.  A  flurry 
of  excitement  was  caused  on  the  23rd  of  September  when  the  news  flash- 
ed in  that  Bragg's  forces  were  approaching  Louisville  with  the  intention  of 
destroying  the  city.  All  of  southern  Indiana,  including  Monroe  county, 
was  in  a  tremor,  heightened  by  a  dispatch  from  Governor  Morton,  who  was 
then  at  Louisville,  to  organize  the  militia  immediately  and  to  hold  the  men  in 
readiness  to  depart  for  the  front  at  a  moment's  notice.  A  hasty  meeting 
was  held  at  the  county  court  house  and  Judge  Hughes  explained  the  charac- 
ter of  the  situation.  The  meeting  adjourned  until  evening  and  during  the 
interval  a  full  company  of  volunteers  was  raised,  and  at  the  evening  meet- 
ing the  following  ofBcers  were  elected;  Francis  Otwell,  captain;  Henry  EUer, 
first  lieutenant;  W.  H.  McCullough,  second  lieutenant.  The  next  morning 
witnessed  the  arming  of  the  company,  and  other  preparations  to  march  south- 
ward. HowcA'er,  it  was  learned  that  Bragg  would  not  touch  Louisville,  and 
acctjrdingly  the  company  was  disbanded. 

With  tlie  coming  of  winter  the  active  interest  in  enlistments  subsided 
in  a  measure.  The  citizens  watched  with  anxious  hearts  every  bit  of  news 
from  the  armies!  The  Republican  heroically  printed  every  line  in  its  columns 
which  would  carry  a  message  to  Monroe  county  people.  Letters  came  thick 
and   fast,  describing  the  events  happening  in  the  field. 

On  January  24,  1863.  there  was  held  a  meeting  at  the  county  court  house, 
which  was  the  opposite  of  the  meetings  hitherto  held.  The  meeting  was  for  the 
purpose  of  upholding  the  cause  of  the  South  and  slavery  and  ridiculing  Lin- 
coln and  the  North.  There  was  a  large  attendance,  and  Judge  Eckles,  of 
Greencastle,  Indiana,  was  the  principal  speaker.  He  delivered  an  enthu- 
siastic oration  and  opposed  the  continuance  of  the  war,  denounced  the  ad- 
ministration of  Abraham  Lincoln  and  the  Republican  party,  declared  that  the 
South  was  justified  in  their  fight  for  slayery,  and  insisted  that  not  another 
man  nor  dollar  be  furnished  for  the  maintenance  of  the  struggle.  A  body 
of  resolutions  was  adopted  in  this  ^ein  of  thought,  and  the  crowd  cheered 
for  Jeff  Davis  and  cursed  Lmcoln.     The  State  Sentinel  printed  editorials 


in  favor  of  the  meeting.  The  day  was  of  hot  debate  and  quarrels,  and 
several  bloody  fights  occurred. 

A  month  later  another  court  house  meeting  was  held  and  was  decidedly 
Union  in  spirit.  Captian  Epps,  of  eastern  Tennessee,  and  Colonel  Hawkins 
were  the  principal  speakers.  Jacob  B.  Lowe  and  Major  James  B.  Mulky 
were  respectively  chairman  and  secretary.  Resolutions  were  passed  con- 
demning the  Southern  partisanship  in  the  county,  the  efforts  to  frustrate  the 
Federal  cause,  and  the  alliances  with  France  and  other  foreign  nations. 
Thanks  were  extended  to  Governor  Morton  for  his  aid  in  equipping  and 
organizing  troops  of  Indiana.  Propositions  for  an  armistice  or  compromise 
other  than  offered  by  the  national  go\ernment  were  denounced,  and  an  oath 
was  taken  that  efforts  should  be  continued  to  crush  out  every  atom 
of  rebellion  in  the  United  States.  This  meeting  had  a  most  happy  effect  on 
the  count\'.  The  old  time  s])irit  of  patriotism  was  revived,  and  during  that 
most  hoi)eless  }ear  of  the  war,  1863,  when  the  L'nion  seemd  to  be  tottering, 
great  encouragement  was  lent  to  the  loyal  citizens  of  Monroe  county.  A  week 
after  this  assembling,  another  mass  meeting  was  held,  with  General  Kim- 
ball, J.  A.  ^Tatson,  Colonel  McCrea,  Revs.  Plopkins,  b'armer  and  Idearb  as 
the  chief  speakers.  Although  some  of  the  speakers  were  Democrats,  all 
urged  the  continuance  of  the  war. 

During  the  spring  months  of  1863,  very  little  attempt  wds  made  to  raise 
troops.  It  was  a  peri(jd  of  waiting  and  doubt  as  to  which  side  the  weight  of 
victory  would  fall.  (In  A])ri]  i8th  the  Republican  printed  an  editorial  which 
is  both  interesting  and  curious.      It  was  as  follows  : 

"We  learn  that  our  old  friend,  A.  Sutherland,  sutler  to  the  Fiftv-ninth 
Regiment,  was  fined  ten  dollars  and  costs  in  the  common  pleas  court  the  other 
day  for  bringing  to  this  county  and  harboring  a  contraband  picked  up  some- 
where in  the  South,  and  who  accompanied  him  home  on  a  visit  some  weeks 
since.  Good  enough  for  you,  Aleck.  We  have  niggers  enough  here  now  and 
we  hope  all  who  violate  the  laws  by  bringing  them  into  the  state  will  he  com- 
pelled to  pay  the  penalty." 

In  April,  1863.  word  came  of  the  uprising  near  Georgetown,  Brown 
county,  and  immediately  meetings  were  held  and  preparations  made  by  the 
citizens  of  Monroe  county  to  prevent  any  similar  act  of  treason  within  the 
borders  of  their  own  county.  A  militia  company  was  organized  to  quell  any 
such  outbreak,  and  Francis  A.  Otwell  was  elected  captain.  The  citizens  of 
Van  Buren  township  met  at  schtOTlhouse  No.  3,  and  also  organized  a  companv 
of  militia,  John  Koons  l)eing  chairman  of  the  meeting  and  W.  M.  Crossfield, 
secretary.      The  enrolling  lioarfl  of  the  third  congressional  district,  composed 



of  Simeon  Stansifer,  provost  marshal,  John  R.  B.  Glasscock,  commissioner, 
and  Albert  G.  Collier,  surgeon,  began  to  enumerate  the  men  in  the  various 
townships  who  were  liable  for  military  duty.  James  B.  Mulky  succeeded 
Stansifer  as  provost  marshal  in  April,  1863,  and  in  June  Col.  John  McCrea 
was  appointed  to  the  position  of  provost  marshal  of  Monroe  county.  The 
work  of  the  enrolling  dflicers  was  by  no  means  an  easy  one.  for  in  some  parts 
of  thf  count \-  forcilile  ()])p()sitiMn  was  made  to  their  efforts.  On  the  19th  of 
lune  W.  \'.  Hensley.  enrolling  officer  of  Indian  Creek  township,  was  sur- 
rounded by  an  armed  force  of  about  eighty  men  while  discharging  his  duties, 
who  compelled  him  to  surrender  his  enrolling  papers  under  threat  of  death. 
Not  to  be  thwarted  b\-  their  threats,  Mr.  Hensley  informed  the  authorities  at 
Bloomington  of  the  occurrence,  and  a  guard  was  given  him  to  protect  him  from 
the  attack  of  his  former  assailants.  Colonel  Biddle,  with  six  hundred  men 
of  the  Seventy-first,  and  a  comi)any  of  the  Third  Cavalr>-,  came  to  P)loomington 
and  encami)ed  north  of  town.  Colonel  McCrea  and  the  cavalry  troo])  went 
to  Indian  Creek  townshi]).  and  arrested  sixteen  persons  for  cf)m])licit}-  in  the 
outrage  against  Henslew  The  culprits  were  taken  to  Indianapolis  to  a])i)ear 
before  the  United  States  district  court.  This  ended  the  hostility  in  the  county 
toward  llie  enrolling  officers.  1lie  check  was  reinforced  by  the  arri\al  of  a 
•  letachment  of  the  Twenty-third  Artillery,  with  two  twelve-pounders  at 
lUoomington.  The  "Butternuts'"  were  forced  to  cease  the  drills  and  pre])ara- 
tiiiu>  tbe\-  bad  been  making  in  different  parts  of  the  cnuntw 

.\!onda^•,  the  22nfl  of  June,  dawned,  and  the  towns])eople  were  aroused 
l)v  tlie  violent  ringing  of  bells  and  the  hurrying  footsteps  of  the  citizens 
ing  toward  the  center  of  town.  The  reports  were  that  the  rebel.  General 
Morgan,  with  his  "raiders,"  had  crossed  the  line  between  Kentucky  and  Indi- 
,-ina,  anil  was  coming  toward  Paoli,  Orange  count)-.  .\  compau)-  of  men  was 
bastib,  Tornied  anrl  ])laced  under  the  command  of  Capt.  T.  S.  Buskirk.  and 
their  ser\ices  offered  to  the  Governor  by  telegraph.  .\t  nightfall  it  was  learned 
that  the  rumor  was  unfounded,  and  accordingly  the  company  was  di.sbanded. 
President  IJncoln  called  for  one  hundred  thousand  \-olunteers.  six 
months"  ser\ice.  on  the  1  ^ih  of  June,  and  immediate  steps  were  taken  to  raise 
the  reijuired  numl)er  of  troojjs.  An  office  for  enlistments  was  opened  over 
I'ee's  store,  wdiere  recruiting  ofbces  had  been  located  before.  W.  B.  Tfughes, 
J.  Uulledge,  W.  C.  Smith.  Michael  Gabbert.  H.  C.  Gabbert  and  J.  II.  Miller 
were  especiallv  active  in  the  organization  of  the  new  company,  and  b\-  the  3rst 
of  jnh-  there  were  about  se\-enty-five  men  enrolled;  at  this  date  they  were 
taken  to  Indianapolis  to  report  to  the  state  officials.  ?>}•  the  T5th  of  .\ugust 
tlKw  bad  recruited  from  Monroe  countv  the  number  of  men  a.sked.  and  they 


were  mustered  into  the  service  and  sent  to  Kentucky.  Thev  were  called  Com- 
pany I,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Seventeenth  Regiment,  six  months'  men,  and 
were  assigned  the  following  officers:  William  B.  Hughes,  captain;  Jechonias 
Rutledge,  first  lieutenant,  and  James  H.  Miller,  second  lieutenant. 

riie  scare  of  (jeneral  Morgan's  journey  toward  Indiana  again  hecame 
existent.  The  information  received  gave  the  situation  a  black  look  to  be  sure, 
and  it  is  not  surprising  thai  the  people  were  agitated  and  unable  to  attend  to 
the  common  affairs  of  business.  They  became  euHamed,  hysterical  and 
desperate,  and  imagined  all  sorts  of  ravages  which  the  rebel  leader  would  com- 
mit against  their  fair  county  when  once  he  gained  a  foothold  therein.  The 
company  commanded  by  Ca])tain  Buskirk  was  again  mustered,  and  on  Julv 
Qth  left  for  Mitchell,  Indiana.  (.■a])taiu  W'ylie  took  a  troop  of  cavalry  to  the 
same  town,  and  ('apt.  Marion  I'lair  left  for  Indianapolis  with  a  com])anv  of 
militia.  Ellettsville  contributed  a  compau}-  at  the  same  time.  Two  additional 
com])anies  were  raised  in  Bloomington  and  vicinitv. 

The  streets  of  the  cit\  and  towns  were  at  fe\'er  heat,  and  crowds  of 
anxious  citi.zens  were  on  every  corner.  .\s  suddenly  as  it  had  a])peared,  so 
(|uickl\'  did  the  excitement  die.  In  ten  days  all  fears  were  dispelled.  Marion 
[fair's  compan\  was  mustered  (nit  on  the  i5tb  of  July,  after  just  h\e  days  of 
ser\ice.  Barton  .VcuiT's  com])any,  from  F.llettsxille,  also  suffered  the  same 
fate.  P)lair's  conipan\'  was  D  of  the  One  flundred  and  Tenth  Regiment; 
Acuff's  was  (t  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh.  L'ajjtain  Hughes'  company 
was  transferred  to  Mitchell,  Indiana,  and  ])ecame  A  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Twelfth,  minutemen;  the  compan\-  was  mustered  in  July  Qth,  and  mustered 
out  luh'  17th.  Their  actual  field  ser\-ice  consisted  in  slight  skirnu'sh  work 
against  Morgan,  who  a]>i)roacbe(l  within  a  few  miles  of  North  X'ernon.  The 
major  of  this  regiment  was  I.  .^,  Buskirk.  The  One  Hundred  and  Thirteenth 
Regiment  included  one  company  from  Monroe  county,  and  this  w-as  com- 
manded hv  Capt.  Henry  I..  McCalla.  This  was  Company  A.  mustered  in 
Julv  I  ith,  and  out  on  Jul\'  Kith.  Capt.  J.  K.  Mathers  also  organized  a  com- 
pany of  militia  ca\alr\-,  and  auotber  com|)anv  was  commanded  by  Capt.  DaA'id 

In  October.  iHf).^.  Lincoln  called  for  three  hundred  thousand  \  olunteers. 
for  the  three  years"  service,  and  the  quota  for  Monroe  county  was  fixed  at  one 
hundred  and  forty-three.  Colonel  McCrea,  Captain  Buskirk  and  Henry  Eller 
were  commissioned  to  raise  recruits.  .-\t  first  there  was  not  much  interest 
shown,  but  after  the  big  meeting  held  at  the  court  house  on  November  28th.  a 
large  uumlier  enlisted,  and  were  sent  to  Columbus  to  a  camp  of  instruction. 
On  January  14,   1864,  the  men  were  mustered  into  seryice  at  Camp  Shanks, 


near  Indianapolis,  and  were  augmented  afterward  by  new  recruits  from  the 

In  April,  18O4.  there  was  a  call  for  r)ne  hundred  days'  men,  and  on  the 
e^'ening  of  April  27th  a  mass  meeting  was  held  at  the  court  house  for  the  pur- 
pose of  raising  a  company  of  volunteers.  Governor  Dunning  was  the  speaker. 
Some  dozen  names  were  secured,  and  resolutions  were  passed  asking  the 
county  commissioners  to  offer  a  bounty  of  thirty  dollars  for  volunteers.  By 
Alay  3d  the  company  was  completed,  about  two-thirds  of  the  roster  from 
jMonroe  county,  and  they  were  named  Company  K,  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Thirt}--third  Regiment,  one  hundred  days'  service.  They  were  mustered  in 
at  Indianapolis  on  the  17th  of  May,  and  departed  immediately  for  Tennessee. 

On  July  1 8th  there  came  a  call  from  President  Lincoln  for  five  hundred 
thousand  men.  So  great  was  the  surprise  following  this  unexpected  call,  that 
the  people  were  unable  to  do  anything  toward  the  fulfillment.  As  the  time 
passed  there  was  a  decided  indifference  to  the  call  for  troops.  The  draft  was 
threatened  by  the  authorities,  but  the  people  paid  no  attention.  A  few  scatter- 
ing enlistments  were  secured :  Bean  Blossom  raised  five  men,  Benton,  one, 
\'an  Buren,  three,  but  the  other  townships  who  had  to  furnish  men  failed  to 
secure  even  one.  Consecjuently,  on  the  23d  of  September  the  draft  was  put 
into  effect  at  Columbus,  and  the  following  was  the  result :  Bean  Blossom,  37 ; 
Washington,  25  ;  Marion,  14:  Benton,  9;  Van  Buren.  6;  Salt  Creek,  19:  Polk, 
17;  Indian  Creek,  t,2  :  total,  159.  These  figures  represent  about  half  of  the 
actual  draft,  but  in  taking-  such  a  large  number  allowance  was  made  for  those 
unfit  for  service.  \'olunteering  gained  an  impetus  after  the  draft,  and  numer- 
ous were  the  substitutes  furnished  by  those  who  could  not  go  to  war.  The 
drafted  men  were  taken  to  Columbus  and  then  to  Indianapolis,  where  they 
were  assigned  to  regiments,  preferably  the  older  ones. 

The  last'  call  for  volunteers  from  Abraham  Lincoln  occurred  on  Decem- 
ber 19,  1864,  and  the  request  was  for  three  hundred  thousand  men,  for  one, 
two  and  three  years.  Every  inducement  was  offered  for  volunteers,  and 
the  county  paper  oft'ered  bounty  for  recruits  and  called  for  the  assistance  of 
everyone  to  fill  up  the  re(|uired  quota.  In  the  luiddle  of  January,  1865,  the 
deputy  provost  marshal,  Ira  Browning,  held  meetings  in  each  township  to  cor- 
rect the  enrollment  lists.  Capt.  S.  W.  Bonsall  opened  an  enlistment  office  for 
\eteran  recruits  for  the  First  Veteran  Army  Corps,  and  offered  government 
bounties  of  four  hundred  dollars,  five  hundred  dollars  and  six  hundred  dollars, 
for  one,  two  and  three  \-ears.  lender  the  county,  township  and  government 
bounties  volunteers  began  to  appear,  the  county  board  appropriated  five  hu